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1.
J Toxicol Pathol ; 37(2): 83-91, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584968

RESUMO

In neurosurgical interventions, effective closure of the dura mater is essential to prevent cerebrospinal fluid leakage and minimize post-operative complications. Biodegradable synthetic materials have the potential to be used as dura mater grafts owing to their regenerative properties and low immunogenicity. This study evaluated the safety of ArtiFascia, a synthetic dura mater graft composed of poly(l-lactic-co-caprolactone acid) and poly(d-lactic-co-caprolactone acid), in a rabbit durotomy model. Previously, ArtiFascia demonstrated positive local tolerance and biodegradability in a 12-month preclinical trial. Here, specialized stains were used to evaluate potential brain damage associated with ArtiFascia use. Histochemical and immunohistochemical assessments included Luxol Fast Blue, cresyl Violet, Masson's Trichrome, neuronal nuclei,, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 stains. The stained slides were graded based on the brain-specific reactions. The results showed no damage to the underlying brain tissue for either the ArtiFascia or control implants. Neither inflammation nor neuronal loss was evident, corroborating the safety of the ArtiFascia. This approach, combined with previous histopathological analyses, strengthens the safety profile of ArtiFascia and sets a benchmark for biodegradable material assessment in dura graft applications. This study aligns with the Food and Drug Administration guidelines and offers a comprehensive evaluation of the potential neural tissue effects of synthetic dura mater grafts.

2.
Chemosphere ; : 141921, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588902

RESUMO

2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorodiphenyl (PCB 118), a highly representative PCB congener, has been frequently detected in various environments, garnering much attention across the scientific community. The degradation of highly chlorinated PCBs by aerobic microorganisms is challenging due to their hydrophobicity and persistence. Herein, the biodegradation and adaptation mechanisms of Methylorubrum sp. ZY-1 to PCB 118 were comprehensively investigated using an integrative approach that combined degradation performance, product identification, metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses. The results indicated that the highest degradation efficiency of 0.5 mg L-1 PCB 118 reached 75.66% after seven days of inoculation when the bacteria dosage was 1.0 g L-1 at pH 7.0. A total of eleven products were identified during the degradation process, including low chlorinated PCBs, hydroxylated PCBs, and ring-opening products, suggesting that strain ZY-1 degraded PCB 118 through dechlorination, hydroxylation, and ring-opening pathways. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that the energy supply and redox metabolism of strain ZY-1 was disturbed with exposure to PCB 118. To counteract this environmental stress, strain ZY-1 adjusted both the fatty acid synthesis and purine metabolism. The analysis of transcriptomics disclosed that multiple intracellular and extracellular oxidoreductases (e.g., monooxygenase, alpha/beta hydrolase and cytochrome P450) participated in the degradation of PCB 118. Besides, active efflux of PCB 118 and its degradation intermediates mediated by multiple transporters (e.g., MFS transporter and ABC transporter ATP-binding protein) might enhance bacterial resistance against these substances. These discoveries provided the inaugural insights into the biotransformation of strain ZY-1 to PCB 118 stress, illustrating its potential in the remediation of contaminated environments.

3.
Bioresour Technol ; 400: 130673, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583676

RESUMO

The ubiquitous use of volatile siloxanes in a myriad of product formulations has led to a widespread distribution of these persistent contaminants in both natural ecosystems and wastewater treatment plants. Microbial degradation under microaerobic conditions is a promising approach to mitigate D4 and D5 siloxanes while recovering energy in wastewater treatment plants. This study examined D4/D5 siloxanes biodegradation under both anaerobic and microaerobic conditions ( [Formula: see text]  = 0, 1, 3 %) using wastewater sludge. Results show that the use of microaeration in an otherwise strictly anaerobic environment significantly enhances siloxane conversion to methane. 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified potential degraders, including Clostridium lituseburense, Clostridium bifermentans and Synergistales species. Furthermore, chemical analysis suggested a stepwise siloxane conversion preceding methanogenesis under microaerobic conditions. This study demonstrates the feasibility of microaerobic siloxane biodegradation, laying groundwork for scalable removal technologies in wastewater treatment plants, ultimately highlighting the importance of using bio-based approaches in tackling persistent pollutants.

