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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256945, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374655

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal microflora regulates the body's functions and plays an important role in its health. Dysbiosis leads to a number of chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, inflammation, atherosclerosis, etc. However, these diseases can be prevented by using probiotics ­ living microorganisms that benefit the microflora and, therefore, improve the host organism's health. The most common probiotics include lactic acid bacteria of the Bifidobacterium and Propionibacterium genera. We studied the probiotic properties of the following strains: Bifidobacterium adolescentis АС-1909, Bifidobacterium longum infantis АС-1912, Propionibacterium jensenii В-6085, Propionibacterium freudenreichii В-11921, Propionibacterium thoenii В-6082, and Propionibacterium acidipropionici В-5723. Antimicrobial activity was determined by the 'agar blocks' method against the following test cultures: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enterica ATCC 14028, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa B6643, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 63, and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644. Moderate antimicrobial activity against all the test cultures was registered in Bifidobacterium adolescentis АС-1909, Propionibacterium jensenii В-6085, and Propionibacterium thoenii В-6082. Antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH inhibition method in all the lactic acid strains. Our study indicated that some Propionibacterium and Bifidobacterium strains or, theoretically, their consortia could be used as probiotic cultures in dietary supplements or functional foods to prevent a number of chronic diseases.


A microbiota gastrointestinal regula as funções do corpo e desempenha um papel importante na sua saúde. A disbiose leva a uma série de doenças crônicas, como diabetes, obesidade, inflamação, aterosclerose, etc. No entanto, essas doenças podem ser prevenidas pelo uso de probióticos − microrganismos vivos que beneficiam a microflora e, portanto, melhoram a saúde do organismo hospedeiro. Os probióticos mais comuns incluem bactérias do ácido láctico dos gêneros Bifidobacterium e Propionibacterium. Nós estudamos as propriedades probióticas das seguintes cepas: Bifidobacterium adolescentis АС-1909, Bifidobacterium longum infantis АС-1912, Propionibacterium jensenii В-6085, Propionibacterium freudenreichii В-11921, Propionibacterium thoenii В-6082 В-6082 acid e Propionibacterium thoenii В-6082 В-6082 acidibion. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo método de 'blocos de ágar' contra as seguintes culturas de teste: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enterica ATCC 14028, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa B6643, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 63 e Listeria monocytogenes moderada atividade ATCC 7644. Uma atividade antimicrobiana moderada contra todas as culturas de teste foi registrado em Bifidobacterium adolescentis АС-1909, Propionibacterium jensenii В-6085 e Propionibacterium thoenii В-6082. A atividade antioxidante foi determinada pelo método de inibição do DPPH em todas as cepas de ácido lático. Nosso estudo indicou que algumas cepas de Propionibacterium e Bifidobacterium − ou, teoricamente, seus consórcios − poderiam ser usadas ​​como culturas probióticas em suplementos dietéticos ou alimentos funcionais para prevenir uma série de doenças crônicas.


Assuntos
Animais , Propionibacterium , Bifidobacterium , Ácido Láctico , Probióticos , Lactobacillales , Microbioma Gastrointestinal
2.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2127438, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36170451

RESUMO

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria may serve as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance, but the risk posed by strains intentionally introduced into the agro-food chain has not yet been thoroughly investigated. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether probiotics, starter and protective cultures, and feed additives represent a risk to human health. In addition to commercial strains of LAB and bifidobacteria, isolates from human milk or colostrum, intestinal mucosa or feces, and fermented products were analyzed. Phenotypic susceptibility data of 474 strains showed that antimicrobial resistance was more common in intestinal isolates than in commercial strains. Antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were characterized in the whole genome sequences of 1114 strains using comparative genomics. Intrinsic ARGs were abundant in enterococci, bifidobacteria, and lactococci but were considered non-risky due to the absence of MGEs. The results revealed that 13.8% of commercial strains contained acquired ARGs, most frequently for tetracycline. We associated 75.5% of the acquired ARGs with known or novel MGEs, and their potential for transmission was assessed by examining metagenomic sequences. We confirmed that ARGs and MGEs were not as abundant or diverse in commercial strains as in human intestinal isolates or isolates from human milk, suggesting that strains intentionally introduced into the agro-food chain do not pose a significant threat. However, attention should be paid especially to individual probiotic strains containing elements that have been shown to have high potential for transferability in the gut microbiota.Abbreviations: ARG, antimicrobial resistance gene; ICE, integrative and conjugative element; IME, integrative and mobilizable element; LAB, lactic acid bacteria; MDR, multidrug resistance; MIC, minimum inhibitory concentration; MGE, mobile genetic element; TRRPP, tetracycline-resistant ribosomal protection protein; WGS, whole genome sequences.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillales , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bifidobacterium/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Cadeia Alimentar , Pool Gênico , Humanos , Lactobacillales/genética , Tetraciclinas
3.
mSystems ; : e0034322, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094076

