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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251438, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345560

RESUMO

Abstract The northwestern portion of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion is one of the most disturbed and fragmented areas in the Atlantic Forest, and little is known about the local avifauna. In this study, we have described the composition and diversity of the aquatic avifauna of this region and analyzed the patterns of similarity with respect to the seasonal as well as spatial distribution. We used the line transect sampling technique in six distinct humid areas (including lentic and lotic water bodies) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013. A total of 52 species of waterfowl were recorded. The species richness of the studied areas was surprisingly distinct; only seven waterfowl species, namely Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764), were common to these six studied areas. This indicated that the other bird species that were observed might be habitat selective. Moreover, the analysis of the composition of birds in the two seasons (dry and rainy) combined with their spatial distributions showed significant dissimilarities between the areas with lotic (river and constructed wetland) and lentic (lagoons) characteristics. Nevertheless, despite the small extent and low total richness of the entire study area, it was found to be home to 1/3 of all freshwater aquatic birds documented in the state of São Paulo, with the record of 5 migratory species and 11 new species added to the northwest of the state. The heterogeneity of local aquatic environments, habitat selection combined with seasonality, and the absence of other humid locations in the surroundings can explain the diversity and distribution of these birds in the water bodies of this uninvestigated Atlantic Forest ecoregion.


Resumo A porção noroeste da ecorregião Floresta Atlântica do Alto Paraná é uma das mais alteradas e fragmentadas da Mata Atlântica, da qual pouco se sabe sobre a avifauna local. Nosso objetivo foi descrever a diversidade e composição da avifauna aquática, bem como analisar os padrões de similaridade quanto a distribuição temporal e espacial destas aves nesta ecorregião. Utilizamos a transecção linear para amostragem em seis áreas úmidas (corpos d'água lênticos e lóticos), nos períodos de seca e chuva entre 2012 e 2013. Registramos 52 espécies de aves aquáticas e as riquezas das áreas mostraram-se distintas, pois apenas Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764) foram comuns às seis áreas, o que indica seleção de habitat. Quando analisada a composição das aves nos dois períodos aliada à distribuição espacial, encontramos dissimilaridades temporais acentuadas entre os ambientes com características lóticas (rio e aterro) e lênticas (lagoas). Isto mostra que, além das diferentes épocas sazonais, é necessário analisar separadamente os diferentes tipos de áreas úmidas. Por fim, apesar da extensão pequena e baixa riqueza total, a área amostrada abrigou 1/3 das aves aquáticas de água doce para o estado de São Paulo, cinco espécies migratórias e 11 novas espécies para o noroeste do estado. A heterogeneidade de ambientes aquáticos locais, forte seleção de habitat aliada à sazonalidade e ausência de outros locais úmidos em seu entorno, explicam a diversidade e distribuição destas aves estreitamente relacionadas aos corpos d'água desta desconhecida ecorregião da Mata Atlântica.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves , Biodiversidade , Estações do Ano , Brasil , Florestas , Ecossistema
2.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136796, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228722

