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1.
Front Oncol ; 12: 977814, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324580

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate for predictive neuroimaging features of pediatric brain tumor development and quantify tumor growth characteristics in patients who had neuroimaging performed prior to a diagnosis of a brain tumor. Methods: Retrospective review of 1098 consecutive pediatric patients at a single institution with newly diagnosed brain tumors from January 2009 to October 2021 was performed to identify patients with neuroimaging prior to the diagnosis of a brain tumor. Pre-diagnostic and diagnostic neuroimaging features (e.g., tumor size, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values), clinical presentations, and neuropathology were recorded in those patients who had neuroimaging performed prior to a brain tumor diagnosis. High- and low-grade tumor sizes were fit to linear and exponential growth regression models. Results: Fourteen of 1098 patients (1%) had neuroimaging prior to diagnosis of a brain tumor (8 females, mean age at definitive diagnosis 8.1 years, imaging interval 0.2-8.7 years). Tumor types included low-grade glioma (n = 4), embryonal tumors (n = 2), pineal tumors (n=2), ependymoma (n = 3), and others (n = 3). Pre-diagnostic imaging of corresponding tumor growth sites were abnormal in four cases (28%) and demonstrated higher ADC values in the region of high-grade tumor growth (p = 0.05). Growth regression analyses demonstrated R2-values of 0.92 and 0.91 using a linear model and 0.64 and 0.89 using an exponential model for high- and low-grade tumors, respectively; estimated minimum velocity of diameter expansion was 2.4 cm/year for high-grade and 0.4 cm/year for low-grade tumors. High-grade tumors demonstrated faster growth rate of diameter and solid tumor volume compared to low-grade tumors (p = 0.02, p = 0.03, respectively). Conclusions: This is the first study to test feasibility in utilizing pre-diagnostic neuroimaging to demonstrate that linear and exponential growth rate models can be used to estimate pediatric brain tumor growth velocity and should be validated in a larger multi-institutional cohort.

2.
Neurocirugia (Astur : Engl Ed) ; 33(6): 350-355, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333092

RESUMO

Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the context of relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a quite rare, but well-known complication. Nevertheless, primary CNS-HL is an exceedingly rare condition, which diagnosis is based on well-defined morphological and immunohistochemical features, in addition to isolated involvement of the CNS. In spite of limited casuistry (just over twenty cases reported in the literature), available data agree that primary and isolated CNS-HL, when treated with a combination of surgery followed by some form of adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy±chemotherapy), carries a better prognosis than those cases with CNS involvement in the context of relapsed/refractory HL or those with CNS non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We herein report a case of a 55-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with primary CNS-HL. The patient was treated with complete surgical resection followed by intrathecal chemotherapy and whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), showing fourteen months of disease-free survival at the time of this case report. A review of the available literature is also presented.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central , Doença de Hodgkin , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Hodgkin/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Hodgkin/terapia , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/terapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Prognóstico , Sistema Nervoso Central
3.
Curr Oncol ; 29(9): 6463-6471, 2022 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36135077

RESUMO

Temporal muscle thickness (TMT) has recently been suggested as a novel biomarker of sarcopenia in head and neck malignancies. However, few studies have evaluated TMT as a prognostic marker in patients with brain metastasis. This study investigated the association of TMT with overall survival (OS) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastasis. The records of all NSCLC patients with brain metastasis between 2009 and 2018 at St. Vincent's Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 221 patients met our eligibility criteria. In the group with TMT thicker than the median, OS was longer than the group with TMT thinner than the median (240 days versus 139 days, p = 0.014). In multivariate analysis, the thicker TMT group had longer survival (HR 0.73 CI 0.56-0.96, p = 0.024). Male (HR 1.58 CI 1.19-2.09, p = 0.002) and older age (≥65 years) (HR 2.05 CI 1.53-2.74, p < 0.001) also showed statistical significance. We also performed subgroup analysis in older patients (≥65 years). In this subgroup of 107 patients, the thicker TMT group also showed longer OS than the thinner TMT group (209 days versus 82 days, p = 0.009). Our findings suggest that TMT can be a useful biomarker for OS in NSCLC patients with brain metastasis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Músculo Temporal/patologia
4.
Autops Case Rep ; 12: e2021396, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36061100

