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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e260091, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374650

RESUMO

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders affecting most social, economic and biological aspects of human life. Most patients with epilepsy have uncontrolled seizures and drug side effects despite the medications. Patients with epilepsy often have problems with attention, memory, and information processing speed, which may be due to seizures, underlying causes, or anticonvulsants. Therefore, improving seizure control and reducing or changing the anti-epileptic drugs can solve these problems, but these problems will not be solved in most cases. In this work, we looked at the effects of pioglitazone, a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, on pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice. The Racine scale was used to classify pilocarpine-induced convulsions. After that, all of the animals were beheaded, and the brain and hippocampus were dissected. Finally, biochemical techniques were used to determine the levels of Malondialdehyde and Catalase activity, as well as Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione Reductase in the hippocampus. The results of this investigation suggest that pioglitazone's antioxidant action may play a key role in its neuroprotective properties against pilocarpine-induced seizure neuronal damage.


A epilepsia é um dos distúrbios neurológicos mais comuns que afetam a maioria dos aspectos sociais, econômicos e biológicos da vida humana. A maioria dos pacientes com epilepsia tem convulsões não controladas e apresenta efeitos colaterais de medicamentos. Pacientes com epilepsia, geralmente, têm problemas de atenção, memória e velocidade de processamento de informações, ocasionados por convulsões, causas subjacentes ou anticonvulsivantes. Portanto, melhorar o controle das crises e reduzir ou alterar as drogas antiepilépticas pode resolver esses problemas, mas, na maioria dos casos, eles não serão resolvidos. Neste trabalho, analisamos os efeitos da pioglitazona, um agonista do receptor ativado por proliferador de peroxissoma usado para tratar diabetes tipo 2, em convulsões induzidas por pilocarpina em camundongos. A escala de Racine foi usada para classificar as convulsões induzidas pela pilocarpina. Em seguida, todos os animais foram decapitados, e o cérebro e o hipocampo foram dissecados. Finalmente, técnicas bioquímicas foram utilizadas para determinar os níveis de atividade do malondialdeído e da catalase, bem como da superóxido dismutase e glutationa redutase no hipocampo. Os resultados desta investigação sugerem que a ação antioxidante da pioglitazona pode desempenhar um papel fundamental em suas propriedades neuroprotetoras contra o dano neuronal convulsivo induzido pela pilocarpina.


Assuntos
Camundongos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Epilepsia , Pioglitazona/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes
2.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; : 1-13, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073179

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Three psychotropic drug classes, benzodiazepines, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and antidepressants (ADs), whether used in treatment or overdose, may be associated with respiratory aspiration. Polypharmacy was defined by counting suspected drugs from these classes or two others, antipsychotics and opioids. The confounding effects of polypharmacy were considered in this study. AREAS COVERED: VigiBase records of respiratory aspiration associated with benzodiazepines, AEDs, and/or ADs from inception until 5 September 2021, were reviewed. VigiBase, the World Health Organization's global pharmacovigilance database, uses a statistical signal for associations called the information component (IC). EXPERT OPINION: The ICs (and IC025) were benzodiazepines 2.8 (and 2.6), AEDs 1.6 (and 1.5), and ADs 1.4 (and 1.3). The cases of respiratory aspiration associated with at least one drug from these 3 classes included: 1) 553 cases absent any known overdose (2.8 ± 1.7 drugs) and 2) 347 overdose cases (2.9 ± 1.8 drugs). Little support for the association of respiratory aspiration and benzodiazepine, AED or AD monotherapy in therapeutic dosages was found. Studies of the association between benzodiazepine monotherapy and respiration aspiration are needed in geriatric patients. ADs added to other medications increased lethality in all cases of respiratory aspiration including those associated with overdose, polypharmacy and/or major medical problems.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070009