RESUMO

Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis is a prevalent beneficial bacterium that colonizes the human neonatal gut and is uniquely adapted to efficiently use human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) as a carbon and energy source. Multiple studies have focused on characterizing the elements of HMO utilization machinery in B. longum subsp. infantis; however, the regulatory mechanisms governing the expression of these catabolic pathways remain poorly understood. A bioinformatic regulon reconstruction approach used in this study implicated NagR, a transcription factor from the ROK family, as a negative global regulator of gene clusters encoding lacto-N-biose/galacto-N-biose (LNB/GNB), lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) utilization pathways in B. longum subsp. infantis. This conjecture was corroborated by transcriptome profiling upon nagR genetic inactivation and experimental assessment of binding of recombinant NagR to predicted DNA operators. The latter approach also implicated N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), a universal intermediate of LNT and LNnT catabolism, and its phosphorylated derivatives as plausible NagR transcriptional effectors. Reconstruction of NagR regulons in various Bifidobacterium lineages revealed multiple potential regulon expansion events, suggesting evolution from a local regulator of GlcNAc catabolism in ancestral bifidobacteria to a global regulator controlling the utilization of mixtures of GlcNAc-containing host glycans in B. longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium bifidum. IMPORTANCE The predominance of bifidobacteria in the gut of breastfed infants is attributed to the ability of these bacteria to metabolize human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). Thus, individual HMOs such as lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) are considered promising prebiotics that would stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and confer multiple health benefits to preterm and malnourished children suffering from impaired (stunted) gut microbiota development. However, the rational selection of HMO-based prebiotics is hampered by the incomplete knowledge of regulatory mechanisms governing HMO utilization in target bifidobacteria. This study describes NagR-mediated transcriptional regulation of LNT and LNnT utilization in Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. The elucidated regulatory network appears optimally adapted to simultaneous utilization of multiple HMOs, providing a rationale to add HMO mixtures (rather than individual components) to infant formulas. The study also provides insights into the evolutionary trajectories of complex regulatory networks controlling carbohydrate metabolism in bifidobacteria.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Almonds contain lipid, fiber and polyphenols and possess physicochemical properties that impact nutrient bioaccessibility, which are hypothesized to impact gut physiology and microbiota. OBJECTIVES: Investigate the impact of whole almonds and ground almonds (almond flour) on fecal bifidobacteria (primary outcome), gut microbiota composition and transit time. DESIGN: Healthy adults (n = 87) participated in a parallel, 3-arm randomized controlled trial. Participants received whole almonds (56 g/d), ground almonds (56 g/d) or an isocaloric control muffin in place of habitual snacks for 4 weeks. Gut microbiota composition and diversity (16S rRNA gene sequencing), short-chain fatty acids (gas-chromatography), volatile organic compounds (gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry), gut transit time (wireless motility capsule), stool output and gut symptoms (7-day diary) were measured at baseline and endpoint. The impact of almond form on particle size distribution (PSD) and predicted lipid release was measured in a subgroup (n = 31). RESULTS: Modified intention-to-treat analysis was performed on 79 participants. There were no significant differences in abundance of fecal bifidobacteria following consumption of whole almonds (8.7%, SD 7.7%), ground almonds (7.8%, SD 6.9%) or control (13.0%, SD 10.2%; q = 0.613). Consumption of almonds (whole and ground pooled) resulted in higher butyrate (24.1 µmol/g, SD 15.0 µmol/g) in comparison to control (18.2 µmol/g, SD 9.1 µmol/g; p = 0.046). There was no effect of almonds on gut microbiota at the phylum level or diversity, gut transit time, stool consistency or gut symptoms. Almond form (whole versus ground) had no effect on study outcomes. Ground almonds resulted in significantly smaller PSD and higher predicted lipid release (10.4%, SD 1.8%) in comparison to whole almonds (9.3%, SD 2.0%; p = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Almond consumption has limited impact on gut microbiota composition but increases butyrate concentrations in adults, suggesting positive alterations to microbiota functionality. Almonds can be incorporated into the diet to increase fiber consumption without triggering gut symptoms. Clinical trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier - NCT03581812.