RESUMO

Intracranial lipomas are rare benign tumors considered exceptional when localized in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA), with an incidence of 0.1% of the total number of expansive processes located in this area. We present a case of the sudden death of a 26-year-old young woman in which an unencapsulated neoformation of 0.8 cm was documented at the right cerebellopontine angle and was histologically characterized as intracranial lipoma. The cause of death was then identified as a cardiocirculatory failure secondary to supratentorial (uncal right) herniation caused by the lipoma of the pontocerebellar angle with high-grade diffuse cerebral edema.

5.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol ; 35(1): 101350, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36030073

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication in patients with primary and metastatic brain cancer. Treatment of thrombosis in these patients must be balanced against the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). A number of cohort studies conducted over the last several years have assessed the risk of ICH in patients with primary or secondary brain tumors in the setting of anticoagulation. Anticoagulation with warfarin or low-molecular weight heparin significantly increases the risk of ICH in the setting of primary brain cancers. In contrast, therapeutic anticoagulation does not appear to alter the risk of ICH among patients with metastatic brain tumors. This review summarizes current data regarding anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy in patients with brain tumors, including emerging data on direct-acting oral anticoagulants, and other related topics, such as the use of inferior vena cava filters and resumption of anticoagulation following ICH.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Filtros de Veia Cava , Tromboembolia Venosa , Anticoagulantes , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas
6.
Radiol Case Rep ; 17(10): 3646-3650, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35936886

RESUMO

A 53-year-old woman was brought to the emergency room with headache and progressive deterioration of consciousness. Radiological examinations revealed acute subdural hematoma extending along the cerebellar tentorium to the falx cerebri, and a mass lesion with hemorrhage in the left cerebellum, with acute hydrocephalus. Emergency tumor and hematoma removal with decompressive craniectomy of the occiput was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was microcystic meningioma. Postoperatively, the patient recovered to clear consciousness with sequelae of left cerebellar ataxia, cerebellar dysarthria, and vertigo. This case of tentorial microcystic meningioma associated with acute subdural hematoma in the posterior cranial fossa is extremely rare, with only reported 4 similar cases.

7.
CNS Oncol ; 11(3): CNS90, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674041

RESUMO

Antibody-drug conjugates have transformed the treatment of HER2+ breast and other cancers. Unfortunately, the CNS remains a sanctuary site for many such patients in part due to poor macromolecule penetration across the blood-brain tumor barrier. Trastuzumab deruxtecan (T-DXd), a high-payload antibody-drug conjugate, was recently found to improve progression-free survival in HER2+ breast cancer patients versus prior-generation trastuzumab emtansine, prompting us to evaluate CNS activity in a woman with brain-only metastatic disease. T-DXd achieved complete response despite heavy pretreatment. Three persistent, previously-irradiated lesions were biopsy-proven to represent treatment effect. Subsequent recurrence occurred upon treatment holiday; partial response was observed with rechallenge. This case suggests T-DXd is active in HER2+ breast cancer brain metastases and supports further prospective evaluation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Neoplasias da Mama , Imunoconjugados , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/uso terapêutico , Receptor ErbB-2/uso terapêutico , Trastuzumab
8.
Neurocase ; 28(2): 163-172, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549827

RESUMO

Treatment of malignant childhood posterior fossa tumors (CPFT) often includes surgical resection and craniospinal radiotherapy (CSI). Nasopharyngeal tumors in childhood (CNPHT) are often treated with surgery and radiotherapy (RT), leading to incidental brain irradiation. RT to the developing brain is associated with risks for cognitive impairments. We studied cognitive functioning, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), fatigue, and psychological distress, in adult survivors of CPFT and CNPHT, representing two groups, which had received high and low radiation dose-exposure to the brain, respectively. Cognitive tests were used to compare CPFT (n = 12) and CNPHT (n = 7) survivors to matched healthy controls (n = 28). HRQOL data was compared to the general population (GP) (n = 1415-1459). Average follow-up was 23 (CPFT) and 19 years (CNPHT). CPFT survivors had significant deficits in all cognitive domains. CNPHT survivors showed results below the control group but differed statistically only on one executive test. HRQOL-ratings indicated that both groups had similar self-reported cognitive problems. CPFT survivors reported more emotional problems and fatigue. Anxiety was seen in both CPFT and CNPHT survivors. This study confirmed long-term cognitive sequelae after RT in adult survivors of CPFT,and possible RT-induced cognitive deficits in adult CNPHT survivors.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias , Adulto , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Criança , Fadiga , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
9.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 16: 1171-1181, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35496368