RESUMO

Off-label drug prescribing in psychiatry is increasing. Many psychotropic drugs are approved for psychopathologic syndromes rather than based on international standard diagnostic classification systems which might facilitate the clinical decision for off-label prescriptions. The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence and category of off-label use of psychotropic drugs. The study was conducted in 10 psychiatric hospitals in Germany over a period of 2 years. Prescription data of all patients were retrospectively analyzed after identification of antidepressants, antipsychotics, and mood-stabilizers, which were classified as off-label according to the German prescribing information and diagnostic classification according to ICD-10. In total, 53,909 patient cases (46% female) with a mean age of 46.8 (SD: 18) years were included in the study. 30.2% of the cases received at least one off-label prescription of a psychotropic drug during hospital stay. Off-label prevalence rates differed markedly between different diagnostic groups (ICD-10 F0/G3: 47%, F1: 33%, F2: 25%, F3: 21%, F4: 27%, F6: 46%, F7: 84%). The most often off-label prescribed drugs were quetiapine and mirtazapine for organic mental disorders (F0/G3), valproate and quetiapine in patients with disorders due to psychoactive substance use (F1), valproate in patients with psychotic disorders (F2), and risperidone and olanzapine in patients with affective disorders (F3). The prevalence rate of psychotropic off-label prescriptions is high if restricted to product description and ICD-10 diagnosis. Therefore, current psychiatric guidelines should drug-specifically issue this problem by defining psychiatric off-label indications based on a clear benefit-risk assessment.

4.
Ann Gen Psychiatry ; 21(1): 33, 2022 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35999628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-adherence in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) results in symptoms, such as aggravation, BD recurrence, emergency room visits, re-hospitalization, and poor psychosocial outcomes. Though non-adherence rates have been reported to range between 30-50% in patients with BD, the problem of adherence is often either overlooked by the physician or denied by the patient. An essential first step to enhancing medication adherence is to objectively estimate adherence. The Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS), which is a pill bottle cap with a microprocessor, is an accurate device for assessing medication adherence. Using the MEMS, we aimed to measure medication adherence in patients with BD and evaluate the factors associated with and 6-month changes in medication adherence. METHODS: Participants with BD were recruited from the psychiatric outpatient clinic of the Korea University Guro Hospital. The medication adherence of each participant was assessed using the MEMS, a self-report, pill count, and clinician rating. MEMS-measured adherence was reassessed after 6 months. Patient demographics were recorded and clinical assessments were conducted. Data were analyzed using Kappa statistics and Pearson's correlation analysis. RESULTS: Of the 59 participants, 50 records were included in the analysis. Patient adherence and adherence rate assessed by the MEMS were lower than those assessed by the other measures. MEMS-measured adherence was correlated more closely with pill counts than with self-reports or clinician ratings. MEMS-measured adherence was negatively associated with prescription duration and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Affect Subscale Score. Six-month changes in MEMS-measured adherence were positively associated with attitude toward drugs and negatively associated with weight gain assessed by the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians may have to consider the limited accuracy of self-reporting and clinician rating methods and exercise caution when assessing the medication adherence of patients with BD using these methods. Our findings may assist clinicians in the assessment and improvement of medication adherence in patients with BD and, consequently, may be useful for the treatment and prevention of BD recurrence.

