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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e263386, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1403863


Any solid, unprotected, and undefended surface in the aquatic environment will be fouled. Fouling, on the other hand, can affect a wide range of species that can tolerate some epibiosis. Several others, on the other hand, aggressively keep the epibionts off their body surface (antifouling). Antifouling defenses are built into marine plants like seaweed and seagrass. They do have a distinctive surface structure with tightly packed needle-like peaks and antifouling coverings, which may hinder settling bacteria's ability to cling. Chemical antifouling resistance is most probably a biological reaction to epibiosis' ecological drawbacks, especially for organisms capable of performing photosynthesis. The goal of this study was to see how effective natural compounds derived from littoral seaweeds were in preventing fouling. The brown mussel, an important fouling organism, was evaluated in laboratory bioassays against fifty-one populations' crude organic extracts including fort-two macroalgae species. Antifouling activity, exhibited a distinct phylogenetic pattern, with red macroalgae having the largest share of active species, subsequently brown macroalgae. Antifouling action in green seaweeds has never been significant. Seven species showed some level of induced antifouling defense. Our findings appear to back up previous findings about secondary metabolite synthesis in seaweeds, indicating that in the hunt for novel antifoulants, researchers should concentrate their efforts on tropical red macroalgae.

Resumo contaminada. A incrustação, por outro lado, pode afetar uma ampla gama de espécies que podem tolerar alguma epibiose. Vários outros, por outro lado, mantêm agressivamente os epibiontes fora de sua superfície corporal (anti-incrustante). As defesas anti-incrustantes são construídas em plantas marinhas como algas marinhas e ervas marinhas. Elas têm uma estrutura de superfície distinta com picos semelhantes a agulhas bem compactadas e coberturas anti-incrustantes, o que pode dificultar a capacidade de fixação das bactérias. A resistência química anti-incrustante é provavelmente uma reação biológica às desvantagens ecológicas da epibiose, especialmente para organismos capazes de realizar fotossíntese. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a eficácia dos compostos naturais derivados de algas marinhas do litoral na prevenção da incrustação. O mexilhão-marrom, importante organismo incrustante, foi avaliado em bioensaios de laboratório contra extratos orgânicos brutos de 51 populações, incluindo duas espécies de macroalgas. A atividade anti-incrustante exibiu um padrão filogenético distinto, com macroalgas vermelhas tendo a maior participação de espécies ativas, posteriormente macroalgas marrons. A ação anti-incrustante em algas verdes nunca foi significativa. Sete espécies apresentaram algum nível de defesa anti-incrustante induzida. Nossas descobertas parecem corroborar descobertas anteriores sobre a síntese de metabólitos secundários em algas marinhas, indicando que, na busca por novos anti-incrustantes, os pesquisadores devem concentrar seus esforços em macroalgas vermelhas tropicais.

Alga Marinha
Mar Environ Res ; 179: 105689, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35777303


Tributyltin (TBT) was widely used as a highly efficient biocide in antifouling paints for ship and boat hulls. Eventually, TBT containing paints became globally banned when TBT was found to cause widespread contamination and non-target adverse effects in sensitive species, with induced pseudohermaphroditism in female neogastropods (imposex) being the best-known example. In this review, we address the history and the status of knowledge regarding TBT pollution and marine TBT hotspots, with a special emphasis on the Norwegian coastline. The review also presents a brief update on knowledge of TBT toxicity in various marine species and humans, highlighting the current understanding of toxicity mechanisms relevant for causing endocrine disruption in marine species. Despite observations of reduced TBT sediment concentrations in many marine sediments over the recent decades, contaminant hotspots are still prevalent worldwide. Consequently, efforts to monitor TBT levels and assessment of potential effects in sentinel species being potentially susceptible to TBT in these locations are still highly warranted.

