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1.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 78(Pt 5): 586-598, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503207

RESUMO

Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), which belongs to the aromatic amino-acid hydroxylase family, is involved in protein synthesis and pyomelanine production through the hydroxylation of phenylalanine to tyrosine. In this study, the crystal structure of PAH from Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 (BcPAH) with an additional 280 amino acids in the C-terminal region was determined. The structure of BcPAH consists of three distinct domains: a core domain with two additional inserted α-helices and two novel auxiliary domains: BcPAH-AD1 and BcPAH-AD2. Structural homologues of BcPAH-AD1 and BcPAH-AD2 are known to be involved in mRNA regulation and protein-protein interactions, and thus it was speculated that BcPAH might utilize the auxiliary domains for interaction with its partner proteins. Furthermore, phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the three-domain PAHs, including BcPAH, are completely distinctive from both conventional prokaryotic PAHs and eukaryotic PAHs. Finally, biochemical studies of BcPAH showed that BcPAH-AD1 might be important for the structural integrity of the enzyme and that BcPAH-AD2 is related to enzyme stability and/or activity. Investigations into the intracellular functions of the two auxiliary domains and the relationship between these functions and the activity of PAH are required.


Assuntos
Fenilalanina Hidroxilase , Bacillus cereus/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática , Oxigenases de Função Mista , Fenilalanina Hidroxilase/química , Fenilalanina Hidroxilase/genética , Fenilalanina Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Filogenia
2.
Curr Genet ; 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35552506

RESUMO

Bacillus cereus sensu lato is a group of bacteria of medical and agricultural importance in different ecological niches and with controversial taxonomic relationships. Studying the composition of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in several bacterial groups has been an important tool for identifying genetic information and better understanding genetic regulation towards environment adaptation. However, to date, no comparative genomics study of ncRNA has been performed in this group. Thus, this study aimed to identify and characterize the set of ncRNAs from 132 strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis to obtain an overview of the diversity and distribution of these genetic elements in these species. We observed that the number of ncRNAs differs in the chromosomes of the three species, but not in the plasmids, when species or phylogenetic clusters were compared. The prevailing functional/structural category was Cis-reg and the most frequent class was Riboswitch. However, in plasmids, the class Group II intron was the most frequent. Also, nine ncRNAs were selected for validation in the strain B. thuringiensis 407 by RT-PCR, which allowed to identify the expression of the ncRNAs. The wide distribution and diversity of ncRNAs in the B. cereus group, and more intensely in B. thuringiensis, may help improve the abilities of these species to adapt to various environmental changes. Further studies should address the expression of these genetic elements in different conditions.

3.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0228521, 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35575735

RESUMO

Bacillus anthracis is a spore-forming bacterium that causes life-threatening infections in animals and humans and has been used as a bioterror agent. Rapid and reliable detection and identification of B. anthracis are of primary interest for both medical and biological threat-surveillance purposes. Few chromosomal sequences provide enough polymorphisms to clearly distinguish B. anthracis from closely related species. We analyzed 18 loci of the chromosome of B. anthracis and discovered eight novel single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites that can be used for the specific identification of B. anthracis. Using these SNP sites, we developed software-named AGILE V1.1 (anthracis genome-based identification with high-fidelity E-probe)-for easy, user-friendly identification of B. anthracis from whole-genome sequences. We also developed a recombinase polymerase amplification-Cas12a-based method that uses nucleic acid extracts for the specific, rapid, in-the-field identification of B. anthracis based on these SNPs. Via this method and B. anthracis-specific CRISPR RNAs for the target CR5_2, CR5_1, and Ba813 SNPs, we clearly detected 5 aM genomic DNA. This study provides two simple and reliable methods suitable for use in local hospitals and public health programs for the detection of B. anthracis. IMPORTANCE Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax, a fatal disease and a potential biothreat. A specific, accurate, and rapid method is urgently required for the identification of B. anthracis. We demonstrate the potential of using eight novel SNPs for the rapid and accurate detection of B. anthracis via in silico and laboratory-based testing methods. Our findings have important implications for public health responses to disease outbreaks and bioterrorism threats.