5.
Foods ; 11(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076770

RESUMO

Lactic acid bacteria have been considered to be a very important species during sourdough fermentation. In order to explore the effects of bifidobacteria fermentation on thermal, physico-chemical and structural properties of wheat starch during dough fermentation, starch granules were separated from the fermented dough at different fermentation times, including 0 h, 2 h, 6 h, 9 h and 12 h. The results showed that the morphology of starch granules was destroyed gradually as the fermentation time increased, which appeared as erosion and rupture. With the increase in fermentation time, the solubility showed a significant increase, which changed from 8.51% (0 h) to 9.80% (12 h), and the swelling power was also increased from 9.31% (0 h) to 10.54% (12 h). As for the gelatinization property, the enthalpy was increased from 6.77 J/g (0 h) to 7.56 J/g (12 h), indicating a more stable thermal property of fermented starch, especially for the longer fermentation. The setback value was decreased with short fermentation time, indicating that the starch with a longer fermentation time was difficult to retrograde. The hardness of the gel texture was decreased significantly from 50.11 g to 38.66 g after fermentation for 12 h. The results show that bifidobacteria fermentation is an effective biological modification method of wheat starch for further applications.

6.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2118811, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093611

RESUMO

The gut microbiota has a central role in the programming of the host's metabolism and immune function, with both immediate and long-term health consequences. Recent years have witnessed an accumulation of understanding of the process of the colonization and development of the gut microbiota in infants. The natural gut microbiota colonization during birth is frequently disrupted due to C-section birth or intrapartum or postpartum antibiotic exposure, and consequently aberrant gut microbiota development is common. On a positive note, research has shown that restoration of normal gut microbiota development is feasible. We discuss here the current understanding of the infant microbiota, provide an overview of the sources of disturbances, and critically evaluate the evidence on early life gut microbiota restoration for improved health outcomes by analyzing published data from infant gut microbiota restoration studies.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Antibacterianos , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez
7.
Environ Microbiol ; 2022 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36161453

RESUMO

Bifidobacterium asteroides is considered the ancestor of the genus Bifidobacterium, which has evolved in close touch with the hindgut of social insects. However, recent studies revealed high intraspecies biodiversity within this taxon, uncovering the putative existence of multiple bifidobacterial species, thus suggesting its reclassification. Here, a genomic investigation of 98 B. asteroides-related genomes retrieved from public repositories and reconstructed from metagenomes of the hindgut of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana was performed to shed light on the genetic variability of this taxon. Phylogenetic and genomic analyses revealed the existence of eight clusters, of which five have been recently characterized with a representative type strain of the genus and three were represented by putative novel bifidobacterial species inhabiting the honeybee gut. Then, the dissection of 366 shotgun metagenomes of honeybee guts revealed a pattern of seven B. asteroides-related taxa within A. mellifera that co-exist with the host, while A. cerana microbiome was characterized by the predominance of one of the novel species erroneously classified as B. asteroides. A further glycobiome analysis unveiled a conserved repertoire of glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) reflecting degradative abilities towards a broad range of simple carbohydrates together with genes encoding specific GHs of each B. asteroides-related taxa. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; : e0108722, 2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36165644

