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1.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-7, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765557

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential and inhibitory effect of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra against lipid peroxidation in goat brain and liver homogenates. The formation of free radicals, highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a normal metabolic process for cellular signaling and countering the antigens. However, they may cause serious damage if they produced at amplified tolls. In addition, metabolic disorders also serve as sources of these reactive species. Although the issue can be addressed through supplements and other phytochemicals. In this study, two plant species were evaluated for their biological potential by employing a spectrum of antioxidant assays. The antioxidant activity was performed by lipid peroxidation assay. The water extract prepared from leaves of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra showed significant (P<0.05) inhibition as compared to control i.e., 522.6±0.06 and 659.97±0.03 µg/mL against iron-induced lipid peroxidation in goat brain homogenate while the inhibitions were 273.54±0.04 and 309.18±0.05 µg/mL against nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation of the brain. The iron and nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also significantly inhibited by leaf extracts of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra in liver homogenates such as 230.63±0.52 and 326.91±0.01 µg/mL (iron-induced) while 300.47±0.07 and 300.47±0.07 µg/mL (nitroprusside induced), respectively. The extracts of Cannabis sativa extract showed promising activity (96.04±0.060%) against DPPH radicals while Morus nigra showed a moderate activity (34.11±0.120%). The results suggest that different accessions of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra are a potential source of antioxidants and have a therapeutic effect against disease induced by oxidative stress and hence can be used for novel drug discovery and development.(AU)


O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antioxidante e o efeito inibitório de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra contra a peroxidação lipídica em homogenatos de cérebro e fígado de cabras. A formação de radicais livres, espécies altamente reativas de oxigênio (ROS) e espécies reativas de nitrogênio (RNS), é um processo metabólico normal para sinalização celular e combate aos antígenos. No entanto, eles podem causar sérios danos se forem produzidos em portagens ampliadas. Além disso, distúrbios metabólicos também servem como fontes dessas espécies reativas, embora o problema possa ser resolvido por meio de suplementos e outros fitoquímicos. Neste estudo, duas espécies de plantas foram avaliadas quanto ao seu potencial biológico, empregando um espectro de ensaios antioxidantes. A atividade antioxidante foi realizada por ensaio de peroxidação lipídica. O extrato de água preparado a partir de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra mostrou inibição significativa (P < 0,05) em comparação com o controle, ou seja, 522,6 ± 0,06 e 659,97 ± 0,03 µg / mL contra peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro em homogenato de cérebro de cabra, enquanto as inibições foram 273,54 ± 0,04 e 309,18 ± 0,05 µg / mL contra a peroxidação lipídica do cérebro induzida por nitroprussiato. A peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro e nitroprussiato também foi significativamente inibida por extratos de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra em homogenatos de fígado, como 230,63 ± 0,52 e 326,91 ± 0,01 µg / mL (induzida por ferro), enquanto 300,47 ± 0,07 e 300,47 ± 0,07 µg / mL (induzida por nitroprussiato), respectivamente. Os extratos do extrato de Cannabis sativa apresentaram atividade promissora (96,04 ± 0,060%) contra os radicais DPPH enquanto Morus nigra apresentou atividade moderada (34,11 ± 0,120%). Os resultados sugerem que diferentes acessos de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra são uma fonte potencial de antioxidantes e têm efeito terapêutico [...].(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cannabis/química , Morus/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cabras , Cérebro/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-15, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765481

RESUMO

Background: The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Aim: The study examined the expression of Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) in adult and young yak brain tissues, and provided researchers with meaningful insight into the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of this mammal. Method: The study employed immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) to obtain the results. Results: Ngb and Hif-1α were significantly (P<0.05) expressed in the cerebellar cortex, piriform lobe, medulla, and corpus callosum of the adult yak while in the young yak brain tissues, the protein expressions were significantly found in the white matter of the cerebellum, pineal gland, corpus callosum, and cerebellar cortex. The Ngb and Hif-1α expression showed similarities and differences. This may have resulted from similar animal species, source of nutrition, age factors, brain size, emotional activities, and communication. The findings documented that Ngb and Hif-1α are commonly expressed in various adult and young yak brain tissues. Multiple roles in the brain tissues of the adult and young yaks are involved in the expression and distribution and are proposed to play a significant role in the adaptation of the yak to the high altitude environment. Conclusion: This study provides meaningful data to understand the adaptive mechanism to hypoxia and recommended researchers to expand on the adaptive mechanism and brain tissues that are not recorded.(AU)