RESUMO

Purpose: Lidocaine has been gradually used in general anesthesia. This study was designed to investigate the effect of systemic lidocaine on postoperative quality of recovery (QoR) in patients undergoing supratentorial tumor resection, and to explore its brain-injury alleviation effect in neurosurgical anesthesia. Patients and Methods: Sixty adult patients undergoing elective supratentorial tumor resection. Patients were randomly assigned either to receive lidocaine (Group L: 1.5 mg/kg bolus completed 10 min before anesthesia induction followed by an infusion at 2.0 mg/kg/h) or to receive normal saline (Group C: received volume-matched normal saline at the same infusion rate). Primary outcome measures were Quality of Recovery-40 (QoR-40) scores on postoperative day (POD) 1 and 2. Plasma concentrations of S100B protein (S100B), neuron specific enolase (NSE), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) before anesthesia induction and at the end of surgery were assessed. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores were assessed at 1, 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after surgery. Perioperative parameters and adverse events were also recorded. Results: Patients between two groups had comparable baseline characteristics. Global QoR-40 scores on POD 1 and POD 2 were significantly higher (P <0.001) in group L (165.5±3.8 vs 173.7±4.7) than those in group C (155.6±4.0 vs 163.2±4.5); and scores of physical comfort, emotional state, and pain in group L were superior to those in group C (P <0.05). In group L, patients possessed lower plasma concentration of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-6, TNF-α) and brain injury-related factors (S100B, NSE) (P <0.05), consumed less remifentanil and propofol, and experienced lower pain intensity. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated age and pain were correlated with postperative recovery quality. Conclusion: Systemic lidocaine improved early recovery quality after supratentorial tumor resection with general anesthesia, and had certain brain-injury alleviation effects. These benefits may be attributed to the inflammation-alleviating and analgesic properties of lidocaine.


Assuntos
Lidocaína , Neoplasias Supratentoriais , Adulto , Anestésicos Locais , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Dor , Solução Salina , Neoplasias Supratentoriais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Supratentoriais/cirurgia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
10.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 24(10): 1251-1259, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543860

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the risk factors, clinical presentations, differential diagnosis, and the types of strokes frequently seen in patients with primary brain neoplasms. This includes a discussion of approaches with a review of the available literature and provides recommendations for primary and secondary prevention specific to this patient population. RECENT FINDINGS: Strokes in patients with brain tumors are often multifactorial. However, tailored approaches to stroke care are necessary to achieve optimal patient outcomes, AHA/ASA stroke guidelines provide little information on the management of stroke in cancer patients. A comprehensive algorithm for diagnosis for stroke in primary CNS tumor patients is proposed. Understanding the potential complex etiology of stroke in patients with brain tumors is essential to provide appropriate treatment and initiate optimal prevention measures early in the cancer treatment program. Optimal care therefore requires a comprehensive approach including a variety of specialists and healthcare providers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
11.
Surg Neurol Int ; 13: 114, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509529