4.
Mol Ecol ; 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510788

RESUMO

Bacterial clades are often ecologically distinct, despite extensive horizontal gene transfer (HGT). How selection works on different parts of bacterial pan-genomes to drive and maintain the emergence of clades is unclear. Focusing on the three largest clades in the diverse and well-studied Bacillus cereus sensu lato group, we identified clade-specific core genes (present in all clade members) and then used clade-specific allelic diversity to identify genes under purifying and diversifying selection. Clade-specific accessory genes (present in a subset of strains within a clade) were characterized as being under selection using presence/absence in specific clades. Gene ontology analyses of genes under selection revealed that different gene functions were enriched in different clades. Furthermore, some gene functions were enriched only amongst clade-specific core or accessory genomes. Genes under purifying selection were often clade-specific, while genes under diversifying selection showed signs of frequent HGT. These patterns are consistent with different selection pressures acting on both the core and the accessory genomes of different clades and can lead to ecological divergence in both cases. Examining variation in allelic diversity allows us to uncover genes under clade-specific selection, allowing ready identification of strains and their ecological niche.

5.
PeerJ ; 10: e13131, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35529485

RESUMO

Heavy metal resistant bacteria are of great importance because they play a crucial role in bioremediation. In the present study, 11 bacterial strains isolated from industrial waste were screened under different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) (100 µM and 200 µM). Among 11 strains, the Cd tolerant Bacillus cereus (S6D1-105) strain was selected for in vitro and in vivo studies. B. cereus was able to solubilize potassium, and phosphate as well as produce protease and siderophores during plate essays. Moreover, we observed the response of hydroponically grown rice plants, inoculated with B. cereus which was able to promote plant growth, by increasing plant biomass, chlorophyll contents, relative water content, different antioxidant enzymatic activity such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and reducing malondialdehyde content in both roots and leaves of rice plants under Cd stress. Our results showed that the B. cereus can be used as a biofertilizer which might be beneficial for rice cultivation in Cd contaminated soils.

6.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0066622, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543559

RESUMO

Bacillus cereus spores, like most Bacillus spores, can survive for years and germinate when their surroundings become suitable, and germination proteins play an important role in the initiation of germination. Because germinated spores lose the extreme resistance of dormant spores, information on the function of germination proteins could be useful in developing new strategies to control B. cereus spores. Prior work has shown that (i) the channel protein SpoVAEa exhibits high-frequency movement in the outer leaflet of the inner membrane (IM) in dormant B. subtilis spores and (ii) the formation of the foci termed germinosomes between two germination proteins, the germinant receptor GerR and the scaffold protein GerD, in developing B. cereus spores is slower than foci formation by GerR and GerD individually. However, the movement dynamics of SpoVAEa in B. cereus spores, and the behavior of the germinosome upon B. cereus spore germination, are not known. In this study, we found that SpoVAEa fluorescent foci in dormant B. cereus spores move on the IM, but slower than in B. subtilis spores, and they likely co-localize transiently with GerD-mScarlet-I in the germinosome. Our results further indicate that (i) the expression of GerR-SGFP2 and SpoVAEa-SGFP2 with GerD-mScarlet-I from a plasmid leads to more heterogeneity and lower efficiency of spore germination in B. cereus, and (ii) germinosome foci observed by Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between GerR-SGFP2 and GerD-mScarlet-I can be lost soon after the spore-phase transition. However, this is not always the case, as some GerR-SGFP2 and GerD-mScarlet-I foci continued to exist, co-localize, and even show a weak FRET signal. These data highlight the heterogeneous behavior of spore germination protein complexes and indicate that some complexes may persist beyond the initiation of germination. IMPORTANCE Bacillus cereus is commonly present in soil and infects humans via contaminated food. In this study, we used B. cereus spores to investigate the movement of the spore-specific inner membrane (IM) channel protein SpoVAEa, the interaction between SpoVAEa and the germinosome scaffold protein GerD, and the dynamics of germinosomes with GerR and GerD in spore germination. Our results expand upon observations of interactions between specific B. cereus spore germination proteins, in particular the GerR germinant receptor A, B, and C subunits and GerD, as well as those between SpoVAEa and GerD. The approaches used in this work could also be used to examine the interactions between GerD and SpoVAEa and other germination proteins in spores of other Bacillus species.

