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1.
Biomed Chromatogr ; : e5585, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692333

RESUMO

Analytical techniques must be sensitive, specific, and accurate in order to assess the active pharmaceutical ingredients in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The Quality by Design (QbD) application has proven to be a practical method for magnifying HPLC operations. This article discusses the successfully developed QbD-based stability-indicative LC method for evaluating acetaminophen, caffeine, and aspirin in tablet dosage form. To achieve the necessary chromatographic separation, milli-Q water, methanol, and glacial acetic acid were employed in the following ratios: 63:35:2 (v/v/v) for mobile phase-A and 18:80:2 (v/v/v) for mobile phase-B, respectively. The flow rate, column temperature, and detecting wavelength were 1.0 mL min-1 , 40° C, and 275 nm, respectively, with Inert sustain C18, (150 × 4.6mm), 3 µm analytical column. Linearity between 10.0 and 150.0 µgmL-1 of aspirin and acetaminophen and 2.6 to 39.0 µg mL-1 of caffeine. The accuracy findings were more than 97%, and the correlation coefficient for all three components was found to be greater than 0.999. The validated HPLC methodology yielded reliable and accurate results. Aspirin was shown to be very vulnerable to both acid and alkaline hydrolysis in the forced degradation study. The described method is capable of separating the degradants produced during stress testing and is regarded as stability-indicating. The proposed method can be used for a wider range of other formulations with an appropriate diluent selection and sample preparation procedure optimization.

2.
IUCrJ ; 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692859

RESUMO

Multicomponent crystals of a chiral drug with non-chiral components have attracted increasing attention in the application of enantiomer purification and regulation of the physicochemical properties of crystalline materials. Crystalline solid solutions provide opportunities for fine-tuning material properties because of continuously adjustable component stoichiometry ratios. The synthesis, crystal structure, thermodynamics and solid-state enantioselectivity of a series of multicomponent crystals of chiral dihydromyricetin (DMY) with caffeine (CAF) or theophylline (THE) were investigated and the results reveal how the subtle change of molecular structure of the coformer dictates the enantiomer selectivity in multicomponent cocrystals. A series of multicomponent cocrystal solvates of chiral DMY with CAF and THE were synthesized by the slurry cocrystallization method in acetonitrile. Although most racemic mixtures crystallize as racemic compounds or conglomerates, both DMY-CAF and DMY-THE crystallize as chiral solid solutions, unveiled by pseudo-binary melt phase diagrams and pseudo-ternary solution phase diagrams. Crystal structures of Rac-DMY-CAF, R,R-DMY-CAF, Rac-DMY-THE and R,R-DMY-THE are reported for the first time via single-crystal X-ray diffraction, displaying two distinct types of solid solution differing in mixing scale of enantiomers spanning several orders of magnitude. Surprisingly, this remarkable impact on enantiomer discrimination was simply achieved by the reduction of a methyl group of CAF to the THE coformer, which was further rationalized from their crystal structures and intermolecular interactions. Collectively, this work has demonstrated that a subtle change in the molecular structure of a coformer can regulate enantioselectivity in crystalline materials, guiding the purification of chiral racemic compounds via the cocrystallization method and the design of solid-solution crystalline materials.