4.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(5): 171, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592558

RESUMO

Cyantraniliprole (CY), an anthranilic diamide insecticide widely used in grape farming for controlling various sucking pests, poses ecological concerns, particularly when applied as soil drenching due to the formation of more toxic and persistent metabolites. This study established the dissipation and degradation mechanisms of CY in grape rhizosphere soil using high-resolution Orbitrap-LC/MS analysis. The persistence of CY residues beyond 60 days was observed, with dissipation following biphasic first + first-order kinetics and a half-life of 15 to 21 days. The degradation mechanism of CY in the soil was elucidated, with identified metabolites such as IN-J9Z38, IN-JCZ38, IN-N7B69, and IN-QKV54. Notably, CY was found to predominantly convert to the highly persistent metabolite IN-J9Z38, raising environmental concerns. The impact of CY residues on soil enzyme activity was investigated, revealing a negative effect on dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and acid phosphatase activity, indicating significant implications for phosphorous mineralization and soil health. Furthermore, bacterial isolates were obtained from CY-enriched soil, with five isolates (CY3, CY4, CY9, CY11, and CY20) demonstrating substantial degradation potential, ranging from 66 to 92% of CY residues. These results indicate that the identified bacteria hold potential for commercial use in addressing pesticide residue contamination in soil through bioremediation techniques.


Assuntos
Pirazóis , Solo , ortoaminobenzoatos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Bactérias/genética
5.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(5): 159, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592645

RESUMO

In recent years, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has emerged as an essential component of the routine tasks that people engage in on a daily basis. However, over use of it resulted in environmental buildup that contaminated aquatic habitats and human health. Biodegradation is the most effective way for controlling pollution caused by synthetic plastic waste in a sustainable manner. In the present study, the LDPE degrading bacterial strain was screened from gut of Earthworms collected from plastic waste dumped area Mettur dam, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India. The LDPE degrading bacterial strain was screened and identified genotypically. The LDPE degrading Bacillus gaemokensis strain SSR01 was submitted in NCBI. The B. gaemokensis strain SSR01 bacterial isolate degraded LDPE film after 14 days of incubation and demonstrated maximum weight loss of up to 4.98%. The study of deteriorated film using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared revealed the presence of a degraded product. The degradation of LDPE film by B. gaemokensis strain SSR01 was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy analysis for surface alterations. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy test confirmed that the broken-down LDPE film had basic carbon reduction. The present study of LDPE flim biodegradation by B. gaemokensis strain SSR01 has acted as a suitable candidate and will help in decreasing plastic waste.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Oligoquetos , Humanos , Animais , Polietileno , Índia , Biodegradação Ambiental
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 470: 134217, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583197

RESUMO

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a common brominated flame retardant and a notorious pollutant in anaerobic environments, resists aerobic degradation but can undergo reductive dehalogenation to produce bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor. Conversely, BPA is resistant to anaerobic biodegradation but susceptible to aerobic degradation. Microbial degradation of TBBPA via anoxic/oxic processes is scarcely documented. We established an anaerobic microcosm for TBBPA dehalogenation to BPA facilitated by humin. Dehalobacter species increased with a growth yield of 1.5 × 108 cells per µmol Br- released, suggesting their role in TBBPA dehalogenation. We innovatively achieved complete and sustainable biodegradation of TBBPA in sand/soil columns columns, synergizing TBBPA reductive dehalogenation by anaerobic functional microbiota and BPA aerobic oxidation by Sphingomonas sp. strain TTNP3. Over 42 days, 95.11 % of the injected TBBPA in three batches was debrominated to BPA. Following injection of strain TTNP3 cells, 85.57 % of BPA was aerobically degraded. Aerobic BPA degradation column experiments also indicated that aeration and cell colonization significantly increased degradation rates. This treatment strategy provides valuable technical insights for complete TBBPA biodegradation and analogous contaminants.