Contexto: O cérebro é um órgão que funciona como o centro do sistema nervoso em todos os animais vertebrados e na maioria dos invertebrados. Objetivo: O estudo examinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator-1α indutível por hipóxia (Hif-1α) em tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens e forneceu aos pesquisadores uma visão significativa da anatomia, fisiologia e bioquímica desse mamífero. Método: O estudo utilizou imuno-histoquímica (IHC), PCR quantitativo em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e western blot (WB) para a obtenção dos resultados. Resultados: Ngb e Hif-1α foram significativamente (P < 0,05) expressos no córtex cerebelar, lobo piriforme, medula e corpo caloso do iaque adulto, enquanto nos tecidos cerebrais do iaque jovem as expressões proteicas foram encontradas significativamente na substância branca do cerebelo, glândula pineal, corpo caloso e córtex cerebelar. A expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α apresentou semelhanças e diferenças. Isso pode ter resultado de espécies animais semelhantes, fonte de nutrição, fatores de idade, tamanho do cérebro, atividades emocionais e comunicação. Os resultados documentaram que o Ngb e o Hif-1α são comumente expressos em vários tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens. Múltiplos papéis nos tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens estão envolvidos na expressão e distribuição e são propostos para desempenhar um papel significativo na adaptação do iaque ao ambiente de alta altitude. Conclusão: Este estudo fornece dados significativos para compreender o mecanismo adaptativo à hipóxia e recomendou que os pesquisadores expandissem o mecanismo adaptativo e os tecidos cerebrais que não foram registrados.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Bovinos , Bovinos , Cérebro/anatomia & histologia , Cérebro/fisiologia , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Neuroglobina/análise , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/análise
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245330, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339394

RESUMO

Abstract Background The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Aim The study examined the expression of Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) in adult and young yak brain tissues, and provided researchers with meaningful insight into the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of this mammal. Method The study employed immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) to obtain the results. Results Ngb and Hif-1α were significantly (P<0.05) expressed in the cerebellar cortex, piriform lobe, medulla, and corpus callosum of the adult yak while in the young yak brain tissues, the protein expressions were significantly found in the white matter of the cerebellum, pineal gland, corpus callosum, and cerebellar cortex. The Ngb and Hif-1α expression showed similarities and differences. This may have resulted from similar animal species, source of nutrition, age factors, brain size, emotional activities, and communication. The findings documented that Ngb and Hif-1α are commonly expressed in various adult and young yak brain tissues. Multiple roles in the brain tissues of the adult and young yaks are involved in the expression and distribution and are proposed to play a significant role in the adaptation of the yak to the high altitude environment. Conclusion This study provides meaningful data to understand the adaptive mechanism to hypoxia and recommended researchers to expand on the adaptive mechanism and brain tissues that are not recorded.


Resumo Contexto O cérebro é um órgão que funciona como o centro do sistema nervoso em todos os animais vertebrados e na maioria dos invertebrados. Objetivo O estudo examinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator-1α indutível por hipóxia (Hif-1α) em tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens e forneceu aos pesquisadores uma visão significativa da anatomia, fisiologia e bioquímica desse mamífero. Método O estudo utilizou imuno-histoquímica (IHC), PCR quantitativo em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e western blot (WB) para a obtenção dos resultados. Resultados Ngb e Hif-1α foram significativamente (P < 0,05) expressos no córtex cerebelar, lobo piriforme, medula e corpo caloso do iaque adulto, enquanto nos tecidos cerebrais do iaque jovem as expressões proteicas foram encontradas significativamente na substância branca do cerebelo, glândula pineal, corpo caloso e córtex cerebelar. A expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α apresentou semelhanças e diferenças. Isso pode ter resultado de espécies animais semelhantes, fonte de nutrição, fatores de idade, tamanho do cérebro, atividades emocionais e comunicação. Os resultados documentaram que o Ngb e o Hif-1α são comumente expressos em vários tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens. Múltiplos papéis nos tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens estão envolvidos na expressão e distribuição e são propostos para desempenhar um papel significativo na adaptação do iaque ao ambiente de alta altitude. Conclusão Este estudo fornece dados significativos para compreender o mecanismo adaptativo à hipóxia e recomendou que os pesquisadores expandissem o mecanismo adaptativo e os tecidos cerebrais que não foram registrados.