7.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(4): 733-736, 2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544639

RESUMO

A rare and difficult to diagnose case of subacute infective endocarditis caused by Bacillus cereus in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and Libman-Sacks endocarditis has been reported. Our aim is to highlight the importance of molecular methods such as MALDI-TOF and PCR to explain clinical and epidemiological issues about infections caused by unusual pathogen.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563357

RESUMO

Although the molecular response of bacteria exposed to metal nanoparticles (NPs) is intensively studied, many phenomena related to their survival, metal uptake, gene expression and protein production are not fully understood. Therefore, this work aimed to study Ag-NPs, Cu-NPs, ZnO-NPs and TiO2-NPs-induced alterations in the expression level of selected oxidative stress-related genes in connection with the activity of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), peroxidase (PER) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The methodology used included: the extraction of total RNA and cDNA synthesis, the preparation of primers for selected housekeeping and oxidative stress genes, RT-qPCR reaction and the measurements of CAT, PER and SOD activities. It was established that the treatment of E. coli and S. epidermidis with NPs resulted mainly in the down-regulation of targeted genes, whilst the up-regulation of genes was confirmed in B. cereus. The greatest differences in the relative expression levels of tested genes occurred in B. cereus and S. epidermidis treated with TiO2-NPs, while in E. coli, they were observed under ZnO-NPs exposure. The changes found were mostly related to the expression of genes encoding proteins with PER and CAT-like activity. Among NPs, ZnO-NPs and Cu-NPs increased the activity of antioxidants in E. coli and B. cereus. In turn, TiO2-NPs had a major effect on enzymes activity in S. epidermidis. Considering all of the collected results for tested bacteria, it can be emphasised that the impact of NPs on the antioxidant system functioning was dependent on their type and concentration.

9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(4)2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35448897

RESUMO

In the last decade, foodborne outbreaks and individual cases caused by bacterial toxins showed an increasing trend. The major contributors are enterotoxins and cereulide produced by Bacillus cereus, which can cause a diarrheal and emetic form of the disease, respectively. These diseases usually induce relatively mild symptoms; however, fatal cases have been reported. With the aim to detected potential toxin producers that are able to grow at refrigerator temperatures and subsequently produce cereulide, we screened the prevalence of enterotoxin and cereulide toxin gene carriers and the psychrotrophic capacity of presumptive B. cereus obtained from 250 food products (cereal products, including rice and seeds/pulses, dairy-based products, dried vegetables, mixed food, herbs, and spices). Of tested food products, 226/250 (90.4%) contained presumptive B. cereus, which communities were further tested for the presence of nheA, hblA, cytK-1, and ces genes. Food products were mainly contaminated with the nheA B. cereus carriers (77.9%), followed by hblA (64.8%), ces (23.2%), and cytK-1 (4.4%). Toxigenic B. cereus communities were further subjected to refrigerated (4 and 7 °C) and mild abuse temperatures (10 °C). Overall, 77% (94/121), 86% (104/121), and 100% (121/121) were able to grow at 4, 7, and 10 °C, respectively. Enterotoxin and cereulide potential producers were detected in 81% of psychrotrophic presumptive B. cereus. Toxin encoding genes nheA, hblA, and ces gene were found in 77.2, 55, and 11.7% of tested samples, respectively. None of the psychrotrophic presumptive B. cereus were carriers of the cytotoxin K-1 encoding gene (cytK-1). Nearly half of emetic psychrotrophic B. cereus were able to produce cereulide in optimal conditions. At 4 °C none of the examined psychrotrophs produced cereulide. The results of this research highlight the high prevalence of B. cereus and the omnipresence of toxin gene harboring presumptive B. cereus that can grow at refrigerator temperatures, with a focus on cereulide producers.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus , Depsipeptídeos , Bacillus cereus/genética , Eméticos , Enterotoxinas/análise , Enterotoxinas/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 393, 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35448975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive bacterium that can be found in various natural and human-made environments. It is often involved in gastrointestinal infections and food poisoning; yet, it can rarely cause serious non-gastrointestinal tract infections. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe a case of B. cereus cutaneous infection of a wound on the hand of a young woman from a rural area in Iran. On admission, she had no systemic symptoms other than a cutaneous lesion. The identification of the causative agent was performed using sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of the bacteria isolated from the wound. The isolated microorganism was identified as B. cereus. Targeted antibiotic therapy with ciprofloxacin was successful. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Although non-intestinal infections caused by B. cereus are rare, it should be taken into consideration that this organism might also cause infections in other parts of the body.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Dermatopatias Infecciosas , Bacillus cereus/genética , Celulite (Flegmão) , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
11.
Food Microbiol ; 105: 104025, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473978