5.
Epilepsia ; 2022 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36039802

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many pharmacokinetic studies of lacosamide (LCM) have been reported, but no large-scale clinical study has been conducted on genetic polymorphisms that affect the metabolism of LCM. Therefore, we designed a pharmacogenetic study of LCM to explore the effect of genetic polymorphisms on serum LCM concentration. We evaluated the pharmacodynamic characteristics of LCM, including clinical efficacy and toxicity. METHODS: Adult patients with epilepsy who received LCM at Seoul National University Hospital were enrolled. Blood samples were obtained from 115 patients taking LCM for more than 1 month with unchanged doses and were used to analyze the serum LCM concentration, the concentration/dose (C/D) ratio and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9 and CYP2C19 genes. In addition, clinical information-including efficacy, toxicity, and concomitant drugs-was collected. RESULTS: The serum LCM concentration showed a linear correlation with the daily dose (r = .66, p < .001). In genetic analysis, 43 patients (38.7%) were extensive metabolizers (EMs), 51 (45.9%) were intermediate metabolizers (IMs), and 17 (15.3%) were poor metabolizers (PMs). In the group comparison, mean serum concentrations and the C/D ratio showed significant differences between the three groups (p = .01 and p < .001, respectively). The C/D ratios of IM (27.78) and PM (35.6) were 13% and 39% higher than those of EM (25.58), respectively. In the pharmacodynamic subgroup analysis, patients in the ineffective LCM group had significantly lower serum concentrations (6.39 ± 3.25 vs. 8.44 ± 3.68 µg/ml, p = .024), whereas patients with adverse events had higher serum concentrations than those without adverse events (11.03 ± 4.32 vs. 7.4 ± 3.1 µg/ml, p < .001). Based on this, we suggest a reference range for LCM in the Korean population (6-9 µg/ml). SIGNIFICANCE: Genetic polymorphisms of the CYP2C19 gene affect the serum LCM concentration. Because efficacy and toxicity are apparently related to serum LCM levels, the genetic phenotype of CYP2C19 should be considered when prescribing LCM for patients with epilepsy.

6.
Seizure ; 101: 127-133, 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium valproate is a significant human teratogen. Newspapers are a potential source of useful public health information, but the extent to which concerns around valproate were presented to the public via newspapers has not been evaluated. AIM: To explore how sodium valproate has been portrayed by UK newspapers over the last several decades. METHOD: Thematic analysis of all newspaper articles up to July 2020 with key terms 'Valproate' and 'Epilim'. Articles were retrieved with LexisNexis. Temporal variation in thematic content was analysed. RESULTS: 275 articles were identified for analysis. Teratogenicity was the key theme in 86% of newspaper articles, failure of duty of care of medical professionals to communicate the risks of valproate in 68%, improving its regulation with public health interventions in 51% and litigation against Sanofi who produce valproate in 31%. Reporting was minimal pre-2000 and peaked in the recent 5 years. CONCLUSION: Issues surrounding valproate have been covered by UK newspapers, with a predominant focus on its teratogenic effects.

7.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 78(10): 1697-1701, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930055

RESUMO

Management and dose adjustment are a major concern for clinicians in the absence of specific clinical outcome data for patients on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), in the event of short-term (5 days) nirmatrelvir/ritonavir co-exposure. Therefore, in this report, we identified drugs that require dose adjustment because of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and AEDs. We hereby used four databases (Micromedex Drug Interaction, Liverpool Drug Interaction Group for COVID-19 Therapies, Medscape Drug Interaction Checker, and Lexicomp Drug Interactions) and DDI-Predictor.In the light of applying the DDI-Predictor, for carbamazepine, clobazam, oxcarbazepine, eslicarbazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, pentobarbital, rufinamide, and valproate as CYP3A4 inducers, we recommend that a dose adjustment of short-term nirmatrelvir/ritonavir as a substrate (victim) drug would be more appropriate instead of these AEDs to avoid impending DDI-related threats in patients with epilepsy.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , COVID-19 , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Clobazam , Indutores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Oxcarbazepina , Pentobarbital , Fenobarbital , Fenitoína , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico
8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 154: 44-49, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After the Food and Drug Administration alert about antiepileptic medication and suicide, incident epilepsy has been associated with first or recurrent suicide attempts independently of psychiatric comorbidities and antiepileptic treatment. Following this thread, the aim of this study was to analyze if epilepsy was associated with a higher severity of lifetime suicide attempts (SAs). METHODS: Analyses were carried out on 1677 adults hospitalized between 1999 and 2012 after a SA in a specialized ward for affective episodes. Five severity features were studied: frequent SAs (>2), early onset of first SA (≤26 years), history of violent SA, high suicide intent and high lethality of the SA. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between the lifetime diagnosis of epilepsy and the severity features. RESULTS: Among suicide attempters, ninety-three patients reported a lifetime diagnosis of epilepsy (5.5%). Epileptic patients diagnosed after the first SA were more likely to be frequent suicide attempters than non-epileptic ones. They showed also higher SA planification scores. LIMITATIONS: Diagnosis accuracy is limited by the use of self-reports for epilepsy. The lack of precise information about the disease course and treatment have not allowed for further statistical analysis. With regard to psychiatric comorbidities, personality disorders could not be taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide attempters with epilepsy present an increased severity in some aspects of their suicidal behavior regardless of demographic and clinical variables. Our results give support to the existence of a bidirectional association between epilepsy and suicidal behavior.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia
9.
J Clin Neurosci ; 103: 112-118, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35868227