RESUMO

Synbiotics combine probiotics and prebiotics and are being investigated for potential health benefits. In this single-group-design trial, we analyzed changes in the gut microbiome, stool quality, and gastrointestinal well-being in 15 healthy volunteers after a synbiotic intervention comprising Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus (LGG), Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5), Lacticaseibacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (L. CASEI 431), and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and 20 g of chicory-derived inulin powder consumed daily for 4 weeks. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and at completion of the intervention, and all participants completed a fecal diary based on the Bristol Stool Scale and recorded their gastrointestinal well-being. No adverse effects were observed after consumption of the synbiotic product, and stool consistency and frequency remained almost unchanged during the trial. Microbiome analysis of the fecal samples was achieved using shotgun sequencing followed by taxonomic profiling. No changes in alpha and beta diversity were seen after the intervention. Greater relative abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae were observed in 12 subjects, with indigenous bifidobacteria species constituting the main increase. All four probiotic organisms increased in abundance, and L. rhamnosus, B. animalis, and L. acidophilus were differentially abundant, compared to baseline. Comparison of the fecal strains to the B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 reference genome and the sequenced symbiotic product revealed only a few single-nucleotide polymorphisms differentiating the probiotic B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 from the fecal strains identified, indicating that this probiotic strain was detectable after the intervention. IMPORTANCE The effects of probiotics/synbiotics are seldom investigated in healthy volunteers; therefore, this study is important, especially considering the safety aspects of multiple probiotics together with prebiotic fiber in consumption by humans. The study explores at the potential of a synbiotic intervention with lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and inulin in healthy volunteers and tracks the ingested probiotic strain B. animalis subsp. lactis.

9.
Metabolites ; 12(8)2022 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36005634

RESUMO

Probiotics are live microorganisms distributed in the gastrointestinal tract that confer health benefits to the host when administered in adequate amounts. Bifidobacteria have been widely tested as a therapeutic strategy in the prevention and treatment of a broad spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders as well as in the regulation of the "microbiota-gut-brain axis". Metabolomic techniques can provide details in the study of molecular metabolic mechanisms involved in Bifidobacteria function through the analysis of metabolites that positively contribute to human health. This study was focused on the effects of the chronic assumption of a mixture of Bifidobacteria in adult male rats using a metabolomic approach. Plasma samples were collected at the end of treatment and analyzed with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) platform. Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed to compare the metabolic pattern in control and probiotic-treated rats. Our results show, in probiotic-treated animals, an increase in metabolites involved in the energetic cycle, such as glucose, erythrose, creatinine, taurine and glycolic acid, as well as 3-hydroxybutyric acid. This is an important metabolite of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) with multitasking roles in energy circuit balance, and it has also been proposed to have a key role in the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

10.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2110821, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35960855

RESUMO

There is now strong evidence to support the interest in using lactic acid bacteria (LAB)in particular, strains of lactococci and lactobacilli, as well as bifidobacteria, for the development of new live vectors for human and animal health purposes. LAB are Gram-positive bacteria that have been used for millennia in the production of fermented foods. In addition, numerous studies have shown that genetically modified LAB and bifodobacteria can induce a systemic and mucosal immune response against certain antigens when administered mucosally. They are therefore good candidates for the development of new mucosal delivery strategies and are attractive alternatives to vaccines based on attenuated pathogenic bacteria whose use presents health risks. This article reviews the most recent research and advances in the use of LAB and bifidobacteria as live delivery vectors for human and animal health.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillales , Vacinas , Animais , Bifidobacterium/genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Lactobacillales/genética
11.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 98(10)2022 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007932

RESUMO

The human gut microbiota protects the host from invading pathogens and the overgrowth of indigenous opportunistic species via a process called colonization resistance. Here, we investigated the antagonistic activity of human gut bacteria towards Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen that can cause severe infections in susceptible individuals. Coculture batch incubations of C. albicans in the presence of faecal microbiota from six healthy individuals revealed varying levels of inhibitory activity against C. albicans. 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling of these faecal coculture bacterial communities showed that the Bifidobacteriaceae family, and Bifidobacterium adolescentis in particular, were most correlated with antagonistic activity against C. albicans. Follow-up mechanistic studies performed under anaerobic conditions confirmed that culture supernatants of Bifidobacterium species, particularly B. adolescentis, inhibited C. albicans in vitro. Fermentation acids (FA), including acetate and lactate, present in the bifidobacterial supernatants were important contributors to inhibitory activity. However, increasing the pH of both bacterial supernatants and mixtures of FA reduced their anti-Candida effects, indicating a combinatorial effect of prevailing pH and FA. This work, therefore, demonstrates potential mechanisms underpinning gut microbiome-mediated colonization resistance against C. albicans, and identifies particularly inhibitory components such as bifidobacteria and FA as targets for further study.