3.
Int J Cosmet Sci ; 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increasing consumer demand for natural and environmentally friendly products is driving the cosmetic industry to seek greener and safer processes. High-frequency ultrasound technology (HFUT) stabilizes emulsions without adding emulsifying surfactants (ES). In this work, the formulation characteristics of an HFUT-treated emulsion and a Reference emulsion were compared for both caffeine and α -tocopherol. METHODS: A comparison was made between ES-free emulsions and the Reference emulsions based on droplet size, viscosity, pH, and rheology behavior for both active cosmetic ingredients. The permeation of caffeine and the skin retention of a-tocopherol were studied in vitro using Franz diffusion cells on human skin biopsies, considered the gold standard for permeation assays. RESULTS: The formulations developed were stable and showed suitable droplet size distribution. In the case of ES-free emulsions, the average droplet size was inferior to 1.5 µm regardless of the polarity of the active. All formulations presented a shear-thinning pseudoplastic behavior, an attribute usually desired for cosmetic products. The skin permeation studies showed that in the case of caffeine (model hydrophilic molecule), the ES-free emulsion presented a delivery capacity similar to that of the Reference emulsion. However, for α-tocopherol (highly lipophilic model molecule), differences were observed in the distribution of the active in the stratum corneum with an advantage for the Reference emulsion, probably due to the impact of surfactants on the SC lipids. CONCLUSION: This work demonstrates that HFUT is a reliable tool able to prepare stable ES-free emulsions loaded with hydrophilic or lipophilic active ingredients. Skin permeation studies confirm that the emulsions produced by HFUT promote the delivery of the actives to the human skin. In the case of α-tocopherol, the delivery efficiency was lower than with the Reference emulsion, especially in the SC layers, due to the absence of surfactants. Nevertheless, the ES-free emulsion still represents a good compromise between efficacy and the need for green cosmetics in the market.

4.
Forensic Toxicol ; 41(1): 135-141, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652060

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are used widely, and e-cigarettes containing caffeine (Caf) have recently become commercially available. However, no risk evaluation of these Caf-containing products has been performed to date. Such an evaluation requires a sensitive analytical method for quantifying Caf in smoke from e-cigarettes. The aim of this study was to establish a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantifying vaporized Caf from commercially available e-cigarettes, and to determine minor components related to Caf in cigarette smoke extract (CSE). METHODS: A sampling system for Caf using a suction pump was designed and sampling conditions were optimized. RESULTS: The optimized LC-MS/MS conditions allowed the sensitive determination of Caf in smoke with a limit of detection of 0.03 ng/mL at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The method was applied to CSEs from five e-cigarette products and the concentration of Caf ranged from 0.894 ± 0.090 to 3.32 ± 0.14 µg/mL smoke (n = 3). Additionally, minor components related to Caf, such as theobromine, theophylline, and paraxanthine, were detected in CSE and in e-liquid at very low concentrations, indicating that they were impurities in e-liquid and vaporized along with Caf. CONCLUSION: This is the first report to determine the concentration of vaporized Caf using an LC-MS/MS method and to clarify several minor components in smoke from e-cigarettes.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cafeína/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tabaco/química
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 868: 161515, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634775

RESUMO

Monitoring the consumption of artificial sweeteners in the population is essential to help public health authorities understand the level of sugar consumption. There is a gap in knowledge of patterns and levels of artificial sweetener consumption in Vietnam. Using wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), this study aims to evaluate the use of artificial sweeteners in an urban population in Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 184 wastewater samples were collected at two sampling sites in an urban canal, receiving sewage from over 400,000 people in three different periods between 2018 and 2020. The population normalized per capita consumption of the five detected artificial sweeteners varied from 0.87 mg d-1 p-1 (sucralose) to 5.2 mg d-1 p-1 (aspartame). The daily consumption of artificial sweeteners was found to be stable throughout the week, however the consumption of artificial sweeteners was influenced by season with higher consumption in summer. Significant correlations (p < 0.01) were found among levels of artificial sweeteners and caffeine in urban canal samples, suggesting these chemicals had common sources. Population-weighted consumption load of artificial sweeteners and caffeine was compared in Vietnam, China and Australia, and the per capita consumption load mainly depended on the habitual of tea/coffee drinking in different countries. This was the first study that provided information on the artificial sweetener consumption by wastewater analysis in Vietnam. However, several sources of uncertainty (sample collection, population estimation, other sources of artificial sweeteners in wastewater, etc.) were acknowledged in this study. Further investigations on the spatial-temporal variation of artificial sweetener consumption with more intensive sampling scheme in Vietnam are recommended.