RESUMO

Prophylactic antiepileptic drug (pAED) use for craniotomy surgery is currently not supported in literature [1-5] except possibly in traumatic brain injury (TBI) [6]. Post craniotomy driving restrictions using the Austroad guidelines are based upon literature on TBI and not specifically craniotomy [16-18]. This study was to review Australian and New Zealand neurosurgeons on their use of pAED and advice on driving restrictions post craniotomy surgery. A voluntary and anonymous survey link was distributed to the members of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia (NSA) through the NSA newsletter. The survey was available on the SurveyMonkey platform in the year 2021 August to December. Questions regarding the use of pAED and duration of driving restrictions were presented to survey participants. Sixty-one (26 %) out of 231 neurosurgeons responded to the survey. Thirty-six percent of respondents stated that they prescribed pAEDs regularly whilst thirty-two percent of respondents did not routinely prescribe pAEDs for craniotomy surgery. Driving restrictions varied but the most common driving restriction post craniotomy surgery was 6 months. There were divided opinions among NSA members in regards to pAED use and driving restrictions. The rationale for pAED use and prolonged driving restrictions for craniotomy surgery needs to be re-evaluated with current literature. The significant effect this may have on the well-being and quality life of patients need to be considered before prescribing pAEDs or long driving restrictions.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Austrália , Craniotomia , Humanos , Neurocirurgiões , Nova Zelândia , Convulsões
10.
Epilepsy Res ; 185: 106968, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35843017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women of reproductive age with the use of antiepileptic drugs. METHODS: A systematic literature review of observational analytical studies (cohort, cross-sectional and case-control), from January 1966 to January 2021 on PCOS in women of reproductive age with the use of the antiepileptics. The search covered the Cochrane, MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS databases. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Studies reporting the frequency of PCOS with the antiepileptic drugs in women of reproductive age. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: studies that did not have categorically relevant measurements, those published as abstracts only, and studies of investigational treatment. Data extraction was performed based on the PECOT strategy, considering the method of intervention, methodological quality, and presence of PCOS with the antiepileptic drugs. RESULTS: A total of 2043 references were obtained from which 22 articles were selected by title and abstract. Four articles met the inclusion criteria. No articles were found describing the risk of PCOS upon exposure to levetiracetam, felbamate, gabapentin, lacosamide, pregabalin, rufinamide, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, or zonisamide. Only articles related to oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine were found, in which the frequency of PCOS was like that found in women without epilepsy. CONCLUSIONS: The anticonvulsants are probably safer, but the risk of developing PCOS associated with the antiepileptics cannot be established, since there are insufficient studies.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lamotrigina , Levetiracetam , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico
11.
J Postgrad Med ; 68(3): 168-169, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35848684

RESUMO

Levetiracetam is a new generation antiseizure medication which binds to synaptic vesicle protein SV2A and inhibits the release of neurotransmitters. Gingival hyperplasia is a common side effect of conventional antiseizure medications like phenytoin, but very rare with the newer ones. A 14-year-old boy was started on levetiracetam 250 mg twice daily after a generalized seizure. Five days later he presented with gingival swelling and painful oral aphthae, without lymphadenopathy or systemic symptoms. Blood investigations were normal. After one-month of stopping the drug, the lesions cleared. This case highlights the importance of maintaining good oral hygiene and periodic dental review in patients on antiseizure medications.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Gengival , Adolescente , Anticonvulsivantes , Humanos , Levetiracetam , Masculino , Fenitoína , Convulsões
12.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 18(6): 395-411, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35876180