RESUMO

Background: Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal infection primarily affecting lungs and potentially spreading to the central nervous. This fungal infection might be misdiagnosed as other infection diseases, such as tuberculosis; granulomatous diseases, like sarcoidosis; and even neoplastic diseases. Some previous reports described cases of cryptococcomas resembling brain tumors. In this paper, we present a very rare presentation of brain cryptococcoma mimicking a malignant glioma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third case description in the literature. Case Description: A 64-year-old male patient presented at the hospital with a history of progressive frontal headache for 1 month, becoming moderate to severe, associated with visual changes, without nausea or vomiting. No fever was reported. He was a heavy smoker and denied other relevant previous medical data. Neuroimage disclosed a right temporal expansive lesion initially considered a malignant glioma. The patient underwent a right temporal craniotomy and biopsy revealed a cryptococcoma. Conclusion: Cryptococcomas characteristics in magnetic resonance are quite nonspecific. They should always be included in differential diagnosis of expansive brain lesions, both malignant and benign. Therefore, once cryptococcomas may resemble like other intracranial expansive lesions, biopsy should always be carried out to clarify diagnosis and avoid inadequate treatment and definition of prognosis only based on radiological patterns.

12.
Br J Neurosurg ; 36(5): 613-619, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35445630

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gender is a known social determinant of health (SDOH) that has been linked to neurosurgical outcome disparities. To improve quality of care, there exists a need to investigate the impact of gender on procedure-specific outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the role of gender on short- and long-term outcomes following resection of meningiomas - the most common benign brain neoplasm of adulthood - between exact matched patient cohorts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All consecutive patients undergoing supratentorial meningioma resection (n = 349) at a single, university-wide health system over a 6-year period were analyzed retrospectively. Coarsened exact matching was employed to match patients on numerous key characteristics related to outcomes. Primary outcomes included readmission, ED visit, reoperation, and mortality within 30 and 90 days of surgery. Mortality and reoperation were also assessed during the entire follow-up period. Outcomes were compared between matched female and male cohorts. RESULTS: Between matched cohorts, no significant difference was observed in morbidity or mortality at 30 days (p = 0.42-0.75), 90-days (p = 0.23-0.69), or throughout the follow-up period (p = 0.22-0.45). Differences in short-term mortality could not be assessed due to the low number of mortality events. CONCLUSIONS: After matching on characteristics known to impact outcomes and when isolated from other SDOHs, gender does not independently affect morbidity and mortality following meningioma resection. Further research on the role of other SDOHs in this population is merited to better understand underlying drivers of disparity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Meníngeas , Meningioma , Neoplasias Supratentoriais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Meningioma/cirurgia , Meningioma/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reoperação , Neoplasias Supratentoriais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/epidemiologia , Readmissão do Paciente
13.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-8, 2022 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35245899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: IDH-mutant diffuse low-grade gliomas (dLGGs; WHO grade 2) are often considered to have a more indolent course. In particular, in patients with 1p19q codeleted oligodendrogliomas, survival can be very long. Therefore, extended follow-up in clinical studies of IDH-mutant dLGG is needed. The authors' primary aim was to determine results after a minimum 10-year follow-up in two hospitals advocating different surgical policies. In one center early resection was favored; in the other center an early biopsy and wait-and-scan approach was the dominant management. In addition, the authors present survival and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in stratified groups of patients with IDH-mutant astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective, population-based, parallel cohort study with extended long-term follow-up. The inclusion criteria were histopathological diagnosis of IDH-mutant supratentorial dLGG from 1998 through 2009 in patients aged 18 years or older. Follow-up ended January 1, 2021; therefore, all patients had primary surgery more than 10 years earlier. In region A, a biopsy and wait-and-scan approach was favored, while early resections were advocated in region B. Regional referral practice ensured population-based data, since referral to respective centers was based strictly on the patient's residential address. Previous data from EQ-5D-3L, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30, and EORTC BN20 questionnaires were reanalyzed with respect to the current selection of IDH-mutant dLGG and to molecular subgroups. The prespecified primary endpoint was long-term regional comparison of overall survival. Secondarily, between-group differences in long-term HRQOL measures were explored. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients from region A and 56 patients from region B were included. Early resection was performed in 17 patients (35.4%) from region A compared with 53 patients (94.6%) from region B (p < 0.001). Characteristics at baseline were otherwise similar between cohorts. Overall survival was 7.5 years (95% CI 4.1-10.8) in region A compared with 14.6 years (95% CI 11.5-17.7) in region B (p = 0.04). When stratified according to molecular subgroups, there was only a statistically significant survival benefit in favor of early resection for patients with astrocytomas. The were no apparent differences in the different HRQOL measures between cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: In an extended follow-up of patients with IDH-mutant dLGGs, early resection was associated with a sustained and clinically relevant survival benefit. The survival benefit was not counteracted by any detectable reduction in HRQOL.