7.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120824, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583379

RESUMO

Extending the solids retention time (SRT) has been demonstrated to mitigate membrane biofouling. Nevertheless, it remains an intriguing question whether the compact and water flushing resistant mesh biofilms developed at short SRT can undergo biodegradation and be removed with extended SRT. In present study, the bio-fouled mesh filter in the 10d-SRT dynamic membrane bioreactor (DMBR), with mesh surfaces and pores covered by compact and water flushing resistant biofilms exhibiting low water permeability, was reused in the 40d-SRT DMBR without any cleanings. After being reused at 40d-SRT, its flux driven by gravity occurred from the 10th day and recovered to a regular level of 36.7 L m-2·h-1 on the 27th day. Both scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analyses indicated that the compact mesh biofilms formed at10d-SRT biodegraded and were removed at 40d-SRT, with the residual biofilms becoming removable by water flushing. As a result, the hydraulic resistance of the bio-fouled mesh filter decreased from 4.36 × 108 to 6.97 × 107 m-1, and its flux fully recovered. The protein and polysaccharides densities in mesh-biofilms decreased from 24.4 to 9.7 mg/cm2 and from 10.7 to 0.10 mg/cm2, respectively, which probably have contributed to the disappearance of compact biofilms and the decrease in adhesion. Furthermore, the sludge and mesh-biofilms in the 40d-SRT reactor contained a higher relative abundance of dominant quorum quenching bacteria, such as Rhizobium (3.52% and 1.35%), compared to those in the 10d-SRT sludge (0.096%) and mesh biofilms (0.79%), which might have been linked to a decline in extracellular polymeric substances and, consequently, the biodegradation and disappearance of compact biofilms.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 927: 172175, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575018

RESUMO

The use of plastic mulch films in agriculture leads to the inevitable accumulation of plastic debris in soils. Here, we explored the potential of earthworm gut-inhabiting bacterial strains (Mycobacterium vanbaalenii (MV), Rhodococcus jostii (RJ), Streptomyces fulvissimus (SF), Bacillus simplex (BS), and Sporosarcina globispora (SG) to degrade plastic films (⌀ = 15 mm) made from commonly used polymers: low-density polyethylene film (LDPE-f), polylactic acid (PLA-f), polybutylene adipate terephthalate film (PBAT-f), and a commercial biodegradable mulch film, Bionov-B® (composed of Mater-Bi, a feedstock with PBAT, PLA and other chemical compounds). A 180-day experiment was conducted at room temperature (x̄ =19.4 °C) for different strain-plastic combinations under a low carbon media (0.1× tryptic soy broth). Results showed that the tested strain-plastic combinations did not facilitate the degradation of LDPE-f (treated with RJ and SF), PBAT-f (treated with BS and SG), and Bionov-B (treated with BS, MV, and SG). However, incubating PLA-f with SF triggered a reduction in the molecular weights and an increase in crystallinity. Therefore, we used PLA-f as model plastic to study the influence of temperature ("room temperature" & "30 °C"), carbon source ("carbon-free" & "low carbon supply"), and strain interactions ("single strains" & "strain mixtures") on PLA degradation. SF and SF + RJ treatments significantly fostered PLA degradation under 30 °C in a low-carbon media. PLA-f did not show any degradation in carbon-free media treatments. The competition between different strains in the same system likely hindered the performance of PLA-degrading strains. A positive correlation between the final pH of culture media and PLA-f weight loss was observed, which might reflect the pH-dependent hydrolysis mechanism of PLA. Our results situate SF and its co-culture with RJ strains as possible accelerators of PLA degradation in temperatures below PLA glass transition temperature (Tg). Further studies are needed to test the bioremediation feasibility in soils.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 927: 172099, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580115