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This is a comprehensive overview of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) involving oral contraceptives (OCs) and psychotropic medications. AREAS COVERED: Medline and Embase from inception to April 2021 were searched for DDIs between OCs and psychotropic medications. They included case reports/series and cross-sectional, cross-over, placebo-controlled studies of patient cohorts and healthy females. We classified DDIs as: combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) acting as victim drugs (i.e. affected by psychotropic co-medications), CHCs as perpetrators, (i.e. affecting the activity of psychotropic co-medications), progestin-derivatives as victim drugs and progestin-derivatives affecting psychotropic co-medications. Alteration ratios reflecting changes in pharmacokinetic parameters before and after the DDI were estimated to approximate the extent of the DDI. EXPERT OPINION: Women taking antiepileptic agents with strong to moderate enzyme-inducing properties (carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin) or those with moderate to mild enzyme-inducing properties (cenobamate, clobazam, eslicarbazepine, felbamate, oxcarbazepine, rufinamide, topiramate) should avoid OCs. Daily doses of cytochrome P450 1A2 substrates including clozapine may need to be reduced by 50% in women taking concomitant CHCs. Compared to CHCs, the propensity of progestin-only pills for DDIs has been investigated less. We provide a summary table for clinicians containing recommendations based on literature and package inserts; whenever evidence was available, we provided dose-correction factors.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Progestinas , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacocinética , Anticoncepcionais Orais/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos
13.
Drugs Context ; 112022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35775075

RESUMO

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major complication of diabetes mellitus. Tight glycaemic management focused on lowering haemoglobin A1C and increasing time in the target glucose range along with metabolic risk factor management form the cornerstone of DPN prevention. However, there is limited evidence supporting the efficacy of glycaemic and metabolic control in reducing the symptoms and complications of DPN, including pain once painful DPN develops. DPN treatments include pharmacological agents and non-pharmacological interventions such as foot care and lifestyle modifications. Pharmacological agents primarily address pain symptoms, which affect 25-35% of people with DPN. First-line agents include the anticonvulsants pregabalin and gabapentin, the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors duloxetine and venlafaxine, and secondary amine tricyclic antidepressants, including nortriptyline and desipramine. All agents have unique pharmacological, safety and clinical profiles, and agent selection should be guided by the presence of comorbidities, potential for adverse effects, drug interactions and costs. Even with the current treatment options, people are commonly prescribed less than the recommended dose of medications, leading to poor management of DPN symptoms and treatment discontinuation. By keeping up with the latest therapy algorithms and treatment options, healthcare professionals can improve the care for people with DPN.

14.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-3, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35795925

RESUMO

Valproate is widely used in psychiatry and neurology, including off-label use. Here we consider its potential benefits and risks, particularly for women of childbearing potential, and the evidence that clinical guidelines are adhered to. Finally, we consider the implications for clinical practice and research into its efficacy in off-label indications.

15.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35711112

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cenobamate is an antiseizure medication (ASM) approved in Europe as adjunctive therapy for adults with inadequately controlled focal seizures. This post hoc analysis reports onset of efficacy and characterizes time to onset, duration, and severity of the most common treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) during cenobamate titration. MATERIALS & METHODS: Adult patients with uncontrolled focal seizures taking 1 to 3 concomitant ASMs were randomized to receive adjunctive cenobamate or placebo (double-blind studies C013 and C017) or cenobamate (open-label study C021). Outcome assessments included efficacy (median percentage change in seizure frequency and onset [studies C013 and C017]) and safety (onset, duration, and severity of TEAEs [all studies]). RESULTS: Onset of efficacy was observed by Weeks 1 to 4 of titration in studies C013 and C017 which used a faster titration schedule than study CO21. In study C013, the median percentage seizure frequency reduction was 36.7% in patients receiving cenobamate versus 16.3% in those taking placebo (p = .002); in study C017, significant differences in seizure frequency emerged in Week 1 and continued throughout titration between all cenobamate groups and placebo (p < .001). The most commonly reported TEAEs were somnolence, dizziness, fatigue, and headache, with first onset of each reported as early as Week 1; however, the majority resolved. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in seizure frequency occurred during titration with initial efficacy observed prior to reaching the target dose. These reductions were regarded as clinically meaningful because they may indicate early efficacy at lower doses than previously expected and had a considerable impact on patient quality of life. Long-term treatment with adjunctive cenobamate was generally safe and well-tolerated.