Assuntos
Animais , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Hipóxia , Encéfalo , RNA Mensageiro , Bovinos , Neuroglobina
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247190, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345532

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential and inhibitory effect ofCannabis sativa and Morus nigra against lipid peroxidation in goat brain and liver homogenates. The formation of free radicals, highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a normal metabolic process for cellular signaling and countering the antigens. However, they may cause serious damage if they produced at amplified tolls. In addition, metabolic disorders also serve as sources of these reactive species. Although the issue can be addressed through supplements and other phytochemicals. In this study, two plant species were evaluated for their biological potential by employing a spectrum of antioxidant assays. The antioxidant activity was performed by lipid peroxidation assay. The water extract prepared from leaves of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra showed significant (P<0.05) inhibition as compared to control i.e., 522.6±0.06 and 659.97±0.03 µg/mL against iron-induced lipid peroxidation in goat brain homogenate while the inhibitions were 273.54±0.04 and 309.18±0.05 µg/mL against nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation of the brain. The iron and nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also significantly inhibited by leaf extracts of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra in liver homogenates such as 230.63±0.52 and 326.91±0.01 µg/mL (iron-induced) while 300.47±0.07 and 300.47±0.07 µg/mL (nitroprusside induced), respectively. The extracts of Cannabis sativa extract showed promising activity (96.04±0.060%) against DPPH radicals while Morus nigra showed a moderate activity (34.11±0.120%). The results suggest that different accessions ofCannabis sativa and Morus nigra are a potential source of antioxidants and have a therapeutic effect against disease induced by oxidative stress and hence can be used for novel drug discovery and development.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antioxidante e o efeito inibitório de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra contra a peroxidação lipídica em homogenatos de cérebro e fígado de cabras. A formação de radicais livres, espécies altamente reativas de oxigênio (ROS) e espécies reativas de nitrogênio (RNS), é um processo metabólico normal para sinalização celular e combate aos antígenos. No entanto, eles podem causar sérios danos se forem produzidos em portagens ampliadas. Além disso, distúrbios metabólicos também servem como fontes dessas espécies reativas, embora o problema possa ser resolvido por meio de suplementos e outros fitoquímicos. Neste estudo, duas espécies de plantas foram avaliadas quanto ao seu potencial biológico, empregando um espectro de ensaios antioxidantes. A atividade antioxidante foi realizada por ensaio de peroxidação lipídica. O extrato de água preparado a partir de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra mostrou inibição significativa (P < 0,05) em comparação com o controle, ou seja, 522,6 ± 0,06 e 659,97 ± 0,03 µg / mL contra peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro em homogenato de cérebro de cabra, enquanto as inibições foram 273,54 ± 0,04 e 309,18 ± 0,05 µg / mL contra a peroxidação lipídica do cérebro induzida por nitroprussiato. A peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro e nitroprussiato também foi significativamente inibida por extratos de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra em homogenatos de fígado, como 230,63 ± 0,52 e 326,91 ± 0,01 µg / mL (induzida por ferro), enquanto 300,47 ± 0,07 e 300,47 ± 0,07 µg / mL (induzida por nitroprussiato), respectivamente. Os extratos do extrato de Cannabis sativa apresentaram atividade promissora (96,04 ± 0,060%) contra os radicais DPPH enquanto Morus nigra apresentou atividade moderada (34,11 ± 0,120%). Os resultados sugerem que diferentes acessos de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra são uma fonte potencial de antioxidantes e têm efeito terapêutico contra doenças induzidas por estresse oxidativo e, portanto, podem ser usados ​​para a descoberta e desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos.


Assuntos
Animais , Cannabis , Morus , Encéfalo , Cabras , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
5.
J Neurotrauma ; 39(1-2): 35-48, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637023

RESUMO

Sixty-nine million people have a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year, and TBI is the most common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Traumatic SAH (TSAH) has been described as an adverse prognostic factor leading to progressive neurological deterioration and increased morbidity and mortality. A limited number of studies, however, evaluate recent trends in the diagnosis and management of SAH in the context of trauma. The objective of this scoping review was to understand the extent and type of evidence concerning the diagnostic criteria and management of TSAH. This scoping review was conducted following the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology for scoping reviews. The review included adults with SAH secondary to trauma, where isolated TSAH (iTSAH) refers to the presence of SAH in the absence of any other traumatic radiographic intracranial pathology, and TSAH refers to the presence of SAH with the possibility or presence of additional traumatic radiographic intracranial pathology. Data extracted from each study included study aim, country, methodology, population characteristics, outcome measures, a summary of findings, and future directives. Thirty studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were grouped into five categories by topic: TSAH associated with mild TBI (mTBI), n = 13), and severe TBI (n = 3); clinical management and diagnosis (n = 9); imaging (n = 3); and aneurysmal TSAH (n = 1). Of the 30 studies, two came from a low- and middle-income country (LMIC), excluding China, nearly a high-income country. Patients with TSAH associated with mTBI have a very low risk of clinical deterioration and surgical intervention and should be treated conservatively when considering intensive care unit admission. The Helsinki and Stockholm computed tomography scoring systems, in addition to the American Injury Scale, creatinine level, age decision tree, may be valuable tools to use when predicting outcome and death.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Hemorragia Subaracnoídea Traumática , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Adulto , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/etiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/terapia , Hemorragia Subaracnoídea Traumática/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Subaracnoídea Traumática/etiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnoídea Traumática/terapia
6.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 16: 813922, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35496073