RESUMO

Plant protection products based on Bacillus thuringiensis have been used to fight agricultural pests for decades and are the world's most frequently applied biopesticide. However, there is growing concern that B. thuringiensis residues in food may occasionally cause diarrheal illness in humans. This has recently sparked a plethora of research activities and vivid discussions across the scientific community, competent authorities, and the public. To support this discussion, we provide a structured overview of the current knowledge on the role of B. thuringiensis as a causative agent of foodborne infections in humans and pinpoint research gaps that need to be addressed for improved risk assessment. We review (i) recent taxonomic changes in the B. cereus group; (ii) the role of B. thuringiensis in transforming agrosystems; and (iii) key considerations for assessing the hazard potential of B. thuringiensis strains detected in foods. We conclude that (i) the taxonomy of the B. cereus group is collapsing, (ii) B. thuringiensis based biopesticides play a key role in realizing the UN's sustainable development goals, and (iii) risk assessment needs to move from taxonomy-driven considerations to strain-specific identification of virulence and pathogenicity traits We also provide an overview of relevant risk-related data for commonly used biopesticide strains.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Bacillus cereus , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Humanos , Percepção
12.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(8): 3113-3137, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435457

RESUMO

Endophytic strains belonging to the Bacillus cereus group were isolated from the halophytes Atriplex halimus L. (Amaranthaceae) and Tamarix aphylla L. (Tamaricaceae) from costal and continental regions in Algeria. Based on their salt tolerance (up to 5%), the strains were tested for their ability to alleviate salt stress in tomato and wheat. Bacillus sp. strain BH32 showed the highest potential to reduce salinity stress (up to + 50% and + 58% of dry weight improvement, in tomato and wheat, respectively, compared to the control). To determine putative mechanisms involved in salt tolerance and plant growth promotion, the whole genome of Bacillus sp. BH32 was sequenced, annotated, and used for comparative genomics against the genomes of closely related strains. The pangenome of Bacillus sp. BH32 and its closest relative was further analyzed. The phylogenomic analyses confirmed its taxonomic position, a member of the Bacillus cereus group, with intergenomic distances (GBDP analysis) pinpointing to a new taxon (digital DNA-DNA hybridization, dDDH < 70%). Genome mining unveiled several genes involved in stress tolerance, production of anti-oxidants and genes involved in plant growth promotion as well as in the production of secondary metabolites. KEY POINTS : • Bacillus sp. BH32 and other bacterial endophytes were isolated from halophytes, to be tested on tomato and wheat and to limit salt stress adverse effects. • The strain with the highest potential was then studied at the genomic level to highlight numerous genes linked to plant growth promotion and stress tolerance. • Pangenome approaches suggest that the strain belongs to a new taxon within the Bacillus cereus group.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Lycopersicon esculentum , Bacillus/genética , DNA , Endófitos/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Estresse Salino , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal , Triticum/microbiologia
13.
Pathogens ; 11(4)2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35456145

RESUMO

While Bacillus cereus typically causes opportunistic infections in humans, within the last three decades, severe and fatal infections caused by isolates of the B. cereus group harboring anthrax toxin genes have been reported in the United States. From 1994 to 2020, seven cases of anthrax-like illness resulting from these isolates have been identified. With one exception, the cases have occurred in the Gulf States region of the United States among metalworkers. We aimed to develop an ecological niche model (ENM) to estimate a spatial area conducive to the survival of these organisms based on the presence of known human infections and environmental variables. The estimated ecological niche for B. cereus was modeled with the maximum entropy algorithm (Maxent). Environmental variables contributing most to the model were soil characteristics (cation exchange capacity, carbon content, soil pH), temperature, enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and land surface temperature (LST). Much of the suitable environments were located throughout the Gulf Coast Plain, Texas Backland Prairies, East Central Texas Plains, Edwards Plateau, Cross Timbers, Mississippi Alluvial Plain, and Central Great Plains. These findings may provide additional guidance to narrow potential risk areas to efficiently communicate messages to metalworkers and potentially identify individuals who may benefit from the anthrax vaccine.