RESUMO

Until now, bacteria able to degrade, 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN), a neurotoxin that destroys vestibular hair cells, causing ototoxicity, culminating in irreversible movement disorders, had never been isolated. The aim of this study was to isolate a novel IDPN-biodegrading microorganism and characterize its metabolic pathway. Enrichment was performed by inoculating activated sludge from a wastewater treatment bioreactor that treated IDPN-contaminated wastewater in M9 salt medium, with IDPN as the sole carbon source. A bacterial strain with a spherical morphology that could grow at high concentrations was isolated on a solid medium. Growth of the isolated strain followed the Monod kinetic model. Based on the 16S rRNA gene, the isolate was Paracoccus communis. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that the isolated P. communis possessed the expected full metabolic pathway for IDPN biodegradation. Transcriptome analyses confirmed the overexpression of the gene encoding hydantoinase/oxoprolinase during the exponential growth phase under IDPN-fed conditions, suggesting that the enzyme involved in cleaving the imine bond of IDPN may promote IDPN biodegradation. Additionally, the newly discovered P. communis isolate seems to metabolize IDPN through cleavage of the imine bond in IDPN via nitrilase, nitrile hydratase, and amidase reactions. Overall, this study lays the foundation for the application of IDPN-metabolizing bacteria in the remediation of IDPN-contaminated environments.

10.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 154: 106498, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581962

RESUMO

Chitosan (CS) and phloroglucinol (PhG), two extracts abundantly found in marine life, were investigated for their ability to biomodify demineralized dentin by enhancing collagen crosslinks and improving dentin extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanical and biochemical stability. Dentin obtained from non-carious extracted human molars were demineralized with phosphoric acid. Baseline Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, apparent flexural elastic modulus (AE) and dry mass (DM) of each specimen were independently acquired. Specimens were randomly incubated for 5 min into either ultrapure water (no-treatment), 1% glutaraldehyde (GA), 1% CS or 1% PhG. Water and GA were used, respectively, as a negative and positive control for collagen crosslinks. Specimens' post-treatment FTIR spectra, AE, and DM were obtained and compared with correspondent baseline measurements. Additionally, the host-derived proteolytic activity of dentin ECM was assessed using hydroxyproline assay (HYP) and spectrofluorometric analysis of a fluorescent-quenched substrate specific for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Finally, the bond strength of an etch-and-rinse adhesive was evaluated after application of marine compounds as non-rinsing dentin primers. Dentin specimens FTIR spectral profile changed remarkably, and their AE increased significantly after treatment with marine compounds. DM variation, HYP assay and fluorogenic substrate analysis concurrently indicated the biodegradation of CS- and PhG-treated specimens was significantly lesser in comparison with untreated specimens. CS and PhG treatments enhanced biomechanical/biochemical stability of demineralized dentin. These novel results show that PhG is a primer with the capacity to biomodify demineralized dentin, hence rendering it less susceptible to biodegradation by host-proteases.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; : 172243, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582118

RESUMO

Globally, over 287 million tons of plastic are disposed in landfills, rivers, and oceans or are burned every year. The results are devastating to our ecosystems, wildlife and human health. One promising remedy is the yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larvae), which has proved capable of degrading microplastics (MPs). This paper presents a new investigation into the biodegradation of aged polyethylene (PE) film and polystyrene (PS) foam by the Tenebrio molitor larvae. After a 35 - day feeding period, both pristine and aged MPs can be consumed by larvae. Even with some inhibitions in larvae growth due to the limited nutrient supply of aged MPs, when compared with pristine MPs, the aged MPs were depolymerized more efficiently in gut microbiota based on gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. With the change in surface chemical properties, the metabolic intermediates of aged MPs contained more oxygen-containing functional groups and shortened long-chain alkane, which was confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). High-throughput sequencing revealed that the richness and diversity of gut microbes were restricted in the MPs-fed group. Although MPs had a negative effect on the relative abundance of the two dominant bacteria Enterococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae, the aged MPs may promote the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcaceae. Redundancy analysis (RDA) further verified that the aged MPs are effectively biodegraded by yellow mealworm. This work provides new insights into insect-mediated mechanisms of aged MP degradation and promising strategies for MP sustainable and efficient solutions.