RESUMO

The capacity of next-generation closed-loop or adaptive deep brain stimulation devices (aDBS) to read (measure neural activity) and write (stimulate brain regions or circuits) shows great potential to effectively manage movement, seizure, and psychiatric disorders, and also raises the possibility of using aDBS to electively (non-therapeutically) modulate mood, cognition, and prosociality. What separates aDBS from most neurotechnologies (e.g. transcranial stimulation) currently used for enhancement is that aDBS remains an invasive, surgically-implanted technology with a risk-benefit ratio significantly different when applied to diseased versus non-diseased individuals. Despite a large discourse about the ethics of enhancement, no empirical studies yet examine perspectives on enhancement from within the aDBS research community. We interviewed 23 aDBS researchers about their attitudes toward expanding aDBS use for enhancement. A thematic content analysis revealed that researchers share ethical concerns related to (1) safety and security; (2) enhancement as unnecessary, unnatural or aberrant; and (3) fairness, equality, and distributive justice. Most (70%) researchers felt that enhancement applications for DBS will eventually be technically feasible and that attempts to develop such applications for DBS are already happening (particularly for military purposes). However, researchers unanimously (100%) felt that DBS ideally should not be considered for enhancement until researchers better understand brain target localization and functioning. While many researchers acknowledged controversies highlighted by scholars and ethicists, such as potential impacts on personhood, authenticity, autonomy and privacy, their ethical concerns reflect considerations of both gravity and perceived near-term likelihood.

7.
J Neurotrauma ; 39(1-2): 20-34, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632026

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability, especially in young persons, and constitutes a major socioeconomic burden worldwide. It is regarded as the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in previously healthy young persons. Most of the mechanisms underpinning the development of secondary brain injury are consequences of disruption of the complex relationship between the cells and proteins constituting the neurovascular unit or a direct result of loss of integrity of the tight junctions (TJ) in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A number of changes have been described in the BBB after TBI, including loss of TJ proteins, pericyte loss and migration, and altered expressions of water channel proteins at astrocyte end-feet processes. There is a growing research interest in identifying optimal biological and radiological biomarkers of severity of BBB dysfunction and its effects on outcomes after TBI. This review explores the microscopic changes occurring at the neurovascular unit, after TBI, and current radiological adjuncts for its evaluation in pre-clinical and clinical practice.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Permeabilidade Capilar , Humanos , Permeabilidade , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
8.
J Neurotrauma ; 39(1-2): 86-92, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626946

RESUMO

This case-control study using baseline data from the population cohort Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study® compared lifetime history of concussion between children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that children with ADHD would have a greater lifetime history of concussion than children without ADHD. Children were recruited from schools across the United States, sampled to provide strong generalizability to the US population. The current sample included 10,585 children (age: mean = 9.9; standard deviation = 0.6; range 9-10 years; 48.9% girls; 64.6% White), including 1085 with ADHD and 9500 without ADHD. The prevalence of prior concussion among children with ADHD was 7.2% (95% CI: 6.6-7.8%) compared with 3.2% (3.1-3.3%) among children without ADHD, meaning current ADHD status was associated with twice the odds of experiencing a prior concussion [χ2 = 44.54; p < 0.001; odds ratio = 2.34 (1.81-3.03)]. No significant differences were observed in proportion of boys and girls with ADHD who had a prior concussion history. The number of current ADHD symptoms were not meaningfully associated with prior concussion history. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with lower rates of reported concussion, but not differentially in association with ADHD. ADHD is associated with twice the lifetime prevalence of prior concussion before age 11 among children from the general U.S. population. Boys and girls with ADHD did not differ in proportions with prior concussion and concussion history was not related to the number of ADHD symptoms reported by parents.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Concussão Encefálica , Adolescente , Atletas/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
J Neurotrauma ; 39(1-2): 181-195, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626966