6.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 23(1): 1-9, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639595

RESUMO

The use of pre-workout supplements has become increasingly popular, including the use of supplements containing synephrine. Synephrine might stimulate weight loss and improve sports performance by its proposed adrenergic properties. However, with its increasing popularity, numerous cases of adverse events related to synephrine use have been reported. This study provides a comprehensive overview and analysis of current case reports related to the supplemental use of synephrine. The scientific literature on cases of adverse events related to synephrine intake was collected through August 2021 using Pubmed and Google Scholar and subsequently reviewed and analysed. We obtained 30 case reports describing a total of 35 patients who suffered from medical complaints following use of synephrine-containing supplements. The patients most often presented with chest pain, palpitations, syncope and dizziness. Commonly raised diagnoses were ischaemic heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias and cerebrovascular disease. Five patients were left disabled or remained on medication at last follow-up. We here show an association between the use of pre-workout supplements containing synephrine and adverse events, mainly related to the cardiovascular system. However, we cannot exclude a role of possible confounding factors such as caffeine. Thus, the use of pre-workout supplements containing synephrine may lead to serious adverse health events, and therefore, caution is needed.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Sinefrina , Humanos , Sinefrina/efeitos adversos , Cafeína , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/induzido quimicamente
7.
Cells ; 12(2)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672253

RESUMO

This study was aimed to determine the impact of different taurine and caffeine combinations on the motility, viability, and oxidative markers of chilled stallion spermatozoa. Each stallion semen sample was diluted in a ratio of 1:2, with various taurine and caffeine concentrations (2.5-7.5 mg/mL taurine + 0.625-1.25 mg/mL caffeine) dissolved in a conventional extender. The control samples (CON) were prepared by diluting ejaculate only using the conventional extender. The motility was analyzed using a CASA system at different time intervals (0, 6, 12, 24, and 30 h) and the viability was evaluated using a mitochondrial toxicity test (MTT) performed at the end of the incubation at 5 °C. The liquid part of experimental samples was separated by centrifugation after 30 h of incubation and underwent the evaluation of oxidative stress via the quantification of markers ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and total oxidant status (TOS). The samples that were treated with a combination of taurine and caffeine significantly improved the motility parameters, mainly after 12, 24, and 30 h of incubation. Samples extended with combination of taurine and caffeine neither compromise viability nor alterations of redox status. The results of this study describe the combination of taurine and caffeine as an optimal supplement for improving the quality of stallion semen during chilled storage.


Assuntos
Preservação do Sêmen , Sêmen , Animais , Cavalos , Masculino , Cafeína/farmacologia , Taurina/farmacologia , Motilidade Espermática , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Espermatozoides
8.
J Psychopharmacol ; : 2698811221147152, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36628993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Withdrawal from addictive drugs can be reduced by administering placebo deceptively, but in the clinic it is unethical to deceive the patient. Open-label placebo effects have been observed across a range of psychophysiological phenomena, and may also apply to drug withdrawal. METHOD: 24-hour abstinent heavy coffee drinkers (N = 61) rated their caffeine withdrawal symptoms before being allocated to one of three groups. The Deceptive group was given decaffeinated coffee (decaf) and told it was caffeinated, the Open-Label group given decaf and told it was decaf and the Control group given water and told it was water. After 45 min, caffeine withdrawal was measured again. All participants rated their expectancies of withdrawal reduction from caffeinated coffee, decaf and water prior to being randomised and the end of the study. RESULTS: There was a significant 9.5-point reduction in caffeine withdrawal in the Open-Label group (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.7, 14.3; p = 0.002), which was 8.6 points less than the Deceptive group (95%CI: 0.4, 16.8; p = 0.014) but 8.9 points greater than the Control group (95%CI: 0.6, 17.2; p = 0.012). Pre-randomisation, participants expected caffeinated coffee to reduce their withdrawal symptoms the most, followed by water and decaf, Pre-randomisation expectancy of withdrawal was only associated with amount of withdrawal reduction in the Deceptive group. CONCLUSION: It appears as if open-label placebo caffeine (i.e. decaf) can reduce caffeine withdrawal symptoms, even when people do not hold a conscious expectancy it will do so. There may be ways to integrate open-label placebo procedures into clinical interventions for drug dependence without violating informed consent.