Assuntos
Candida albicans , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bactérias , Bifidobacterium , Humanos , Lactatos/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
12.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 86(10): 1467-1475, 2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35904311

RESUMO

This study investigated different gut bacteria in an anaerobic environment to identify specific candidates that could transform astragaloside IV (AIV) to cycloastragenol (CA). Two representative gut microbes, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria, could metabolize AIV to CA. Multiple screenings showed two metabolic pathways to metabolize AIV in two groups of bacteria. LAB metabolized AIV initiated by removing the C-6 glucose, whereas bifidobacteria indicated the initial removal of C-3 xylose. The final products differed between the two groups as bifidobacteria showed the production of CA, whereas LAB demonstrated preferential production of 20R, 24S-epoxy-6α, -16ß, -25-trihydroxy-9, -19-cycloartan-3-one (CA-2H).


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium , Lactobacillales , Bactérias/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Sapogeninas , Saponinas , Triterpenos , Xilose/metabolismo
13.
Front Nutr ; 9: 908534, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35782954

RESUMO

Dietary fiber, a nutrient derived mainly from whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and legumes, is known to confer a number of health benefits, yet most Americans consume less than half of the daily recommended amount. Convenience and affordability are key factors determining the ability of individuals to incorporate fiber-rich foods into their diet, and many Americans struggle to access, afford, and prepare foods rich in fiber. The objective of this clinical study was to test the changes in microbial community composition, human metabolomics, and general health markers of a convenient, easy to use prebiotic supplement in generally healthy young participants consuming a diet low in fiber. Twenty healthy adults participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study which was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03785860. During the study participants consumed 12 g of a prebiotic fiber supplement and 12 g of placebo daily as a powder mixed with water as part of their habitual diet in randomized order for 4 weeks, with a 4-week washout between treatment arms. Fecal microbial DNA was extracted and sequenced by shallow shotgun sequencing on an Illumina NovaSeq. Plasma metabolites were detected using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with untargeted analysis. The phylum Actinobacteria, genus Bifidobacterium, and several Bifidobacterium species (B. bifidum, B. adolescentis, B. breve, B. catenulatum, and B. longum) significantly increased after prebiotic supplementation when compared to the placebo. The abundance of genes associated with the utilization of the prebiotic fiber ingredients (sacA, xfp, xpk) and the production of acetate (poxB, ackA) significantly changed with prebiotic supplementation. Additionally, the abundance of genes associated with the prebiotic utilization (xfp, xpk), acetate production (ackA), and choline to betaine oxidation (gbsB) were significantly correlated with changes in the abundance of the genus Bifidobacterium in the prebiotic group. Plasma concentrations of the bacterially produced metabolite indolepropionate significantly increased. The results of this study demonstrate that an easy to consume, low dose (12 g) of a prebiotic powder taken daily increases the abundance of beneficial bifidobacteria and the production of health-promoting bacteria-derived metabolites in healthy individuals with a habitual low-fiber diet. Clinical Trial Registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov/, identifier: NCT03785860.

14.
Microorganisms ; 10(7)2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35888998

RESUMO

This study focuses on the isolation of lactobacilli/bifidobacteria from human breast milk and their first characterization, in the perspective to find new probiotic candidates to be included in food products. More specifically, breast-milk-isolated strains demonstrated a very good aptitude to adhere to intestinal cells, in comparison with L. rhamnosus GG strain, taken as reference. The same behavior has been found for hydrophobicity/auto-aggregation properties. A remarkable antagonistic activity was detected for these isolates not only against spoilage and pathogenic species of food interest, but also against the principal etiological agents of intestinal infections. Indeed, isolated strains impaired spoilage and pathogenic species growth, as well as biofilm formation by gut pathogens. In addition, breast milk strains were characterized for their antibiotic susceptibility, displaying species-specific and strain-specific susceptibility patterns. Finally, to assess their technological potential, the fermentation kinetics and viability of breast milk strains in pasteurized milk were investigated, also including the study of the volatile molecule profiles. In this regard, all the strains pointed out the release of aroma compounds frequently associated with the sensory quality of several dairy products such as acetic acid, diacetyl, acetoin, acetaldehyde. Data here reported point up the high potential of breast-milk-isolated strains as probiotics.