RESUMO

Increased production and usage of organophosphate esters (OPEs) as flame retardants and plasticizers has trended towards larger and 'novel' (oligomeric) OPEs, although there is a dearth of understanding of the environmental fate, stability, toxicokinetics, biotransformation and bioaccumulation of novel OPEs in exposed biota. The present study characterized in vitro biotransformation of the novel OPE bisphenol-A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPADP) using Wistar-Han rat and herring gull liver based microsomal assays. Hypothesized target metabolites bisphenol-A (BPA) and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) and other metabolites were investigated by applying a lines of evidence approach. In silico modelling predicted both BPA and DPHP as rat metabolites of BPADP, these metabolites were quantified via UHPLC-QQQ-MS/MS. Additional non-target metabolites were determined by UHPLC-Q-Exactive-Orbitrap-HRMS/MS and identified by Compound Discoverer software. Mean BPADP depletion of 44 ± 10% was quantified with 3.9% and 2.6% conversion to BPA and DPHP, respectively, in the rat assay. BPADP metabolism was much slower when compared to the well-studied OPE, triphenyl phosphate (TPHP). BPADP depletion in gull liver assays was far slower relative to the rat. Additional non-target metabolites identified included two Phase I, O-dealkylation products, five Phase I oxidation products and one Phase II glutathione adduct, demonstrating agreement between lines of in vitro and in silico evidence. Lines of evidence suggest that BPADP is biologically persistent in exposed mammals or birds. These findings add to the understanding of BPADP stability and biotransformation, and perhaps of other novel OPEs, which are factors highly applicable to hazard assessments of exposure, persistence and bioaccumulation in biota.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Fosfatos , Ratos , Animais , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ratos Wistar , Organofosfatos/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Biotransformação , Aves/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Ésteres/análise , Mamíferos/metabolismo
3.
J Comp Neurol ; 531(1): 170-185, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215105

RESUMO

In the avian ascending auditory pathway, the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd; the auditory midbrain center) receives inputs from virtually all lower brainstem auditory nuclei and sends outputs bilaterally to the nucleus ovoidalis (Ov; the auditory thalamic nucleus). Axons from part of the MLd terminate in a particular domain of Ov, thereby suggesting a formation of segregated pathways point-to-point from lower brainstem nuclei via MLd to the thalamus. However, it has not yet been demonstrated whether any spatial clustering of thalamic neurons that receive inputs from specific domains of MLd exists. Ov neurons receive input from bilateral MLds; however, the degree of laterality has not been reported yet. In this study, we injected a recombinant avian adeno-associated virus, a transsynaptic anterograde vector into the MLd of the chick, and analyzed the distribution of labeled postsynaptic neurons on both sides of the Ov. We found that fluorescent protein-labeled neurons on both sides of the Ov were clustered in domains corresponding to subregions of the MLd. The laterality of projections was calculated as the ratio of neurons labeled by comparing ipsilateral to contralateral projections from the MLd, and it was 1.86 on average, thereby indicating a slight ipsilateral projection dominance. Bilateral inputs from different subdomains of the MLd converged on several single Ov neurons, thereby implying a possibility of a de novo binaural processing of the auditory information in the Ov.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Mesencéfalo , Animais , Mesencéfalo/metabolismo , Vias Auditivas/fisiologia , Tálamo , Neurônios
4.
J Travel Med ; 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A new strain of WNV lineage 1 (WNV - 1) emerged in the Veneto Region, northern Italy, in 2021, eight years after the last outbreak of WNV - 1 in Italy. The virus, which co-circulates with WNV-2, has become endemic in the Region, where, in 2022, most human cases of neuroinvasive disease (WNND) reported in Europe have occurred. METHODS: Comparative analysis of the epidemiology and clinical presentation of WNV-1 and WNV-2 infection in humans, as well as the temporal and geographic distribution of WNV-1 and WNV-2 among wild birds and Culex pipiens mosquitoes in Veneto, from May 16th to August 21st, 2022, to determine if the high number of WNND cases was associated with WNV-1. RESULTS: As of August 21st, 2022, 222 human cases of WNV infection were confirmed by molecular testing, including 103 with fever (WNF) and 119 with WNND. WNV lineage was determined in 201 (90.5%) cases, comprising 138 WNV-1 and 63 WNV-2 infections. During the same period, 35 blood donors tested positive, including 30 in whom WNV lineage was determined (13 WNV-1 and 17 WNV-2). Comparative analysis of the distribution of WNV-1 and WNV-2 infections among WNND cases, WNF cases and WNV-positive blood donors showed that patients with WNND were more likely to have WNV-1 infection than blood donors (odds ratio 3.44; 95% CI 95% 1.54 to 8.24; p = 0.0043). As observed in humans, in wild birds WNV-1 had higher infectious rate (IR) and showed a more rapid expansion than WNV-2. At variance, the distribution of the two lineages was more even in mosquitoes, but with a trend of rapid increase of WNV-1 IR over WNV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Comparative analysis of WNV-1 vs WNV-2 infection in humans, wild birds, and mosquitos showed a rapid expansion of WNV-1 and suggested that WNV-1 infected patients might have an increased risk to develop severe disease.