14.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 164(2): 419-422, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34993619

RESUMO

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a rare congenital overgrowth syndrome associated with certain childhood tumours. We present the case of a 36-year-old lady with BWS who developed a left frontoinsular secondary glioblastoma. This is the first case report in the literature of glioblastoma associated with BWS. We explore similarities in the molecular pathomechanisms of BWS and glioblastoma.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann , Glioblastoma , Adulto , Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/complicações , Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/patologia , Feminino , Glioblastoma/complicações , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos
15.
Clin Neuroradiol ; 32(3): 725-733, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994810

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the image quality, examination time, and total energy release of a standardized pediatric brain tumor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol performed with and without compressed sensitivity encoding (C-SENSE). Recently introduced as an acceleration technique in MRI, we hypothesized that C­SENSE would improve image quality, reduce the examination time and radiofrequency-induced energy release compared with conventional examination in a pediatric brain tumor protocol. METHODS: This retrospective study included 22 patients aged 2.33-18.83 years with different brain tumor types who had previously undergone conventional MRI examination and underwent follow-up C­SENSE examination. Both examinations were conducted with a 3.0-Tesla device and included pre-contrast and post-contrast T1-weighted turbo-field-echo, T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences. Image quality was assessed in four anatomical regions of interest (tumor area, cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and posterior fossa) using a 5-point scale. Reader preference between the standard and C­SENSE images was evaluated. The total examination duration and energy deposit were compared based on scanner log file analysis. RESULTS: Relative to standard examinations, C­SENSE examinations were characterized by shorter total examination times (26.1 ± 3.93 vs. 22.18 ± 2.31 min; P = 0.001), reduced total energy deposit (206.0 ± 19.7 vs. 92.3 ± 18.2 J/kg; P < 0.001), and higher image quality (overall P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: C­SENSE contributes to the improvement of image quality, reduction of scan times and radiofrequency-induced energy release relative to the standard protocol in pediatric brain tumor MRI.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 69(2): e29470, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842339

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS) experience psychosocial difficulties and poor quality of life (QOL). Family functioning may be adversely impacted by the stress of diagnosis and associated symptoms, which may, in turn, affect PBTS outcomes. The objective of this study was to complete a systematic review of family functioning and psychosocial outcomes in PBTS. METHODS: We conducted systematic searches of PubMed and PsychInfo. Full-text articles (n = 324) were screened and 14 were included. A risk-of-bias assessment was conducted to evaluate the quality of study conclusions. RESULTS: Studies examined associations of family functioning with adaptive, social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes, and QOL. More adaptive family functioning (cohesiveness, effective communication, lower conflict) was associated with better PBTS outcomes. Studies were limited by heterogeneous/small samples and cross-sectional designs. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide preliminary support for the relationship between family functioning and psychosocial outcomes. Common outcome measures and prospective research designs can further advance understanding.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias Encefálicas/psicologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia
17.
Clin Transl Radiat Oncol ; 32: 52-58, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34926839

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate neurocognitive performance, daily activity and quality of life (QoL), other than usual oncologic outcomes, among patients with brain metastasis ≥5 (MBM) from solid tumors treated with Stereotactic Brain Irradiation (SBI) or Whole Brain Irradiation (WBI). METHODS: This multicentric randomized controlled trial will involve the enrollment of 100 patients (50 for each arm) with MBM ≥ 5, age ≥ 18 years, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) ≥ 70, life expectancy > 3 months, known primary tumor, with controlled or controllable extracranial disease, baseline Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score ≥ 20/30, Barthel Activities of Daily Living score ≥ 90/100, to be submitted to SBI by LINAC with monoisocentric technique and non-coplanar arcs (experimental arm) or to WBI (control arm). The primary endpoints are neurocognitive performance, QoL and autonomy in daily-life activities variations, the first one assessed by MoCa Score and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, the second one through the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL and QLQ-BN-20 questionnaires, the third one through the Barthel Index, respectively. The secondary endpoints are time to intracranial failure, overall survival, retreatment rate, acute and late toxicities, changing of KPS. It will be considered significant a statistical difference of at least 30% between the two arms (statistical power of 80% with a significance level of 95%). DISCUSSION: Several studies debate what is the decisive factor accountable for the development of neurocognitive decay among patients undergoing brain irradiation for MBM: radiation effect on clinically healthy brain tissue or intracranial tumor burden? The answer to this question may come from the recent technological advancement that allows, in a context of a significant time saving, improved patient comfort and minimizing radiation dose to off-target brain, a selective treatment of MBM simultaneously, otherwise attackable only by WBI. The achievement of a local control rate comparable to that obtained with WBI remains the fundamental prerequisite. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT number: NCT04891471.