15.
Front Nutr ; 9: 920362, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35873420

RESUMO

Background: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important biological functions for a healthy development in early life. Objective: This study aimed to investigate gut maturation effects of an infant formula containing five HMOs (2'-fucosyllactose, 2',3-di-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-tetraose, 3'-sialyllactose, and 6'-sialyllactose). Methods: In a multicenter study, healthy infants (7-21 days old) were randomly assigned to a standard cow's milk-based infant formula (control group, CG); the same formula with 1.5 g/L HMOs (test group 1, TG1); or with 2.5 g/L HMOs (test group 2, TG2). A human milk-fed group (HMG) was enrolled as a reference. Fecal samples collected at baseline (n∼150/formula group; HMG n = 60), age 3 (n∼140/formula group; HMG n = 65) and 6 (n∼115/formula group; HMG n = 60) months were analyzed for microbiome (shotgun metagenomics), metabolism, and biomarkers. Results: At both post-baseline visits, weighted UniFrac analysis indicated different microbiota compositions in the two test groups (TGs) compared to CG (P < 0.01) with coordinates closer to that of HMG. The relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) was higher in TGs vs. CG (P < 0.05; except at 6 months: TG2 vs. CG P = 0.083). Bifidobacterium abundance was higher by ∼45% in TGs vs. CG at 6-month approaching HMG. At both post-baseline visits, toxigenic Clostridioides difficile abundance was 75-85% lower in TGs vs. CG (P < 0.05) and comparable with HMG. Fecal pH was significantly lower in TGs vs. CG, and the overall organic acid profile was different in TGs vs. CG, approaching HMG. At 3 months, TGs (vs. CG) had higher secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and lower alpha-1-antitrypsin (P < 0.05). At 6 months, sIgA in TG2 vs. CG remained higher (P < 0.05), and calprotectin was lower in TG1 (P < 0.05) vs. CG. Conclusion: Infant formula with a specific blend of five HMOs supports the development of the intestinal immune system and gut barrier function and shifts the gut microbiome closer to that of breastfed infants with higher bifidobacteria, particularly B. infantis, and lower toxigenic Clostridioides difficile. Clinical Trial Registration: [https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/], identifier [NCT03722550].

16.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684099

RESUMO

This open-label, non-randomized, multicenter trial (Registration: NCT03661736) aimed to assess if an amino acid-based formula (AAF) supplemented with two human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) supports normal growth and is well tolerated in infants with a cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). Term infants aged 1-8 months with moderate-to-severe CMPA were enrolled. The study formula was an AAF supplemented with 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT). Infants were fed the study formula for 4 months and were offered to remain on the formula until 12 months of age. Tolerance and safety were assessed throughout the trial. Out of 32 infants (mean age 18.6 weeks; 20 (62.5%) male), 29 completed the trial. During the 4-month principal study period, the mean weight-for-age Z score (WAZ) increased from -0.31 at the baseline to +0.28 at the 4-months' follow-up. Linear and head growth also progressed along the WHO child growth reference, with a similar small upward trend. The formula was well tolerated and had an excellent safety profile. When comparing the microbiome at the baseline to the subsequent visits, there was a significant on-treatment enrichment in HMO-utilizing bifidobacteria, which was associated with a significant increase in fecal short-chain fatty acids. In addition, we observed a significant reduction in the abundance of fecal Proteobacteria, suggesting that the HMO-supplemented study formula partially corrected the gut microbial dysbiosis in infants with CMPA.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipersensibilidade a Leite , Aminoácidos , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Masculino , Leite Humano , Oligossacarídeos
17.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 88(2): 563-575, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and intestinal flora is still a major scientific topic that continues to advance. OBJECTIVE: To determine characterized changes in the intestinal microbe community of patients with mild AD. METHODS: Comparison of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) high-throughput sequencing data was obtained from the Illumina MiSeq platform of fecal microorganisms of the patients and healthy controls (HC) which were selected from cohabiting caregivers of AD patients to exclude environmental and dietary factors. RESULTS: We found that the abundance of several bacteria taxa in AD patients was different from that in HC at the genus level, such as Anaerostipes, Mitsuokella, Prevotella, Bosea, Fusobacterium, Anaerotruncus, Clostridium, and Coprobacillus. Interestingly, the abundance of Akkermansia, an emerging probiotic, increased significantly in the AD group compared with that in the HC group. Meanwhile, the quantity of traditional probiotic Bifidobacteria of the AD group also rose. CONCLUSION: These alterations in fecal microbiome of the AD group indicate that patients with mild AD have unique gut microbial characteristics. These specific AD-associated intestinal microbes could serve as novel potential targets for early intervention of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doença de Alzheimer/microbiologia , China , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
18.
Front Nutr ; 9: 922907, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35757260