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a critical public health problem around the world. To date, there are no accurate therapeutic approaches for the management of cardiovascular impairments induce by TBI. In this regard, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel gasotransmitter, has been proposed as a neuro- and cardioprotective molecule. This study was designed to determine the effect of subchronic management with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on hemodynamic, vasopressor sympathetic outflow and sensorimotor alterations produced by TBI. Animals underwent a lateral fluid percussion injury, and changes in hemodynamic variables were measured by pletismographic methods. In addition, vasopressor sympathetic outflow was assessed by a pithed rat model. Last, sensorimotor impairments were evaluated by neuroscore test and beam-walking test. At seven, 14, 21, and 28 days after moderate-severe TBI, the animals showed: (1) a decrease on sensorimotor function in the neuroscore test and beam-walking test; (2) an increase in heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure; (3) progressive sympathetic hyperactivity; and (4) a decrease in vasopressor responses induced by noradrenaline (α1/2-adrenoceptors agonist) and UK 14,304 (selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist). Interestingly, intraperitoneal daily injections of NaHS, an H2S donor (3.1 and 5.6 mg/kg), during seven days after TBI prevented the development of the impairments in hemodynamic variables, which were similar to those obtained in sham animals. Moreover, NaHS treatment prevented the sympathetic hyperactivity and decreased noradrenaline-induced vasopressor responses. No effects on sensorimotor dysfunction were observed, however. Taken together, our results suggest that H2S ameliorates the hemodynamic and sympathetic system impairments observed after TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Hipertensão , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia
10.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(3): e577, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) impairs cognitive function. Systemic inflammation plays important role in cognitive deficits. It remains unclear if systemic inflammation in TBI is associated with poor cognitive function. METHODS: From January 2018 to December 2020, two groups of subjects were recruited: patients with TBI (n = 120), and healthy control (n = 120), followed up to 3 months. Blood was collected from TBI patients and healthy control, and serum inflammatory cytokines including interferon-α (IFN-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured at baseline and end of 3 months. Multivariate regression was used for analysis for the relationship between cognitive function and inflammatory cytokines. RESULTS: Inflammatory cytokines were higher in patients with brain injury and remained high at end of 3 months. Some cytokines such as IFN-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α were associated with worsening memory and predicted poor performance. CONCLUSION: Systemic inflammation in patients with TBI predicts poor cognitive function.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Lesões Encefálicas , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Cognição , Citocinas , Humanos , Inflamação
11.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 16: 740195, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35370579

RESUMO

Ample research demonstrates that parents' experience-based mental representations of attachment-cognitive models of close relationships-relate to their children's social-emotional development. However, no research to date has examined how parents' attachment representations relate to another crucial domain of children's development: brain development. The present study is the first to integrate the separate literatures on attachment and developmental social cognitive neuroscience to examine the link between mothers' attachment representations and 3- to 8-year-old children's brain structure. We hypothesized that mothers' attachment representations would relate to individual differences in children's brain structures involved in stress regulation-specifically, amygdala and hippocampal volumes-in part via mothers' responses to children's distress. We assessed 52 mothers' attachment representations (secure base script knowledge on the Attachment Script Assessment and self-reported attachment avoidance and anxiety on the Experiences in Close Relationships scale) and children's brain structure. Mothers' secure base script knowledge was significantly related to children's smaller left amygdala volume but was unrelated to hippocampal volume; we found no indirect links via maternal responses to children's distress. Exploratory analyses showed associations between mothers' attachment representations and white matter and thalamus volumes. Together, these preliminary results suggest that mothers' attachment representations may be linked to the development of children's neural circuitry related to stress regulation.

12.
Front Behav Neurosci ; 16: 853150, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35368295

RESUMO

The role of peripheral biomarkers following acute physical exercise on cognitive improvement has not been systematically evaluated. This study aimed to explore the role of peripheral circulating biomarkers in executive performance following acute aerobic and resistance exercise. Nineteen healthy males completed a central executive (Go/No-Go) task before and after 30-min of perceived intensity matched aerobic and resistance exercise. In the aerobic condition, the participants cycled an ergometer at 40% peak oxygen uptake. In the resistance condition, they performed resistance exercise using elastic bands. Before and after an acute bout of physical exercise, venous samples were collected for the assessment of following biomarkers: adrenaline, noradrenaline, glucose, lactate, cortisol, insulin-like growth hormone factor 1, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Reaction time decreased following both aerobic exercise and resistance exercise (p = 0.04). Repeated measures correlation analysis indicated that changes in reaction time were not associated with the peripheral biomarkers (all p > 0.05). Accuracy tended to decrease in the resistance exercise condition (p = 0.054). Accuracy was associated with changes in adrenaline [r rm (18) = -0.51, p = 0.023], noradrenaline [r rm (18) = -0.66, p = 0.002], lactate [r rm (18) = -0.47, p = 0.035], and brain-derived neurotrophic factor [r rm (17) = -0.47, p = 0.044] in the resistance condition. These findings suggest that these peripheral biomarkers do not directly contribute to reduction in reaction time following aerobic or resistance exercise. However, greater sympathoexcitation, reflected by greater increase in noradrenaline, may be associated with a tendency for a reduction in accuracy after acute resistance exercise.