5.
J Wildl Dis ; 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332273

RESUMO

Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) populations have declined in much of the eastern US in recent decades. Research suggests that West Nile virus (WNV) contributed to these declines, based on decreasing population indices temporally correlated to WNV introduction into North America, high morbidity and mortality in experimentally infected Ruffed Grouse, and relatively low statewide seroprevalence concurrent with high WNV vector indices. We describe lesions and relevant diagnostic findings in six, free-ranging Ruffed Grouse that directly or indirectly died of natural WNV infection and compare results to experimentally infected Ruffed Grouse. All naturally infected grouse were found moribund or dead from August to December 2015-18 in the northeastern US; 4/6 grouse were subadults. Necropsy, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and/or ancillary tests contributed to the diagnosis of WNV-associated disease in all cases. The most common lesions in naturally infected grouse were myocardial inflammation, degeneration, and/or necrosis, consistent with lesions in experimentally infected grouse. Evidence of trauma in 6/6 naturally infected grouse suggests the possibility of WNV-associated morbidity as a predisposing factor. Diagnostic findings in 3/6 naturally infected grouse were consistent with experimentally infected grouse with severe disease 7-8 d postinoculation; the remaining naturally infected birds had similar findings to experimentally infected subclinical grouse. Our results further support the notion that WNV contributes to mortality of free-ranging Ruffed Grouse and may be used to improve surveillance strategies and population-level management approaches.

6.
J Helminthol ; 96: e80, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36321436

RESUMO

The annual migration of birds involves a very large number of inter-continental and intra-continental movements in which thousands of bird species participate. These migrations have been associated with the spread of pathogens worldwide, including bacteria, viruses and parasites. This study describes the case of a black stork (Ciconia nigra) that was ringed at the nest in Latvia and died five months later in the south-east of the Iberian Peninsula. Post-mortem examination revealed that the cause of death was electrocution. In addition, a massive infection by the trematode Chaunocephalus ferox (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) causing severe granulomatous lesions throughout the small intestine was detected. This is the first report of C. ferox infection in a black stork in the Iberian Peninsula, a trematode that, due to the severe lesions it causes, can affect the health of C. ferox-infected wild birds, particularly in severely infected long-distance migrants. The dispersal of platyhelminths associated with migratory birds is discussed. After the ringing at the nest, the black stork was sighted in Central Europe one month before its capture, and the trematodes found by necropsy were mostly mature adults. Consequently, we estimate that this juvenile animal acquired the infection during its migration in a European area other than the Iberian Peninsula, evidencing a long-distance parasite spread through its migratory host. Our study highlights that bird ringing can be used to understand the epidemiological implications that bird migratory behaviour may have on the dispersal of parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Echinostomatidae , Trematódeos , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Europa (Continente)
7.
Ecol Evol ; 12(11): e9495, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36381389