14.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt B): 113337, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469857

RESUMO

Herein, we report a bacteria-based strategy as an efficient, reasonable, benign, and promising methodology for remediating heavy metals fed waterbodies. The contemporary study deals with isolating, screening, and characterizing heavy metal resistive bacteria from metal-rich sites. The transcriptome analysis reveals the identity of the isolated species as Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus cereus. Batch studies put forth the bioremoval results in designed conditions of different pH, concentration, dose, and time. The mechanistic actions are drawn using complementary techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The theory of surface adsorption of lead (Pb(II)) and nickel (Ni(II)) is further fostered by the application of adsorption isotherms. The conducted studies establish the bacterial morphological stratagems and multifarious biochemical approaches for countering metallic ions of Pb(II) and Ni(II). The exhibition of significant removal results by the isolated bacterial strains in simulated water samples with remarkable proliferation rates has opened up its favorability for industrial platforms.

15.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(8)2022 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35454225

RESUMO

Ambiguous, heterogeneous, endospore-forming Bacillus species, notably Bacillus cereus, often produce fatal toxins that threaten human health. We identified Bacillus from wild animal fecal samples (n = 80), including the Korean water deer (n = 25) and striped field mouse (n = 55). Using traditional culture-based methods, 25 animal fecal samples (31.25%; 25/80) were found to be positive for Bacillus species, whereas using molecular techniques, 19 samples (23.75%; 19/80) were found to be positive for the same. In addition, we designed a Bacillus species-specific 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene marker and utilized it to identify 19 samples by means of PCR amplification and sequencing, using at least one colony from the 19 Bacillus positive samples. The recovered sequences were matched to sequences of three Bacillus species (B. cereus, B. amyloliquefaciens, and B. megaterium) from the GenBank database. Moreover, the phylogenetic tree generated in this study established specific clades for the Bacillus group. In addition, to differentiate between B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis, we designed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based primer by identifying SNPs in the alignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences of B. cereus group strains. The SNPs were used to design primer sets for discrimination between highly similar species from the B. cereus group. The study could be used in surveillance of agricultural fresh-produce-associated Bacillus outbreaks, for accurate identification of each Bacillus species, and in the development of control measures.

16.
Foods ; 11(7)2022 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35407124

RESUMO

Bacillus cereus is relatively resistant to pasteurization. We assessed the risk of B. cereus growth during warming and subsequent storage of pasteurized banked milk (PBM) in the warmed state using a predictive mathematical model. Holder pasteurization followed by storage below -18 °C was used. Temperature maps, water activity values, and B. cereus growth in artificially inoculated PBM were obtained during a simulation of manipulation of PBM after its release from a Human Milk Bank. As a real risk level, we chose a B. cereus concentration of 100 CFU/mL; the risk was assessed for three cases: 1. For an immediate post-pasteurization B. cereus concentration below 1 CFU/mL (level of detection); 2. For a B. cereus concentration of 10 CFU/mL, which is allowed in some countries; 3. For a B. cereus concentration of 50 CFU/mL, which is approved for milk formulas. In the first and second cases, no risk was detected after 1 h of storage in the warmed state, while after 2 h of storage, B. cereus concentrations of 102 CFU/mL were occasionally encountered. In the third case, exceeding the B. cereus concentration of 102 CFU/mL could be regularly expected after 2 h of storage. Based on these results, we recommend that post-pasteurization bacteriological analysis be performed as recommended by the European Milk Bank Association (EMBA) and using warmed PBM within 1 h after warming (no exceptions).

17.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 802656, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418965

RESUMO

Bacillus cereus is widely distributed in foods, especially dairy products, and can lead to diarrhea (non-emetic B. cereus) and emesis (emetic B. cereus). Although diarrhea due to B. cereus is usually mild, emesis can lead to acute encephalopathy and even death. To develop rapid and sensitive detection methods for B. cereus in foods, specific primers targeting the gyrase B (gyrB) and cereulide synthetase (ces) genes were designed and screened using recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). Probes and base substitutions were introduced to improve specificity and eliminate primer-dependent artifacts. The 5' ends of the reverse primers and probes were modified with biotin and fluorescein isothiocyanate for detection of RPA products on a lateral flow strip (LFS). The developed RPA-LFS assay allows detection within 20 min at 37°C with no cross-reactivity with other foodborne pathogens. The limit of detection was 104 copies/ml and 102 CFU/ml in pure cultures and milk, respectively. Comparisons with established methods using cream obtained similar results. A specific, rapid, and sensitive RPA-LFS assay was successfully developed for on-site detection of B. cereus in dairy products to distinguish emetic from non-emetic strains.