18.
Autops. Case Rep ; 12: e2021396, 2022. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393986

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Intracranial lipomas are rare benign tumors considered exceptional when localized in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA), with an incidence of 0.1% of the total number of expansive processes located in this area. We present a case of the sudden death of a 26-year-old young woman in which an unencapsulated neoformation of 0.8 cm was documented at the right cerebellopontine angle and was histologically characterized as intracranial lipoma. The cause of death was then identified as a cardiocirculatory failure secondary to supratentorial (uncal right) herniation caused by the lipoma of the pontocerebellar angle with high-grade diffuse cerebral edema.

19.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 782516, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924945

RESUMO

The purpose of this work was to prospectively investigate sodium (23Na) MRI at 7 Tesla (T) as predictor of therapy response and survival in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). Thus, 20 GBM patients underwent 23Na MRI at 7T before, immediately after and 6 weeks after chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The median tissue sodium concentration (TSC) inside the whole tumor excluding necrosis was determined. Initial response to CRT was assessed employing the updated response assessment in neuro-oncology working group (RANO) criteria. Clinical parameters, baseline TSC and longitudinal TSC differences were compared between patients with initial progressive disease (PD) and patients with initial stable disease (SD) using Fisher's exact tests and Mann-Whitney-U-tests. Univariate proportional hazard models for progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated using clinical parameters and TSC metrics as predictor variables. The analyses demonstrated that TSC developed heterogeneously over all patients following CRT. None of the TSC metrics differed significantly between cases of initial SD and initial PD. Furthermore, TSC metrics did not yield a significant association with PFS or OS. Conversely, the initial response according to the RANO criteria could significantly predict PFS [univariate HR (95%CI) = 0.02 (0.0001-0.21), p < 0.001] and OS [univariate HR = 0.17 (0.04-0.65), p = 0.005]. In conclusion, TSC showed treatment-related changes in GBM following CRT, but did not significantly correlate with the initial response according to the RANO criteria, PFS or OS. In contrast, the initial response according to the RANO criteria was a significant predictor of PFS and OS. Future investigations need to elucidate the reasons for treatment-related changes in TSC and their clinical value for response prediction in glioblastoma patients receiving CRT.

20.
J Neurosci Rural Pract ; 12(4): 807-810, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737522

RESUMO

A 24-year-old gentleman presented to us with complaints of occasional headache for 2 years. Magnetic resonance imaging showed enhancing supra sellar mass with nonenhancing cystic components, extending superiorly up to the body of bilateral lateral ventricle, laterally displacing septum pellucidum, and compressing the third ventricle with obstructive hydrocephalus. Hormone profile depicted adrenocorticotropic hormone <5.00 pg/mL, growth hormone 1.32 ng/mL, insulin-like growth factor-1 <3.0 ng/mL. The patient underwent surgical resection. Histological finding was suggestive of ganglioglioma World Health Organization grade I. Customized immunohistochemistry panel was advised and revealed positive CD 56, NSE, and GFAP immunohistochemical stains. Gangliogliomas are less frequent neoplastic lesions confined to only a handful of case reports and studies. Accounting less than 2% of intracranial neoplasms, these lesions primarily affect those in the first 3 decades of their life. As ubiquitous it is in nature, we hereby present a case of ganglioglioma in a young adult male arising from septum pellucidum.

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