9.
Neurosci Res ; 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36642104

RESUMO

Information integration in the brain requires functional connectivity between local neural networks. Here, we investigated the interregional coupling mechanism from the viewpoint of oscillations using optical recording methods. Low-frequency electrical stimulation of rat neocortical slices in a caffeine-containing medium induced oscillatory activity between the primary visual cortex (Oc1) and medial secondary visual cortex (Oc2M), in which the oscillation generator was located in the Oc2M and was triggered by a feedforward signal. During to-and-fro oscillatory activity, neural excitation was marked in layer II/III. When the upper layer was disrupted between Oc1 and Oc2M, feedforward signals could propagate through the deep layer and switch on the oscillator in the Oc2M. When the lower layer was disrupted between Oc1 and Oc2M, feedforward signals could propagate through the upper layer and switch on the oscillator in the Oc2M. In the backward direction, neither the upper layer cut nor the lower layer cut disrupted the propagation of the oscillations. In all cases, the horizontal and vertical pathways were used as needed. Fluctuations in the oscillatory waveforms of the local field potential at the upper and lower layers in the Oc2M were reversed, suggesting that the oscillation originated between the two layers. Thus, the neocortex may work as a safety device for interregional communications in an alternative way to drive voltage oscillators in the neocortex. DATA AVAILABILITY: The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

10.
J Biol Eng ; 17(1): 2, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 7-Methylxanthine, a derivative of caffeine noted for its lack of toxicity and ability to treat and even prevent myopia progression, is a high-value biochemical with limited natural availability. Attempts to produce 7-methylxanthine through purely chemical methods of synthesis are faced with complicated chemical processes and/or the requirement of a variety of hazardous chemicals, resulting in low yields and racemic mixtures of products. In recent years, we have developed engineered microbial cells to produce several methylxanthines, including 3-methylxanthine, theobromine, and paraxanthine. The purpose of this study is to establish a more efficient biosynthetic process for the production of 7-methylxanthine from caffeine. RESULTS: Here, we describe the use of a mixed-culture system composed of Escherichia coli strains engineered as caffeine and theobromine "specialist" cells. Optimal reaction conditions for the maximal conversion of caffeine to 7-methylxanthine were determined to be equal concentrations of caffeine and theobromine specialist cells at an optical density (600 nm) of 50 reacted with 2.5 mM caffeine for 5 h. When scaled-up to 560 mL, the simple biocatalytic reaction produced 183.81 mg 7-methylxanthine from 238.38 mg caffeine under ambient conditions, an 85.6% molar conversion. Following HPLC purification and solvent evaporation, 153.3 mg of dried 7-methylxanthine powder was collected, resulting in an 83.4% product recovery. CONCLUSION: We present the first report of a biocatalytic process designed specifically for the production and purification of the high-value biochemical 7-methylxanthine from caffeine using a mixed culture of E. coli strains. This process constitutes the most efficient method for the production of 7-methylxanthine from caffeine to date.

11.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-9, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595573

RESUMO

Objective: We examined how attributions of broad ambiguous desire symptoms (eg, irritability) and elaborations on specific substances (ie, caffeine/food) influence subsequent self-reported cravings for these substances. Participants: 346 undergraduates were randomized to attribute their ambiguous desire symptoms to a lack of caffeine, food, or a vacation (active control), and then elaborate on the assigned stimulus. There was also a no-elaboration control group. Methods: Generalized Linear Models were used to test whether elaborating on one substance would increase cravings for that substance and decrease craving for the unelaborated substance relative to controls. Results: Participants who elaborated in terms of food reported increased food cravings, whereas participants who elaborated in terms of caffeine reported increased caffeine cravings. Conclusions: Findings suggest that food and caffeine cravings are malleable, and point to the importance of elaboration in polysubstance contexts. Food and caffeine elaborations may matter for heightening craving and determining the targets of craving.