13.
FASEB J ; 36 Suppl 12022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35554291

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder which can result from a range of observed symptoms pertaining to social, emotional, and cognitive processing difficulties especially regarding communication of their own feelings, opinions, and thoughts with others. Although a diagnosis received by 1 in 68 children in the United States, a cause for autism is still unknown. Both genetic and environmental factors during prenatal and postnatal development are believed to account for the emergence of ASD. It is known that early treatment improves language and cognitive abilities later. However, currently, the earliest diagnosis of ASD can be made only around 18 months of age. It is critical to be aware of an altered initial brain anatomy in ASD for better predicting what aspects of brain function will likely preferentially and precociously deteriorate, which would allow for potentially earlier/better prevention and treatment. We hypothesized that prospective ASD patients will show region-specific abnormalities in developmental stages. We have used retrospective clinical brain MRI of the fetuses who were diagnosed as ASD in later age to obtain earliest MRI-based regional volumetric biomarkers. Thirty-nine fetuses (mean age 24.87 ± 5.05 gestational week [GW]) were included in this study (9 prospective ASD patients, 20 neurotypical controls, 6 non-ASD controls with neurological comorbidities observed in the prospective ASD patients, and 4 non-ASD controls with non-neurological comorbidities observed in the prospective ASD patients. After preprocessing, the images were segmented automatically with an atlas-based automated anatomical labeling method. A set of three-factor ANOVA was performed for lobar and regional comparisons of the segmented brain regions. The insula/insular lobe showed statistically significantly larger volume in ASD than that in all three control groups in the lobar comparison. In the regional comparison, the ASD group had statistically significantly larger amygdala, hippocampal commissure, and insula compared to the non-ASD controls with neurological and non-neurological comorbidities. Our results suggest that an increased volume of the insula/insular lobe may be a strong prenatal MRI biomarker that could predict the emergence of ASD later in life. The larger amygdala and hippocampal commissure could be additional biomarkers for identifying such prospective ASD patients.

14.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 15: 842674, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35557556

RESUMO

Background: Acupuncture is an effective adjunctive therapy for chronic stable angina pectoris (CSAP), while the underlying mechanism is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the central pathophysiology of CSAP and explore the mechanism of different acupoint prescriptions for CSAP from the perspective of brain-heart interaction. Methods: Thirty-seven CSAP patients and sixty-five healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled, and thirty CSAP patients were divided into two acupoint prescriptions groups (Group A: acupoints on the meridian directly related to the Heart; Group B: acupoints on the meridian indirectly related to the Heart). The Magnetic Resonance Imaging data and clinical data were collected at baseline and after treatment. The comparisons of brain spontaneous activity patterns were performed between CSAP patients and HS, as well as between baseline and after treatment in CSAP patients. Then, the changes in resting-state functional connectivity before and after treatment were compared between the two acupoint prescriptions. Results: Chronic stable angina pectoris patients manifested higher spontaneous activity on the bilateral calcarine, left middle occipital gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and right postcentral gyrus. After acupuncture treatment, the spontaneous activity of the left calcarine, left cuneus, and right orbitofrontal gyrus was decreased. The left calcarine was identified as region-of-interest for functional connectivity analysis. Compared with group B, CSAP patients in group A had significantly increased functional connectivity between left calcarine and the left inferior temporal gyrus/cerebellum crus 1, left hippocampus, left thalamus, and left middle cingulate cortex after treatment. Thresholds for all comparisons were p < 0.05, Gaussian Random Field corrected. Conclusion: Regulating the aberrant spontaneous activity of the calcarine might be an underlying mechanism of acupuncture for CSAP. The multi-threaded modulation of functional connectivity between calcarine and multiple pain-related brain regions might be a potential mechanism for better efficacy of acupuncture at points on the meridian directly related to the Heart.

15.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 13(2): 822-832, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35557587

RESUMO

Background: Biliary cancers are rare, and few reported cases of brain metastases from primary biliary cancers exist, especially describing patients in the United States. This report assesses the proportion and incidence of brain metastases arising from primary biliary cancers [cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and gallbladder cancer] at Stanford University and the University of California, San Francisco, describes clinical characteristics, and provides a case series. Methods: We queried 3 clinical databases at Stanford and the University of California, San Francisco to retrospectively identify and review the charts of 15 patients with brain metastases from primary biliary cancers occurring between 1990 to 2020. Results: Among patients with brain metastases analyzed at Stanford (3,585), 6 had a primary biliary cancer, representing 0.17% of all brain metastases. Among biliary cancer patients at the University of California, San Francisco (1,055), 9 had brain metastases, representing an incidence in biliary cancer of 0.85%. A total of 15 biliary cancer patients with brain metastases were identified at the two institutions. Thirteen out of 15 patients (86.7%, 95% CI: 59.5-98.3) were female. The median overall survival from primary biliary cancer diagnosis was 214 days (95% CI: 71.69-336.82 days) and subsequent OS from the time of brain metastasis diagnosis was 57 days (95% CI: 13.43-120.64 days). Death within 90 days of brain metastasis diagnosis occurred in 66.67% of patients (95% CI: 38.38-88.17). Conclusions: Brain metastases from primary biliary cancers are rare, with limited survival once diagnosed. This report can aid health care providers in caring for patients with brain metastases from primary biliary cancers.