Compostos de Trialquitina , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecotoxicologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Compostos de Trialquitina/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
Sci Total Environ ; 766: 144469, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422842


Marine biofouling is a ubiquitous problem that accompanies human marine activities and marine industries. It exerts detrimental impacts on the economy, environment, ecology, and safety. Traditionally, mainstream approaches utilize metal ions to prevent biological contamination, but this also leads to environmental pollution and damage to the ecosystem. Efficient and environmentally friendly coatings are urgently needed to prevent marine devices from biofouling. Since nature is always the best teacher for humans, it offers us delightful thoughts on the research and development of high-efficiency, broad-spectrum and eco-friendly antifouling coatings. In this work, we focus on the research frontier of marine antifouling coatings from a bionic perspective. Enlightened by three distinctive dimensions of bionics: chemical molecule bionic, physiological mechanism bionic, and physical structure bionic, the research status of three main bioinspired strategies, which are natural antifoulants, bioinspired polymeric antifouling coatings, and biomimetic surface microtopographies, respectively, are demonstrated. The antifouling mechanisms are further interpreted based on biomimetic comprehension. The main fabrication methods and antifouling performances of these coatings are presented along with their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, the challenges are summarized, and future research prospects are proposed. It is believed that biomimetic antifouling strategies will contribute to the development of nontoxic antifouling techniques with exceptional repellency and stability.

Incrustação Biológica , Biomimética , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Ecossistema , Humanos , Polímeros
Materials (Basel) ; 14(17)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501165


In conventional steam cracking feedstocks, contaminants such as sulfur, phosphine, and heavy metal components, present in trace levels, are believed to affect coke formation on high temperature alloys. To gain an understanding of the role of phosphine coking rates on 25/35, CrNi and Al-containing reactor materials were determined in a plug flow reactor during cracking of a propane feedstock doped with ppb levels of PH3 in the presence of DMDS. The presence of phosphine decreased the asymptotic coking rates by more than 20%, while it had a smaller influence on the catalytic coking rate. The coking rate was more severely reduced for the 25/35 CrNi alloy in comparison to the Al-containing alloy. The ppm levels of phosphine did not affect the olefin yields nor the production of undesired carbon monoxide. The morphology of the coked alloys were studied using an off-line Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray detector (SEM with EDX) images of coked coupons. Two types of coke morphology are observed, i.e., filamentous coke with DMDS as an additive and globular coke in the presence of phosphine. The effect of phosphine on the material has a positive impact on the oxide scale homogeneity of 25/35 CrNi alloy, whereas the Al-containing alloy remained unchanged.

Mar Pollut Bull ; 154: 111093, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319922


Triphenyltin (TPT) has been known as one of the most toxic compounds being released into the marine environment by anthropogenic means. This study assessed the contamination statuses of TPT and its two major degradants, i.e., monophenyltin and diphenyltin, in seawater, sediment and biota samples from marine environments of Hong Kong, a highly urbanized and densely populated city, and evaluated their ecological and human health risks. The results showed that the Hong Kong's marine environments were heavily contaminated with these chemicals, especially for TPT. Concentration ranges of TPT in seawater, sediment and biota samples were 3.8-11.7 ng/L, 71.8-91.7 ng/g d.w., and 9.6-1079.9 ng/g w.w., respectively. As reflected by high hazard quotients (1.7-5.3 for seawaters; 46.1-59.0 for sediments), TPT exhibited high ecological and human health risks. Our results are essential for the future management and control of anthropogenic TPT use in antifouling paints and as biocides in agriculture.

Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hong Kong , Humanos , Água do Mar
Chemosphere ; 145: 256-64, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26688262


A mass distribution model was used to predict the fate of Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Fenitrothion in Seto Inland Sea which is located in western Japan. This was done by using concentration, degradation, and literature data. Diuron and Irgarol 1051 in Seto Inland Sea are mainly derived from antifouling paints used for ships and boats. On the other hand Fenitrothion exclusively comes from land via rivers and atmospheric deposition. The total inputs/yr to Seto Inland Sea were found to be 104 tons, 7.65 tons and 5.14 tons for Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Fenitrothion, respectively. The pesticide residence times were 0.26 yr, 0.36 yr and 0.17 yr for Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Fenitrothion, respectively. Photodegradation was faster than biodegradation. In seawater, the half-life ranges were 37.9-57.3 d for photodegradation. In the same seawater the half-life ranges were 1650-2394 d for biodegradation. Photodegradation is effective in surface water (0-5 m depth) while biodegradation occurs throughout the entire water column. Plankton and fishes accumulate these pesticides significantly. The pesticides are deposited (sorbed and buried with) sediments (between 74 and 87% of total input amounts). The open ocean is an important sink accounting for between 8 and 17% of the total pesticide input amounts while photo- and biodegradation accounts for a small percentage.

Diurona/análise , Fenitrotion/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Água do Mar/análise , Triazinas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Meia-Vida , Herbicidas/análise , Inseticidas/análise , Japão