RESUMO

The origin of lactation and the composition, structures and functions of milk's biopolymers highlight the Darwinian pressure on lactation as a complete, nourishing and protective diet. Lactation, under the driving pressure to be a sustainable bioreactor, was under selection pressure of its biopolymers with diverse functions acting from the mammary gland through the digestive system of the infant. For example, milk is extensively glycosylated and the glycan structures and their functions are now emerging. Milk contains free oligosaccharides; complex polymers of sugars whose stereospecific linkages are not matched by glycosidic enzymes within the mammalian infant gut. These glycan polymers reach the lower intestine undigested. In this microbe-rich environment, bacteria compete to release and ferment the sugars via different hydrolytic strategies. One specific type of bacteria, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, (B. infantis) is uniquely equipped with a repertoire of genes encoding enzymes capable of taking up, hydrolyzing and metabolizing the complex glycans of human milk. This combination of a distinct food supply and unique genetic capability shapes the composition and metabolic products of the entire microbial community within the lower intestine of breast fed infants. The intestinal microbiome dominated by B. infantis, shields the infant from the growth of gram negative enteropathogens and their endotoxins as a clear health benefit. The world is facing unprecedented challenges to produce a food supply that is both nourishing, safe and sustainable. Scientists need to guide the future of agriculture and food in response to these 21st century challenges. Lactation provides an inspiring model of what that future research strategy could be.

19.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35683992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that the addition of resistant maltodextrin (RMD), a fermentable functional fiber, to the diet increases fecal weight as well as the amount of fecal bifidobacteria. Here, we report on the targeted analysis of changes in potentially beneficial gut bacteria associated with the intervention. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding 0, 15 and 25 g RMD to the diets of healthy free-living adults on potentially beneficial gut bacteria. METHODS: We expanded on our previously reported microbiota analysis in a double-blind, placebo-controlled feeding study (NCT02733263) by performing additional qPCR analyses targeting fecal lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Akkermansia muciniphila, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans in samples from 49 participants. RESULTS: RMD resulted in an approximately two-fold increase in fecal Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans (p = 0.024 for 15 g/day RMD and p = 0.017 for 25 g/day RMD). For Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, we obtained borderline evidence that showed increased amounts in participants that had low baseline levels of these bacteria (p < 0.1 for 25 g/day RMD). We did not detect any effects of RMD on LAB. CONCLUSIONS: RMD supplementation in healthy individuals increases Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans. Albeit to a lesser extent, RMD at the higher intake level may also increase Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in individuals with low baseline levels of those two species. Potential benefits associated with these microbiota changes remain to be established in studies with quantifiable health-related endpoints.


Assuntos
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii , Polissacarídeos , Adulto , Akkermansia , Clostridiales , Método Duplo-Cego , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Verrucomicrobia
20.
Food Chem ; 393: 133407, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696956

RESUMO

Bifidobacteria are considered as probiotics due to their role in promoting intestinal health, including regulating intestinal flora, controlling glycolipid metabolism, anti-colitis effects. Dietary fiber is considered as prebiotic favoring gut health. It also can be used as carbon source to support the growth and colonization of probiotics like bifidobacteria. However, because of genetic diversity, different bifidobacterial species differ in their ability to utilize dietary fiber. Meanwhile, dietary fiber with different structural properties has different effects on the bifidobacteria proliferation. The interaction between dietary fiber and bifidobacteria will consequently lead to a synergistic or antagonistic function in promoting intestinal health, therefore affecting the application of combined use of dietary fiber and bifidobacteria. In this case, we summarize the biological function of bifidobacteria, and their interaction with different dietary fiber in promoting gut health, and finally provide several strategies about their combined use.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Bifidobacterium , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Prebióticos
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