12.
Environ Res ; : 118880, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582421

RESUMO

Persistent, aged hydrocarbons in soil hinder remediation, posing a significant environmental threat. While bioremediation offers an environmentally friendly and cost-effective approach, its efficacy for complex contaminants relies on enhancing pollutant bioavailability. This study explores the potential of immobilized bacterial consortia combined with biochar and rhamnolipids to accelerate bioremediation of aged total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-contaminated soil. Previous research indicates that biochar and biosurfactants can increase bioremediation rates, while mixed consortia offer sequential degradation and higher hydrocarbon mineralization. The present investigation aimed to assess whether combining these strategies could further enhance degradation in aged, complex soil matrices. The bioaugmentation (BA) with bacterial consortium increased the TPHs degradation in aged soil (over 20% compared to natural attenuation - NA). However, co-application of BA with biochar and rhamnolipid higher did not show a statistically prominent synergistic effect. While biochar application facilitated the maintenance of hydrocarbon degrading bacterial consortium in soil, the present study did not identify a direct influence in TPHs degradation. The biochar application in contaminated soil contributed to TPHs adsorption. Rhamnolipid alone slightly increased the TPHs biodegradation with NA, while the combined bioaugmentation treatment with rhamnolipid and biochar increased the degradation between 27.5-29.8%. These findings encourage further exploration of combining bioaugmentation with amendment, like biochar and rhamnolipid, for remediating diverse environmental matrices contaminated with complex and aged hydrocarbons.

13.
Biodegradation ; 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573500

RESUMO

Acetaldehyde (AL), a primary carcinogen, not only pollutes the environment, but also endangers human health after drinking alcohol. Here a promising bacterial strain was successfully isolated from a white wine cellar pool in the province of Shandong, China, and identified as Bacillus velezensis-YW01 with 16 S rDNA sequence. Using AL as sole carbon source, initial AL of 1 g/L could be completely biodegraded by YW01 within 84 h and the cell-free extracts of YW01 has also been detected to biodegrade the AL, which indicate that YW01 is a high-potential strain for the biodegradation of AL. The optimal culture conditions and the biodegradation of AL of YW01 are at pH 7.0 and 38 °C, respectively. To further analyze the biodegradation mechanism of AL, the whole genome of YW01 was sequenced. Genes ORF1040, ORF1814 and ORF0127 were revealed in KEGG, which encode for acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. Furthermore, ORF0881 and ORF052 encode for ethanol dehydrogenase. This work provides valuable information for exploring metabolic pathway of converting ethanol to AL and subsequently converting AL to carboxylic acid compounds, which opened up potential pathways for the development of microbial catalyst against AL.

14.
J Hazard Mater ; 470: 134076, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565014

RESUMO

Recently, the rampant administration of antibiotics and their synthetic organic constitutes have exacerbated adverse effects on ecosystems, affecting the health of animals, plants, and humans by promoting the emergence of extreme multidrug-resistant bacteria (XDR), antibiotic resistance bacterial variants (ARB), and genes (ARGs). The constraints, such as high costs, by-product formation, etc., associated with the physico-chemical treatment process limit their efficacy in achieving efficient wastewater remediation. Biodegradation is a cost-effective, energy-saving, sustainable alternative for removing emerging organic pollutants from environmental matrices. In view of the same, the current study aims to explore the biodegradation of ciprofloxacin using microbial consortia via metabolic pathways. The optimal parameters for biodegradation were assessed by employing machine learning tools, viz. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and statistical optimization tool (Response Surface Methodology, RSM) using the Box-Behnken design (BBD). Under optimal culture conditions, the designed bacterial consortia degraded ciprofloxacin with 95.5% efficiency, aligning with model prediction results, i.e., 95.20% (RSM) and 94.53% (ANN), respectively. Thus, befitting amendments to the biodegradation process can augment efficiency and lead to a greener solution for antibiotic degradation from aqueous media.