RESUMO

Many populations of long-distance migrant shorebirds are declining rapidly. Since the 1970s, the lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) has experienced a pronounced reduction in abundance of ~63%. The potential causes of the species' decline are complex and interrelated. Understanding the timing of migration, seasonal routes, and important stopover and non-breeding locations used by this species will aid in directing conservation planning to address potential threats. During 2018-2022, we tracked 118 adult lesser yellowlegs using GPS satellite tags deployed on birds from five breeding and two migratory stopover locations spanning the boreal forest of North America from Alaska to Eastern Canada. Our objectives were to identify migratory routes, quantify migratory connectivity, and describe key stopover and non-breeding locations. We also evaluated predictors of southbound migratory departure date and migration distance. Individuals tagged in Alaska and Central Canada followed similar southbound migratory routes, stopping to refuel in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America, whereas birds tagged in Eastern Canada completed multi-day transoceanic flights covering distances of >4000 km across the Atlantic between North and South America. Upon reaching their non-breeding locations, lesser yellowlegs populations overlapped, resulting in weak migratory connectivity. Sex and population origin were significantly associated with the timing of migratory departure from breeding locations, and body mass at the time of GPS-tag deployment was the best predictor of southbound migratory distance. Our findings suggest that lesser yellowlegs travel long distances and traverse numerous political boundaries each year, and breeding location likely has the greatest influence on migratory routes and therefore the threats birds experience during migration. Further, the species' dependence on wetlands in agricultural landscapes during migration and the non-breeding period may make them vulnerable to threats related to agricultural practices, such as pesticide exposure.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36381539

RESUMO

The Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea) is a nearctic-neotropical migratory songbird that breeds in forested swamps and riparian areas in the eastern-central United States and southern Ontario. It is the sole eastern North American wood-warbler that nests in cavities, the only species in the genus Protonotaria, and is one of the few hole-nesting hosts of the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), an obligate brood parasite. We present the whole genome sequence of this wood-warbler species. Illumina sequencing was performed on a genetic sample from a single female individual. The reads were assembled using a de novo method followed by a finishing step. The raw and assembled data is publicly available via Genbank: Sequence Read Archive (SRR19579445) and Assembly (JAOYNP000000000).

9.
J Adv Vet Anim Res ; 9(3): 405-411, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382049

RESUMO

Objective: This study assessed the bacteriological quality and prevalence of foodborne bacteria in raw broiler meat sold in Mymensingh City. Materials and Methods: Thigh and breast meat samples (n = 80) from broiler chickens were randomly collected from four live bird markets (LBM) in Mymensingh city for bacteriological analysis. To determine the bacteriological quality, a 10-fold serial dilution of the thigh and breast homogenate was made. Then, total viable count (TVC), total coliform count (TCC), Staphylococci, and Salmonella spp. counts were determined using plate count agar, MacConkey agar, Mannitol salt agar, and Salmonella-Shigella agar. Gram stain, biochemical testing, PCR assays, and cultural properties were used to identify the bacterial isolates. Results: The TVC in the broiler meat sample ranged between log10 8.30 ± 0.54 colony forming unit (CFU)/gm and log10 9.04 ± 0.26 CFU/gm. TCC was found between log10 5.53 ± 0.38 CFU/gm and log10 6.66 ± 0.80 CFU/gm. The mean Staphylococcal count was recorded between log10 4.64 ± 0.61 CFU/gm and log10 6.42 ± 0.53 CFU/gm, and the total Salmonella count ranged between log10 4.75 ± 0.08 CFU/gm and log10 5.69 ± 0.58 CFU/gm. The prevalence of Escherichia coli was the highest (43.2%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (36.8%) and Salmonella spp. (20%), respectively. Conclusions: Data from this study indicated that the TVC and TCC of raw broiler meat sold at LBM exceed the permissible limits and are contaminated with foodborne bacteria, which might cause public health hazards.

10.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(21)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36359124