12.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 291: 122317, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621026

RESUMO

Highly sensitive micellar spectrofluorimetric method (Method I) has been developed and validated for the determination of diphenylpyraline HCl in pharmaceutical tablets and in plasma. Sodium dodecyl sulfate improves the intensity of fluorescence of diphenylpyraline at 286 nm at pH 5 that allow its determination in plasma at nano-level. the mean percent recovery ± S.D was 99.719 ± 0.338 in plasma. In addition, Green cyclodextrin-modified micellar liquid chromatographic method (Method II) has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of diphenylpyraline, paracetamol and caffeine using cyclodextrin micellar mobile phase consisted of 30 mM Brij*35, 0.5 mM hydroxypropyl ß-cyclodextrin and phosphate buffer pH 4: MeOH (95:5, %v/v) that allows their simultaneous determination with enhanced spectrofluorimetric detection of diphenylpyraline. Method II was effectively applied for the simultaneous determination of diphenylpyraline, paracetamol and caffeine in a ternary laboratory prepared mixture which contained all possible excipients with mean percent recoveries ± S.D of 100.176 ± 1.008, 101.166 ± 0.415 and 100.708 ± 1.836, respectively. Linearity range for Method I was 0.1-1 µg. mL-1 for diphenylpyraline and for Method II was 0.3-50, 25-350, and 0.5-50 for caffeine, paracetamol and diphenylpyraline, respectively. Method I was also applied in spiked human plasma with linearity range 0.2-0.5 µg. mL-1. The methods are verified to have excellent greenness.

13.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112182, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596123

RESUMO

Despite some studies on tea leaf cuticular wax, their component changes during dehydration and withering treatments in tea processing and suspected relation with tea flavor quality formation remain unknown. Here, we showed that tea leaf cuticular wax changed drastically in tea leaf development, dehydration, or withering treatment during tea processing, which affected tea flavor formation. Caffeine was found as a major component of leaf cuticular wax. Caffeine and inositol contents in leaf cuticular wax increased during dehydration and withering treatments. Comparisons showed that tea varieties with higher leaf cuticular wax loading produced more aroma than these with lower cuticular wax loading, supporting a positive correlation between tea leaf cuticular wax loading and degradation with white tea aroma formation. Dehydration or withering treatment of tea leaves also increased caffeine and inositol levels in leaf cuticular wax and triggered cuticular wax degradation into various molecules, that could be related to tea flavor formation. Thus, tea leaf cuticular waxes not only protect tea plants but also contribute to tea flavor formation. The study provides new insight into the dynamic changes of tea leaf cuticular waxes for tea plant protection and tea flavor quality formation in tea processing.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Desidratação , Desidratação/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Cafeína/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ceras , Inositol , Chá/metabolismo
14.
J Diet Suppl ; : 1-15, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602880

RESUMO

Present study aimed compared pharmacokinetic profile of sustained-release CaffXtend® capsules (SR-Caffeine) with immediate-release caffeine capsules (IR-Caffeine), and the effect of SR-caffeine on memory, motivation, concentration, and attention. This open-label, randomized, single-dose, two-treatment, two-sequence, two-period, two-way crossover oral bioavailability study block randomized (1:1) healthy subjects (N = 15) to receive SR-Caffeine (200 mg) and IR-Caffeine (200 mg). Blood samples were collected at 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h in each period. Primary study outcome included comparing relative bioavailability of SR-Caffeine 200 mg and IR-Caffeine 200 mg under fasting conditions, and changes in caffeine research visual analogue scale (Caff-VAS) scores ('relaxed', 'alert', 'jittery', 'tired', 'tense', 'headache', 'overall mood' and 'mentally fatigued') were also evaluated. Fifteen subjects completed the study. Mean tmax was 4.08 ± 2.13h for SR-Caffeine compared to 0.83 ± 0.39h for IR-Caffeine, (p < 0.0001). Similarly, mean t½ was 7.07 ± 3.48h for SR-Caffeine compared to 5.78 ± 2.11h for IR-Caffeine (p = 0.04189). However, total exposure was similar for SR-Caffeine and IR-Caffeine (90% CI: 89.89-120.50% to 94.49-123.82% for geometric least square mean of ln-transformed AUC0-t and AUC0-∞). In the Caff-VAS evaluation, the SR-Caffeine group showed significantly better scores for 'jitteriness', 'tiredness', 'alertness' and 'overall mood' for 8-12 h than the IR-Caffeine group. No adverse events were reported. Results demonstrated sustained release of caffeine over 24 h from SR-Caffeine as compared to IR-Caffeine, which showed significant improvements in the scores for 'relaxed', 'alertness' and 'overall mood' and significantly lower scores for the parameters-'jittery' and 'tired' for extended period.Clinical trial registration: CTRI/2021/06/034185.