16.
Front Neurosci ; 16: 831761, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35557605

RESUMO

Disorders of gut-brain interaction (DGBI), formerly termed functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), are highly prevalent although exact pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. Intestinal immune activation has been recognized, but increasing evidence supports a pivotal role for an active inflammatory state in these disorders. In functional dyspepsia (FD), marked eosinophil and mast cell infiltration has been repeatedly demonstrated and associations with symptoms emphasize the relevance of an eosinophil-mast cell axis in FD pathophysiology. In this Review, we highlight the importance of immune activation in DGBI with a focus on FD. We summarize eosinophil biology in both homeostasis and inflammatory processes. The evidence for immune activation in FD is outlined with attention to alterations on both cellular and molecular level, and how these may contribute to FD symptomatology. As DGBI are complex and multifactorial conditions, we shed light on factors associated to, and potentially influencing immune activation, including bidirectional gut-brain interaction, allergy and the microbiota. Crucial studies reveal a therapeutic benefit of treatments targeting immune activation, suggesting that specific anti-inflammatory therapies could offer renewed hope for at least a subset of DGBI patients. Lastly, we explore the future directions for DGBI research that could advance the field. Taken together, emerging evidence supports the recognition of FD as an immune-mediated organic-based disorder, challenging the paradigm of a strictly functional nature.

17.
Front Neurol ; 13: 834277, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35557617

RESUMO

Background: Sleep disturbances are widespread among patients with essential tremor (ET) and may have adverse effects on patients' quality of life. However, the pathophysiology underlying poor quality of sleep (QoS) in patients with ET remains unclear. Our study aimed to identify gray matter (GM) network alterations in the topological properties of structural MRI related to QoS in patients with ET. Method: We enrolled 45 ET patients with poor QoS (SleET), 59 ET patients with normal QoS (NorET), and 66 healthy controls (HC), and they all underwent a three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI scan. We used a graph-theoretical approach to investigate the topological organization of GM morphological networks, and individual morphological brain networks were constructed according to the interregional similarity of GM volume distributions. Furthermore, we performed network-based statistics, and partial correlation analyses between topographic features and clinical characteristics were conducted. Results: Global network organization was disrupted in patients with ET. Compared with the NorET group, the SleET group exhibited disrupted topological GM network organization with a shift toward randomization. Moreover, they showed altered nodal centralities in mainly the frontal, temporal, parietal, and cerebellar lobes. Morphological connection alterations within the default mode network (DMN), salience, and basal ganglia networks were observed in the SleET group and were generally more extensive than those in the NorET and HC groups. Alterations within the cerebello-thalamo-(cortical) network were only detected in the SleET group. The nodal degree of the left thalamus was negatively correlated with the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale score (r = -0.354, p =0.027). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that potential complex interactions underlie tremor and sleep disruptions in patients with ET. Disruptions within the DMN and the cerebello-thalamo-(cortical) network may have a broader impact on sleep quality in patients with ET. Our results offer valuable insight into the neural mechanisms underlying poor QoS in patients with ET.

18.
Front Neurol ; 13: 823882, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35557619

RESUMO

The understanding of brain structural abnormalities across different clinical forms of dystonia and their contribution to clinical characteristics remains unclear. The objective of this study is to investigate shared and specific gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities in various forms of isolated idiopathic dystonia. We collected imaging data from 73 isolated idiopathic dystonia patients and matched them with healthy controls to explore the GMV alterations in patients and their correlations with clinical characteristics using the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) technique. In addition, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of previous VBM studies. Our study demonstrated widespread morphometry alterations in patients with idiopathic dystonia. Multiple systems were affected, which mainly included basal ganglia, sensorimotor, executive control, and visual networks. As the result of the ALE meta-analysis, a convergent cluster with increased GMV was found in the left globus pallidus. In subgroup VBM analyses, decreased putamen GMV was observed in all clinic forms, while the increased GMV was observed in parahippocampal, lingual, and temporal gyrus. GD demonstrated the most extensive GMV abnormalities in cortical regions, and the aberrant GMV of the posterior cerebellar lobe was prominent in CD. Moreover, trends of increased GMV regions of the left precuneus and right superior frontal gyrus were demonstrated in the moderate-outcome group compared with the superior-outcome group. Results of our study indicated shared pathophysiology of the disease-centered on the dysfunction of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit, impairing sensorimotor integration, high-level motor execution, and cognition of patients. Dysfunction of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit could also be involved in CD especially. Finally, the frontal-parietal pathway may act as a potential marker for predicting treatment outcomes such as deep brain stimulation.