RESUMO

Enabling the public to easily recognize water birds has a positive effect on wetland bird conservation. However, classifying water birds requires advanced ornithological knowledge, which makes it very difficult for the public to recognize water bird species in daily life. To break the knowledge barrier of water bird recognition for the public, we construct a water bird recognition system (Eyebirds) by using deep learning, which is implemented as a smartphone app. Eyebirds consists of three main modules: (1) a water bird image dataset; (2) an attention mechanism-based deep convolution neural network for water bird recognition (AM-CNN); (3) an app for smartphone users. The waterbird image dataset currently covers 48 families, 203 genera and 548 species of water birds worldwide, which is used to train our water bird recognition model. The AM-CNN model employs attention mechanism to enhance the shallow features of bird images for boosting image classification performance. Experimental results on the North American bird dataset (CUB200-2011) show that the AM-CNN model achieves an average classification accuracy of 85%. On our self-built water bird image dataset, the AM-CNN model also works well with classification accuracies of 94.0%, 93.6% and 86.4% at three levels: family, genus and species, respectively. The user-side app is a WeChat applet deployed in smartphones. With the app, users can easily recognize water birds in expeditions, camping, sightseeing, or even daily life. In summary, our system can bring not only fun, but also water bird knowledge to the public, thus inspiring their interests and further promoting their participation in bird ecological conservation.

11.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(21)2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36359147

RESUMO

Semen volume is an important factor in artificial insemination (AI) of ducks. In drakes, seminal plasma that is produced by the epididymis determines the semen volume. However, the mechanism of epididymis regulating semen volume of drakes remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to preliminarily reveal the mechanism regulating the semen volume through comparing the epididymal histomorphology and mRNA expression profiles between drakes with high-volume semen (HVS) and low-volume semen (LVS). Phenotypically, drakes in the HVS group produced more sperm than drakes in the LVS group. In addition, compared with the HVS group, the ductal square of ductuli conjugentes (DC) and dutus epididymidis (DE) in epididymis was significantly smaller in the LVS group, and the lumenal diameter and epithelial thickness of DC/DE were significantly shorter in the LVS group. In transcriptional regulation, 72 different expression genes (DEGs) were identified from the epididymis between HVS and LVS groups. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that the DEGs were mainly related to hormone secretion, neurotransmitter synthesis/transport, transmembrane signal transduction, transmembrane transporter activity, and nervous system development (p < 0.05). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) functional enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs were significantly enriched in pathways associated with hormone and neurotransmitter transmission (p < 0.05). In addition, further analysis of the top five pathways enriched by KEGG, nine key candidate genes (including SLC18A2, SNAP25, CACNA1B, GABRG2, DRD3, CAMK2A, NR5A1, and STAR) were identified, which could play a crucial role in the formation of semen. These data provide new insights into the molecular mechanism regulating semen volume of drakes and make feasible the breeding of drakes by semen volume.

12.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(21)2022 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36359176

RESUMO

Microchromosomes, once considered unimportant elements of the genome, represent fundamental building blocks of bird karyotypes. Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) comprise a wide variety of approximately 390 species and are considered a valuable model group for biological studies. Despite this variety, cytogenetic analysis is still very scarce in this bird order. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide insight into the Charadriiformes karyotype, with emphasis on microchromosome evolution in three species of shorebirds-Calidris canutus, Jacana jacana, and Vanellus chilensis-combining classical and molecular approaches. Cross-species FISH mapping applied two BAC probes for each microchromosome, GGA10-28 (except GGA16). The experiments revealed different patterns of microchromosome organization in the species investigated. Hence, while in C. canutus, we found two microchromosomes involved in chromosome fusions, they were present as single pairs in V. chilensis. We also described a new chromosome number for C. canutus (2n = 92). Hence, this study contributed to the understanding of genome organization and evolution of three shorebird species.

13.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 1016970, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36387379