15.
J Hazard Mater ; 470: 134125, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565016

RESUMO

The study addressed the challenge of treating petroleum industry wastewater with high concentrations of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) ranging from 384 to 1654 mg/L, which poses a challenge for bacterial biodegradation and algal photodegradation. To overcome this, a collaborative approach using membrane bioreactors (MBRs) that combine algae and bacteria was employed. This synergistic method effectively mitigated the toxicity of 1,2-DCA and curbed MBR fouling. Two types of MBRs were tested: one (B-MBR) used bacterial cultures and the other (AB-MBR) incorporated a mix of algal and bacterial cultures. The AB-MBR significantly contributed to 1,2-DCA removal, with algae accounting for over 20% and bacteria for approximately 49.5% of the dechlorination process. 1,2-DCA metabolites, including 2-chloroethanol, 2-chloro-acetaldehyde, 2-chloroacetic acid, and acetic acid, were partially consumed as carbon sources by algae. Operational efficiency peaked at a 12-hour hydraulic retention time (HRT) in AB-MBR, enhancing enzyme activities crucial for 1,2-DCA degradation such as dehydrogenase (DH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). The microbial diversity in AB-MBR surpassed that in B-MBR, with a notable increase in Proteobacteria, Bacteroidota, Planctomycetota, and Verrucomicrobiota. Furthermore, AB-MBR showed a significant rise in the dominance of 1,2-DCA-degrading genus such as Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. Additionally, algal-degrading phyla (e.g., Nematoda, Rotifera, and Streptophyta) were more prevalent in AB-MBR, substantially reducing the issue of membrane fouling.

16.
Materials (Basel) ; 17(3)2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592008

RESUMO

Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) is a biobased and biodegradable polymer. This polymer is considered promising, but it is also rather expensive. The objective of this study was to compound PHBV with three different organic fillers considered waste: human hair waste (HHW), sawdust (SD) and chitin from shrimp shells. Thus, the cost of the biopolymer is reduced, and, at the same time, waste materials are valorised into something useful. The composites prepared were characterised by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile strength and scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Tests showed that chitin and HHW did not have a reinforcing effect on tensile strength while the SD increased the tensile strength at break to a certain degree. The biodegradation of the different composites was evaluated by a soil burial test for five months. The gravimetric test showed that neat PHBV was moderately degraded (about 5% weight loss) while reinforcing the polymer with organic waste clearly improved the biodegradation. The strongest biodegradation was achieved when the biopolymer was compounded with HHW (35% weight loss). The strong biodegradation of HHW was further demonstrated by characterisation by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Characterisation by SEM showed that the surfaces of the biodegraded samples were eroded.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597774

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was to use polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) 18-88 as a case study to evaluate the environmental fate, ecotoxicity, and overall safety profile of water-soluble, nonmodified PVOH polymers used in detergent films. An OECD 303A Wastewater Treatment Plant Simulation Study was conducted with dissolved organic carbon as the analytical endpoint to evaluate the removal of PVOH 18-88 during wastewater treatment. During the plateau phase, high levels of removal due to biodegradation were observed (average 97.4 ± 7.1, range: 88%-116%). The OECD 303A study quantitatively verified that surface water is the dominant receiving compartment for PVOH 18-88 post wastewater treatment. Acute algae, invertebrate, and fish embryo (fish embryo acute toxicity test [FET]) ecotoxicity studies quanitified the 50% lethal/effect concentration (L/EC50) for PVOH 18-88. Due to the potential for the chorion to impact PVOH 18-88 bioavailability, both chorionated and dechorionated FET tests were conducted. L/EC50 > 1000 mg/L for FET (chorionated and dechorionated), invertebrate, and algae were observed. The Sustainable Futures (US) and REACH (EU) frameworks were used to evaluate environmental risk. For the US assessment, the Exposure and Fate Assessment Screening Tool was used to predict the single day lowest flow over a 10-year period (1Q10) surface water concentration and the seven consecutive days of lowest flow over a 10-year period (7Q10) surface water concentration and compared with acute and chronic concentrations of concern. For the EU assessment, the European Union System for the Evaluation of Substances was used to predict local and regional exposure concentrations and compared to the predicted no effect concentration. For both regulatory assessments, the exposure concentrations were >2 orders of magnitude below the effect concentrations. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2024;00:1-13. © 2024 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