19.
Front Neurol ; 13: 881568, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35557622

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the value of the correlation coefficient between the ICP wave amplitude and the mean ICP level (RAP) and the resistance to CSF outflow (Rout) in predicting the outcome of patients with post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) selected for shunting. Materials and Methods: As a training set, a total of 191 patients with PTH treated with VP shunting were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate the potential predictive value of Rout, collected from pre-therapeutic CSF infusion test, for a desirable recovery level (dRL), standing for the modified rankin scale (mRS) of 0-2. Eventually, there were 70 patients with PTH prospectively included as a validation set to evaluate the value of Rout-combined RAP as a predictor of dRL. We calculated Rout from a CSF infusion test and collected RAP during continuous external lumbar drainage (ELD). Maximum RAP (RAPmax) and its changes relative to the baseline (ΔRAPmax%) served as specific parameters of evaluation. Results: In the training set, Rout was proved to be a significant predictor of dRL to shunting, with the area under the curve (AUC) of 0.686 (p < 0.001) in receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In the validation set, Rout alone did not present a significant value in the prediction of desirable recovery level (dRL). ΔRAPmax% after 1st or 2nd day of ELD both showed significance in predicting of dRL to shunting with the AUC of 0.773 (p < 0.001) and 0.786 (p < 0.001), respectively. Significantly, Rout increased the value of ΔRAPmax% in the prediction of dRL with the AUC of 0.879 (p < 0.001), combining with ΔRAPmax% after the 1st and 2nd days of ELD. RAPmax after the 1st and 2nd days of ELD showed a remarkable predictive value for non-dRL (Levels 3-6 in Modified Rankin Scale) with the AUC of 0.891 (p < 0.001) and 0.746 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Both RAP and Rout can predict desirable recovery level (dRL) to shunting in patients with PTH in the early phases of treatment. A RAP-combined Rout is a better dRL predictor for a good outcome to shunting. These findings help the neurosurgeon predict the probability of dRL and facilitate the optimization of the individual treatment plan in the event of ineffective or unessential shunting.

20.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 14: 878484, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35557838

RESUMO

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has a relatively higher incidence in aging people due to walking problems. Cranial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging provide the standard diagnostic tool to identify intracranial complications in patients with mTBI. However, it is still necessary to further explore blood biomarkers for evaluating the deterioration risk at the early stage of mTBI to improve medical decision-making in the emergency department. The activation of the inflammatory response is one of the main pathological mechanisms leading to unfavorable outcomes of mTBI. As complete blood count (CBC) analysis is the most extensively used laboratory test in practice, we extracted clinical data of 994 patients with mTBI from two large clinical cohorts (MIMIC-IV and eICU-CRD) and selected inflammation-related indicators from CBC analysis to investigate their relationship with the deterioration after mTBI. The combinatorial indices neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), red cell distribution width-to-platelet ratio (RPR), and NLR times RPR (NLTRP) were supposed to be potential risk predictors, and the data from the above cohorts were integratively analyzed using our previously reported method named MeDICS. We found that NLR, RPR, and NLTRP levels were higher among deteriorated patients than non-deteriorated patients with mTBI. Besides, high NLTRP was associated with increased deterioration risk, with the odds ratio increasing from NLTRP of 1-2 (2.69, 1.48-4.89) to > 2 (4.44, 1.51-13.08), using NLTRP of 0-1 as the reference. NLTRP had a moderately good prognostic performance with an area under the ROC curve of 0.7554 and a higher prediction value than both NLR and RPR, indicated by the integrated discrimination improvement index. The decision curve analysis also showed greater clinical benefits of NLTRP than NLR and RPR in a large range of threshold probabilities. Subgroup analysis further suggested that NLTRP is an independent risk factor for the deterioration after mTBI. In addition, in vivo experiments confirmed the association between NLTRP and neural/systemic inflammatory response after mTBI, which emphasized the importance of controlling inflammation in clinical treatment. Consequently, NLTRP is a promising biomarker for the deterioration risk of mTBI. It can be used in resource-limited settings, thus being proposed as a routinely available tool at all levels of the medical system.

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