18.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 855988, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35401464

RESUMO

Microbial infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in neonates. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing is a hypothesis-free and culture-free test that enables broad identification of pathogens and antimicrobial resistance genes directly from clinical samples within 24 h. In this study, we used mNGS for etiological diagnosis and monitoring the efficacy of antibiotic treatment in a cohort of neonatal patients with severe infections. The median age was 19.5 (3-52) days, median gestational age was 37.96 (31-40+3) weeks, and the median birth weight was 3,261 (1,300-4,300) g. The types of infectious diseases included pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. mNGS reported microbial findings in all cases, which led to changes in antibiotic treatment. These included cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Legionella pneumophila, and Bacillus cereus. Eight of ten infants recovered after antibiotic adjustment and showed normal development during follow-up. On the other hand, neurological retardation was seen in two infants with meningitis. mNGS enabled etiological diagnosis and guided antibiotic therapy when all conventional methods failed to discover the culprit. It has the potential to cut down the overall cost and burden of disease management in neonatal infections.

19.
J Hazard Mater ; 434: 128941, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462123

RESUMO

Microbial degradation of chlortetracycline (CTC) is an effective bioremediation method. In the present study, an enrichment technique was used to isolate a Bacillus cereus LZ01 strain capable of effectively degrading CTC from cattle manure. Response surface methodology was used to identify optimized conditions under which strain LZ01 was able to achieve maximal CTC removal (83.58%): temperature of 35.77 °C, solution pH of 7.59, CTC concentration of 57.72 mg/L and microbial inoculum of 0.98%. The antibacterial effect of CTC degradation products on Escherichia coli was investigated by the disk diffusion test, revealing that the products by LZ01 degradation of CTC exhibited lower toxicity than parent compound. Shake flask batch experiments showed that the biodegradation of CTC was a synergistic effect of intracellular and extracellular enzymes, and intracellular enzyme had a better degradation effect on CTC (77.56%). Whole genome sequencing revealed that genes associated with ring-opening hydrolysis, demethylation, deamination and dehydrogenation in strain LZ01 may be involved in the biodegradation of CTC. Subsequent seven possible biodegradation products were identified by LC-MS analyses, and the biodegradation pathways were proposed. Overall, this study provides a theoretical foundation for the characterization and mechanism of CTC degradation in the environment by Bacillus cereus LZ01.

20.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0070022, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475639

RESUMO

Members of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato species complex, also known as the B. cereus group, vary in their ability to cause illness but are frequently isolated from foods, including meat products; however, food safety surveillance efforts that use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) often neglect these potential pathogens. Here, we evaluate the surveillance and source tracking potential of WGS as applied to B. cereus sensu lato by (i) using WGS to characterize B. cereus sensu lato strains isolated during routine surveillance of meat products across South Africa (n = 25) and (ii) comparing the genomes sequenced here to all publicly available, high-quality B. cereus sensu lato genomes (n = 2,887 total genomes). Strains sequenced here were collected from meat products obtained from (i) retail outlets, processing plants, and butcheries across six South African provinces (n = 23) and (ii) imports held at port of entry (n = 2). The 25 strains sequenced here were partitioned into 15 lineages via in silico seven-gene multilocus sequence typing (MLST). While none of the South African B. cereus sensu lato strains sequenced here were identical to publicly available genomes, six MLST lineages contained multiple strains sequenced in this study, which were identical or nearly identical at the whole-genome scale (≤3 core single nucleotide polymorphisms). Five MLST lineages contained (nearly) identical genomes collected from two or three South African provinces; one MLST lineage contained nearly identical genomes from two countries (South Africa and the Netherlands), indicating that B. cereus sensu lato can spread intra- and internationally via foodstuffs. IMPORTANCE Nationwide foodborne pathogen surveillance programs that use high-resolution genomic methods have been shown to provide vast public health and economic benefits. However, Bacillus cereus sensu lato is often overlooked during large-scale routine WGS efforts. Thus, to our knowledge, no studies to date have evaluated the potential utility of WGS for B. cereus sensu lato surveillance and source tracking in foodstuffs. In this preliminary proof-of-concept study, we applied WGS to B. cereus sensu lato strains collected via South Africa's national surveillance program of domestic and imported meat products, and we provide strong evidence that B. cereus sensu lato can be disseminated intra- and internationally via the agro-food supply chain. Our results showcase that WGS has the potential to be used for source tracking of B. cereus sensu lato in foods, although future WGS and metadata collection efforts are needed to ensure that B. cereus sensu lato surveillance initiatives are on par with those of other foodborne pathogens.

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