16.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(8): 3103-3110, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35713689

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to elucidate risk factors for central nervous system infection and early seizure recurrence in children with febrile seizures (FSs) and thus facilitate outpatient management of complex FS. This single-center, retrospective cohort study investigated 688 children (6-60 months old) with FSs in Japan during 2011-2021. We investigated the incidence and clinical manifestations of children with acute encephalitis or bacterial meningitis. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine risk factors for seizure recurrence within 24 h. Among children with recurrent FSs, the distribution of intervals between first and second FS was assessed. Among 145 children with complex FSs, 2 patients (1.4%) had acute viral encephalitis and none had bacterial meningitis. Acute encephalitis was found in 2 of 8 patients (25%) with FSs prolonged ≥30 min and 2 of 3 patients (67%) requiring ≥2 intravenous anticonvulsants to stop seizures. Seizure recurrence within 24 h was observed in 16% of participants and was independently associated with preceding use of diazepam and family history of FS. In 82% of patients with FS recurrence within 24 h, early recurrences occurred within 8 h of the first seizure.      Conclusion: Patients with prolonged or refractory FSs are still indicated for hospital admission due to the risk of acute encephalitis. FS patients with a family history of FS may be managed safely by 8-h observation or single-dose rectal diazepam as prophylaxis against early recurrent seizure. What is Known: • Hospitalization has been recommended for children with complex febrile seizures due to the increased risk of central nervous infections. • Recent studies showed low incidences of bacterial meningitis (<1%) in children with complex febrile seizures in the presence of routine immunization. What is New: • Acute encephalitis was identified in 1.4% of children with complex febrile seizures, characterized by prolonged seizures ≥30 min and refractory seizures. • Early recurrent seizures may be safely managed by prophylactic diazepam or 8-h expectant observation.


Assuntos
Encefalite , Convulsões Febris , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diazepam , Encefalite/induzido quimicamente , Encefalite/complicações , Humanos , Lactente , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Convulsões Febris/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões Febris/epidemiologia , Convulsões Febris/etiologia
17.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 61: 36-42, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35763976

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to compare the real-world effectiveness of mood stabilizers and antipsychotics in the prevention of psychiatric hospitalizations and treatment failure after lithium discontinuation in a nationwide bipolar cohort. Using health-care registers, we identified everyone in Finland diagnosed with bipolar disorder during 1987-2018 who discontinued lithium after using it for at least one year (n = 4 052, median period of lithium use before discontinuation 2.7 years). The risk of psychiatric hospitalization and treatment failure (psychiatric hospitalization, death or change in medication) were investigated with within-individual Cox regression. Of mood stabilizer monotherapies, the periods of valproate use (HR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.71 - 0.97) had lower risk of hospitalization than nonuse of mood stabilizers. Of antipsychotic monotherapies, the use of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics (HR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.26 - 0.88) and chlorprothixene (HR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.44 - 0.88) were associated with lower risk and the use of quetiapine (HR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.07 - 1.48) and oral olanzapine (HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.01 - 1.49) with higher risk of psychiatric hospitalizations than nonuse of antipsychotics. Of mood stabilizer monotherapies, lithium use was associated with lower risk of treatment failure (HR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.76 - 0.88) than valproate use. The results suggest that antipsychotic LAIs are especially effective in the prevention of psychiatric hospitalizations after lithium discontinuation. The need to alter used medications may be the lowest when lithium is restarted.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Transtorno Bipolar , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Antimaníacos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lítio/uso terapêutico , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico
18.
Cureus ; 14(5): e25009, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35712334