RESUMO

The avian influenza virus (AIV) impacts poultry production, food security, livelihoods, and the risk of transmission to humans. Poultry, like pigeons and quail farming, is a growing sector in Bangladesh. However, the role of pigeons and quails in AIV transmission is not fully understood. Hence, we conducted this study to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of AIV subtypes in pigeons and quails at live bird markets (LBMs) in Bangladesh. We collected oropharyngeal and cloacal swab samples from 626 birds in 8 districts of Bangladesh from 2017 to 2021. We tested the swab samples for the matrix gene (M gene) followed by H5, H7, and H9 subtypes using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). We then used exploratory analysis to investigate the seasonal and temporal patterns of AIV and a mixed effect logistic model to identify the variable that influences the presence of AIV in pigeons and quails. The overall prevalence of AIV was 25.56%. We found that the prevalence of AIV in pigeons is 17.36%, and in quail is 38.75%. The prevalence of A/H5, A/H9, and A/H5/H9 in quail is 4.17, 17.92, and 1.67%, respectively. Furthermore, the prevalence of A/H5, A/H9, and A/H5/H9 in pigeons is 2.85, 2.59, and 0.26%. We also found that the prevalence of AIV was higher in the dry season than in the wet season in both pigeons and quail. In pigeons, the prevalence of A/untyped (40%) increased considerably in 2020. In quail, however, the prevalence of A/H9 (56%) significantly increased in 2020. The mixed-effect logistic regression model showed that the vendors having waterfowl (AOR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.04-4.33), purchasing birds from the wholesale market (AOR: 2.96; 95% CI: 1.48-5.92) instead of farms, mixing sick birds with the healthy ones (AOR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.04-2.45) and mingling unsold birds with new birds (AOR: 3.07; 95% CI: 2.01-4.70) were significantly more likely to be positive for AIV compared with vendors that did not have these characteristics. We also found that the odds of AIV were more than twice as high in quail (AOR: 2.57; 95% CI: 1.61-4.11) as in pigeons. Furthermore, the likelihood of AIV detection was 4.19 times higher in sick and dead birds (95% CI: 2.38-7.35) than in healthy birds. Our study revealed that proper hygienic practices at the vendors in LBM are not maintained. We recommend improving biosecurity practices at the vendor level in LBM to limit the risk of AIV infection in pigeons and quail in Bangladesh.

14.
J Biomol NMR ; 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399207

RESUMO

Large coupling networks in uniformly 13C,15N-labeled biomolecules induce broad multiplets that even in flexible proteins are frequently not recognized as such. The reason is that given multiplets typically consist of a large number of individual resonances that result in a single broad line, in which individual components are no longer resolved. We here introduce a real-time pure shift acquisition scheme for the detection of amide protons which is based on 13C-BIRDr,X. As a result the full homo- and heteronuclear coupling network can be suppressed at low power leading to real singlets at substantially improved resolution and uncompromised sensitivity. The method is tested on a small globular and an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) where the average spectral resolution is increased by a factor of ~ 2 and higher. Equally important, the approach works without saturation of water magnetization for solvent suppression and exchanging amide protons are not affected by saturation transfer.

15.
Ecol Evol ; 12(11): e9491, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36398198

RESUMO

Manually annotating audio files for bird species richness estimation or machine learning validation is a time-intensive task. A premium is placed on the subselection of files that will maximize the efficiency of unique additional species identified, to be used for future analyses. Using acoustic data collected in 17 plots, we created 60 subsetting scenarios across three gradients: intensity (minutes in an hour), day phase (dawn, morning, or both), and duration (number of days) for manual annotation. We analyzed the effect of these variables on observed bird species richness and assemblage composition at both the local and entire study area scale. For reference, results were also compared to richness and composition estimated by the traditional point count method. Intensity, day phase, and duration all affected observed richness in decreasing respective order. These variables also significantly affected observed assemblage composition (in the same order of effect size), but only the day phase produced compositional dissimilarity that was due to phenological traits of individual bird species, rather than differences in species richness. All annotation scenarios requiring equal sampling effort to point counts yielded higher species richness than the point count method. Our results show that a great majority of species can be obtained by annotating files at high sampling intensities (every 3 or 6 min) in the morning period (post-dawn) over a duration of two days. Depending on a study's aim, different subsetting parameters will produce different assemblage compositions, potentially omitting rare or crepuscular species, species representing additional functional groups and natural history guilds, or species of higher conservation concern. We do not recommend one particular subsetting regime for all research objectives, but rather present multiple scenarios for researchers to understand how intensity, day phase, and duration interact to identify the best subsetting regime for one's particular research interests.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401017