15.
J Ovarian Res ; 16(1): 2, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) patients are predisposed to metabolic disturbances, including in lipid metabolism and glucose metabolism, and metabolic disorders appear to be a prerequisite of the typical long-term complications of POI, such as cardiovascular diseases or osteoporosis. However, the metabolic changes underlying the development of POI and its subsequent complications are incompletely understood, and there are few studies characterizing the disturbed metabolome in POI patients. The aim of this study was to characterize the plasma metabolome in POI by using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) metabolomics and to evaluate whether these disturbances identified in the plasma metabolome relate to ovarian reserve and have diagnostic value in POI. METHODS: This observational study recruited 30 POI patients and 30 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls in the Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, from January 2018 to October 2020. Fasting venous blood was collected at 9:00 am on days 2-4 of the menstrual cycle and centrifuged for analysis. An untargeted quantitative metabolomic analysis was performed using UHPLC-MS/MS. RESULTS: Our study identified 48 upregulated and 21 downregulated positive metabolites, and 13 upregulated and 48 downregulated negative metabolites in the plasma of POI patients. The differentially regulated metabolites were involved in pathways such as caffeine metabolism and ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis. Six metabolites with an AUC value > 0.8, including arachidonoyl amide, 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoic acid, dihexyl nonanedioate, 18-HETE, cystine, and PG (16:0/18:1), were correlated with ovarian reserve and thus have the potential to be diagnostic biomarkers of POI. CONCLUSION: This UHPLC-MS/MS untargeted metabolomics study revealed differentially expressed metabolites in the plasma of patients with POI. The differential metabolites may not only be involved in the aetiology of POI but also contribute to its major complications. These findings offer a panoramic view of the plasma metabolite changes caused by POI, which may provide useful diagnostic and therapeutic clues for POI disease.


Assuntos
Menopausa Precoce , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária , Feminino , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Metaboloma , Ciclo Menstrual , Metabolômica
16.
Biomedicines ; 11(1)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672692

RESUMO

Preterm infants are often treated with caffeine as a respiratory stimulant. However, follow-up data shows caffeine may also have neuroprotective potential. There are several theories as to how caffeine might protect the brain, but none have been proven. This study looked at caffeine effects on microglial activation in rodent brains post hypoxic ischemic (HI) injury. Rat pups underwent either sham or HI surgery on P6, followed by treatment with either caffeine or saline. Forty-eight hours post-injury, brains were collected and underwent paraffin embedding and sectioning followed by immunofluorescence staining. Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) was used to label microglia, and 4',6-diamindino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) was used to label DNA. Cell size measurements of microglia were obtained to gauge microglia activation, and chromatin condensation (DAPI optical density) was used as an index of neuronal cell death. Results suggest that caffeine does offer protective effects, based on significantly increased levels of cell death in HI-saline animals not seen in caffeine-treated HI males and females. However, the mechanism of action may be different. Male HI animals showed marginally reduced microglial activation following caffeine treatment, whereas females did not. Results indicate that though caffeine may act protectively in both sexes by reducing cell death, the benefits may be mediated by different mechanisms.

17.
Food Chem Toxicol ; : 113629, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36682416

RESUMO

Caffeine is a kind of psychostimulant that naturally exist in foods. The benefits and risks of caffeine depend on the dose. Moreover, the intake of caffeine from dietary sources in China has seldom been assessed. We calculated the dietary caffeine intake of Chinese adult consumers from 2004 to 2018 and analyzed its consumption trends by using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey and the National Food and Beverage Consumption Survey. Caffeine contents in different dietary items were determined by HPLC. Monte Carlo simulations were applied to estimate caffeine intake. Mann-Kendall trend test and linear regression were used to analyze the trend of caffeine consumption. Among 79,173 individuals, 3972 (5%) of the adult Chinese population consumed caffeine between 2004 and 2018. The average caffeine intake was 123 mg/day for male consumers and 116 mg/day for female consumers. The median and P75 caffeine intake raised over the 14 years. Traditional tea leaves, coffee and sodas are the main sources of caffeine intake. Our findings indicate that most Chinese adults consumed caffeine within the safe level (400 mg/day), but the caffeine consumption has shown an increasing trend in recent 14 years.