RESUMO

Drug-influenced gingival enlargement (DIGE) or overgrowth manifests as abnormal enlargement of the gingiva due to an adverse effect of certain drug reactions in patients treated with anticonvulsants, immunosuppressants, or calcium channel blockers (CCBs). As the gingival enlargement became significant, it may interfere with the normal oral hygiene measures, aesthetics, as well as masticatory functions of the patients. The exact mechanism of how this undesirable condition develops is yet unknown, and complicated, with non-inflammatory and inflammatory pathways involved. This review illuminates these putative pathways of DIGE and highlights various treatment approaches based on existing research and current observations.

19.
Sleep Sci ; 15(2): 224-244, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35755913

RESUMO

Objectives: Physiological and restorative sleep is fundamental for physical and mental well-being. Polysomnography parameters are objective methods to access sleep structure. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are a group of drugs whose interference in the sleep structure is still not well known, especially in what concern the new ones. We did a systematic review of the literature to compare the effect of classic and newer AEDs on sleep architecture. Material and Methods: A search was performed in PubMed and Scopus, using keywords "sleep" and "antiepileptics", and each AED combined with "sleep". Only studies concerning objective measures were selected. Results: 63 articles were included, only 21 were randomized, controlled and double-blinded. Studies not only in epilepsy, but also in restless leg syndrome, bruxism, insomnia, fibromyalgia and obstructive sleep apnea were found. Among classic AEDs, carbamazepine has a negative effect on sleep while phenobarbitone has a slightly dose-dependent interference and is also the only one to reduce N3 stage. Valproic acid has little to no effect while clobazam and clonazepam have a positive effect. No conclusion can be drawn about phenytoin. All of them reduce REM stage. In the newer AEDs group gabapentine, lamotrigine, perampanel, pregabaline and tiagabine increase N3 sleep in best evidence. Lacosamide and zonisamide appear to be innocent while levetiracetam reduces REM sleep. Conclusion: Studies found used different methodologies not always addressing the analysis on the same parameters. In spite of these, newer AEDs have less effects on sleep structure when compared with classic AEDs but furthermore robust evidence is needed.

20.
Epilepsia ; 63(8): 2130-2143, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35560228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Patient Information Leaflet (PIL) is an authoritative document that all people with epilepsy in the EU receive when prescribed antiseizure medication (ASM). We undertook the first independent, comprehensive assessment to determine how understandable they are. Regulators state that when patients are asked comprehension questions about them, ≥80% should answer correctly. Also, recommended is that PILs have a maximum reading requirement of US grade 8. METHODS: Study 1: We obtained 140 current ASM PILs written in English. "Readability" was assessed using four tests, with and without adjustment for influence of familiar, polysyllabic words. A total of 179 online materials on epilepsy were also assessed. Study 2: Two PILs from Study 1 were randomly selected (Pregabalin Focus; Inovelon) and shown to 35 people from the UK epilepsy population. Their comprehension was assessed. Study 3: To understand whether the student population provides an accessible alternative population for future examination of ASM PILs, Study 3 was completed, using the same methods as Study 2, except that participants were 262 UK university students. RESULTS: Study 1: No PIL had a reading level of grade 8. Median was grade 11. Adjusting for context, the PILs were still at grade 10.5. PILs for branded ASMs were most readable. PILs were no more readable than (unregulated) online materials. Study 2: Users struggled to comprehend the PILs' key messages. The eight questions asked about pregabalin were typically answered correctly by 54%. For Inovelon, it was 62%. Study 3: Most student participants comprehended the PILs' key messages. The questions about Inovelon were answered correctly by 90%; for pregabalin it was 86%. SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first independent and comprehensive examination of ASM PILs. It found that PILs being used fail to meet recommendations and regulatory requirements and risk not being understandable to a substantial proportion of users. In finding that people from the epilepsy population differ markedly in comprehension of PILs compared to students, this study highlights the importance of completing user testing with the target population.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Folhetos , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Pregabalina/uso terapêutico
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