RESUMO

Poyang Lake National Nature Reserve (PLNNR) is an important resting place for wintering migratory birds on the East Asian-Australasian Flyway (EAAF). In recent years, due to human activities and climate change, the area of wetlands has shown a downward trend, and the number and habitat of wintering migratory birds have been threatened. It is urgent to evaluate the habitat quality of wintering migratory birds in PLNNR. Therefore, the InVEST model and landscape index were used to evaluate the habitat quality of wintering migratory birds, and the grey correlation theory was used to reveal the response of typical wintering migratory bird population to habitat quality. The results showed that the habitat quality of the PLNNR was still at a high level, but showed a downward trend, with the average index of habitat quality decreasing from 0.872 to 0.817. The area of the highest quality habitat decreased by 3394.92 hm2, the area of the lowest, low, and medium quality habitats increased by 3112.11 hm2, and the area of the high quality habitat remained stable. The lowest, low, and medium quality habitat expanded from the middle to the south of the PLNNR mainly because of the expansion of construction land and cultivated land. The area with deterioration in habitat quality was 10,477.53 hm2, mainly concentrated in the center and south of the PLNNR. The area with restoration in habitat quality was 6148.26 hm2, mainly concentrated in the Bang Lake and Dacha Lake. The area with no change in habitat quality remained stable. The fragmentation degree and shape complexity of highest and high quality habitats increased, dominance degree and connectivity decreased, and the landscape pattern of habitat quality showed a downward trend. Typical wintering migratory birds have a strong correlation with highest, high, and low habitat quality, and there is a downward trend with the deterioration of habitat quality. Finally, this paper puts forward constructive suggestions on the degradation of habitat quality caused by land-use change.

17.
Mov Ecol ; 10(1): 49, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The home range of an animal is determined by its ecological requirements, and these may vary depending on many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which are ultimately driven by food resources. Investigating the effects of these factors, and specifically how individuals use food resources within their home ranges is essential to understand the ecology and dynamics of animal populations, and to establish conservation measures in the case of endangered species. Here, we investigate these questions in the Canarian houbara bustard, an endangered subspecies of African houbara endemic to the Canary Islands. METHODS: We analysed GPS locations of 43 houbaras in 2018-2021, using solar GSM/GPRS loggers provided with accelerometers. We assessed (1) the variation in their home range and core area with kernel density estimators in relation to several intrinsic and extrinsic factors and (2) their foraging habitat selection. RESULTS: Home ranges were smallest during the breeding season (November-April), when rains triggered a rapid growth of herbaceous vegetation. Displaying males and nesting females had smaller home ranges than individuals not involved in reproduction. Both sexes used almost exclusively non-cultivated land, selecting low density Launaea arborescens shrublands, pastures and green fallows as foraging habitats. Heavier males used smaller home ranges because they spent more time displaying at a fixed display site, while heavier females moved over larger areas during the mating period, probably visiting more candidate mates. During the non-breeding season (May-October), both sexes showed larger home ranges, shifting to high density shrubland, but also partly to cultivated land. They selected sweet potato fields, green fallows, alfalfas, orchards and irrigated fields, which offered highly valuable food resources during the driest months of the year. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows how Canarian houbara, originally a desert-dwelling species that uses mostly shrublands and pastures, has developed the necessary adaptations to benefit from resources provided by current low intensity farming practices in the study area. Maintaining appropriate habitat conditions in the eastern Canary islands should constitute a key conservation measure to prevent the extinction of this endangered houbara subspecies.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360665