18.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557972

RESUMO

Fragrance encapsulates are widely used in consumer care applications such as fabric softeners or other liquid laundry products; they provide multiple benefits, from fragrance protection in the commercial product to a controlled release and improved sensorial experience for the consumers. Polymeric fragrance encapsulates are in the scope of the EU regulation restricting the use of intentionally added microplastic particles, and industry is actively working on innovation programs to find biodegradable alternatives. However, particular attention needs to be paid to claims that a fragrance encapsulation system is biodegradable, because biodegradation test results can vary considerably depending on how a test material is prepared, which can even lead to false-positive biodegradation test results, as shown in our study. We demonstrate the importance of the sample preparation phase of the process. We show how the biodegradation level can fluctuate from 0% to 91%, depending on how the test material is isolated from a given microcapsule slurry system, and we present a method that can be used to obtain trustworthy biodegradation results. Environ Toxicol Chem 2024;00:1-8. © 2024 Givaudan France SAS. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of SETAC.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558277

RESUMO

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) waste is a major environmental challenge. In this study, we found that a PVC-eating insect, Tenebrio molitor, could survive by consuming PVC as a dietary supplement. To understand the gut symbiotic community, metagenomic analysis was performed to reveal the biodiversity of a symbiotic community in the midgut of Tenebrio molitor. Among them, seven genera were enriched from the midgut of the insect under culture conditions with PVC as carbon source. A strain of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was isolated from the midgut symbiotic community of the plastic-eating Tenebrio molitor. To unravel the functional gene for the biodegradation enzyme, we sequenced the whole genome of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and found that orf00390, annotated as a hydrolase, was highly expressed in the PVC culture niche.

20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563431

RESUMO

The biodegradation of polypropylene (PP), a highly persistent nonhydrolyzable polymer, by Tenebrio molitor has been confirmed using commercial PP microplastics (MPs) (Mn 26.59 and Mw 187.12 kDa). This confirmation was based on the reduction of the PP mass, change in molecular weight (MW), and a positive Δδ13C in the residual PP. A MW-dependent biodegradation mechanism was investigated using five high-purity PP MPs, classified into low (0.83 and 6.20 kDa), medium (50.40 and 108.0 kDa), and high (575.0 kDa) MW categories to access the impact of MW on the depolymerization pattern and associated gene expression of gut bacteria and the larval host. The larvae can depolymerize/biodegrade PP polymers with high MW although the consumption rate and weight losses increased, and survival rates declined with increasing PP MW. This pattern is similar to observations with polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE), i.e., both Mn and Mw decreased after being fed low MW PP, while Mn and/or Mw increased after high MW PP was fed. The gut microbiota exhibited specific bacteria associations, such as Kluyvera sp. and Pediococcus sp. for high MW PP degradation, Acinetobacter sp. for medium MW PP, and Bacillus sp. alongside three other bacteria for low MW PP metabolism. In the host transcriptome, digestive enzymes and plastic degradation-related bacterial enzymes were up-regulated after feeding on PP depending on different MWs. The T. molitor host exhibited both defensive function and degradation capability during the biodegradation of plastics, with high MW PP showing a relatively negative impact on the larvae.

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