RESUMO

Migratory birds play an important role in the eco-epidemiology of tick-borne diseases due to their ability to carry ticks for long distances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and factors influencing the intensity of tick infestation in migratory birds. The study was conducted in a locality situated in the Vistula River valley, eastern Poland, during autumn, when the high migratory activity of birds is registered in the region. The birds were captured using ornithological nets and identified at the species level. In the next step, they were carefully inspected for attached ticks. Tick infestation was observed in 4.43% of the captured birds. The highest mean intensity of tick infestation was observed in birds foraging on the ground or in low shrubs and by long- and medium-distance migrants, i.e., Turdus merula (2.73), T. philomelos (2.04), and Erithacus rubecula (1.58). Ixodes ricinus was found to infest the birds most frequently. However, other tick species, i.e., I.&nbsp;trianguliceps, I.&nbsp;crenulatus (synonym I.&nbsp;canisuga), and I. apronophorus, rarely found in eastern Poland, were also found parasitizing birds. The occurrence of I.&nbsp;persulcatus, I. frontalis, and I.&nbsp;acuminatus (synonym I.&nbsp;redikorzevi) was confirmed in the region for the first time. The results of the study suggest that captured bird species are susceptible to tick infestation and could play an important role in the circulation of some tick-borne pathogens. They also play a significant role in the spread of ticks. The ecology and ethology of birds, including their foraging styles and migratory habits, are factors determining the risk of exposure of birds to tick attacks.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Ixodes , Infestações por Carrapato , Animais , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Polônia/epidemiologia , Rios , Aves , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409285

RESUMO

Live bird markets (LBMs) have been identified as key factors in the spread, persistence and evolution of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). In addition, these settings have been associated with human infections with AIVs of pandemic concern. Exposure to aerosolised AIVs by workers in a Cambodian LBM was assessed using aerosol impact samplers. LBM vendors were asked to wear an air sampler for 30 min per day for 1 week while continuing their usual activities in the LBM during a period of high AIV circulation (February) and a period of low circulation (May). During the period of high circulation, AIV RNA was detected from 100% of the air samplers using molecular methods and viable AIV (A/H5N1 and/or A/H9N2) was isolated from 50% of air samplers following inoculation into embryonated chicken eggs. In contrast, AIV was not detected by molecular methods or successfully isolated during the period of low circulation. This study demonstrates the increased risk of aerosol exposure of LBM workers to AIVs during periods of high circulation and highlights the need for interventions during these high-risk periods. Novel approaches, such as environmental sampling, should be further explored at key high-risk interfaces as a potentially cost-effective alternative for monitoring pandemic threats.

20.
J Environ Manage ; 324: 116414, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352718

RESUMO

The potential link between certified organic farming and biodiversity and conservation remains unexplored in Australia, despite the country having the world's largest amount of certified organic farmland and unprecedented biodiversity loss. This study modelled the spatial effects of organic farming (intensity of local farming systems), environmental heterogeneity, and urbanisation on two widely studied environmental taxa - vascular plant and bird species richness (surrogate measures of biodiversity) - in South Australia, using a unique certified organic farming postcode level dataset from 2001 to 2016 (N = 5440). The spatial Durbin error model results confirmed the positive spatial congruence of organic farming with greater vascular plant species richness, whereas only weak to no significant evidence was found for bird species richness. Landscape features (habitat heterogeneity) and green vegetation (a proxy indicator of resource availability) - rather than organic farming - appeared to be most associated with bird species richness. Both plant and bird species richness were positively associated with habitat heterogeneity (land cover diversity and elevation range), plant productivity and proportion of conservation land and water bodies. Whereas, increased anthropogenic land use for cropping and horticultural farming, soil type diversity and proximity to the coast significantly reduced species richness of both taxa. The results suggest that a multi-scale spatially refined biodiversity conservation strategy, with spatial targeting that promotes low intensive farming systems and increases landscape heterogeneity to provide quality habitat (a whole of landscape approach by incorporating private agricultural landholders), could be beneficial for biodiversity conservation.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Agricultura Orgânica , Animais , Austrália , Aves/classificação , Ecossistema , Agricultura Orgânica/métodos , Austrália do Sul , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
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