18.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678305

RESUMO

The plant extract guarana is known for its caffeine content and other bioactive ingredients, which purportedly may improve cognitive performance. Recent reviews have examined the effects of chronic supplementation of guarana in clinical populations; however, the acute effects of guarana on cognitive tasks, while of interest, have produced mixed results. Whether acute guarana ingestion improves human cognitive performance was assessed by performing a systematic review coupled with a meta-analysis. Eight placebo-controlled studies were identified and met the inclusion criteria providing data on 328 participants. The dose of guarana (37.5 to 500 mg) with reported caffeine content (4.3 to 100 mg) varied. Effect sizes (ESs) were calculated as the standardized mean difference and meta-analyses were completed using a random-effects model. The ESs for guarana averaged across a variety of cognitive measures and outcome variables were less than trivial (Hedge's g = 0.076, p = 0.14). Using a subgroup meta-analysis (Q = 12.9, p < 0.001), ESs indicating a faster response time for guarana vs. a placebo (g = 0.202, p = 0.005) differed from the accuracy measures (g = -0.077, p = 0.4) which were non-significant. For response time, guarana ingested in a capsule (g = 0.111) tended to differ (Q = 2.96, p = 0.085) compared to guarana when dissolved in liquid (g = 0.281). Meta-regression of the study ESs of overall cognitive task performance was not related to the guarana dose (R2 < 0.001) or to the time allowed prior to cognitive testing (R2 < 0.001). Acute guarana ingestion had a small effect on the response time (faster performance) during a variety of cognitive tasks without affecting the accuracy. Whether the changes were linked to the caffeine content or other bioavailable substances in guarana is unknown. Additional studies that directly compare matched doses of caffeine versus guarana are needed to understand its effects on cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Cafeína , Paullinia , Humanos , Cafeína/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Tempo de Reação , Cognição
19.
Toxics ; 11(1)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36668801

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to understand the distribution of the personal care products nonylphenol (NP), triclosan (TCS), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), and caffeine in the sludges from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTP-A, -B, and -C) in southern Taiwan. The four compounds were analyzed from activated sludge and dewatered sludge samples, and then the samples were treated with pressure-assisted ozonation under different conditions and removal efficiencies. All four target compounds were detected, especially NP, which was detected in the highest concentrations in the activated sludges of WWTP-A and dewatered sludges of WWTP-C at 17.19 ± 4.10 and 2.41 ± 1.93 µg/g, respectively. TCS was dominant in dewatered sludges from WWTP-B, and the highest detected concentration was 13.29 ± 6.36 µg/g. Removals of 70% and 90% were attained under 150 psi at 40 cycles for NP and TCS, respectively, with 5 min of ozonation reaction time, a solid/water ratio of 1:20, and 2% ozone concentration. Ecological risk quotients (RQs) were calculated by the ratios of the 10-day Hyalella azteca (freshwater amphipod) LC50 to the environmental concentrations of the target compounds. High RQs were found to be >10 for NP, TCS, and BP-3 in untreated sludges, resulting in significant ecological risks to aquatic organisms when the sludges are arbitrarily disposed. However, the toxic effects on Hyalella azteca were not significantly different among ozone sludge treatments. The reason for this may be related to the formation of toxic oxidation by-products and incomplete mineralization of organic compounds. This could also be true for unknown intermediates. The relatively high detection frequencies of these emerging compounds in WWTP sludges requires further applications and treatments.

20.
Biomolecules ; 13(1)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671491

RESUMO

Adenosine receptors mainly control synaptic function, and excessive activation of adenosine receptors may worsen the onset of many neurological disorders. Accordingly, the regular intake of moderate doses of caffeine antagonizes adenosine receptors and affords robust neuroprotection. Although caffeine intake alters brain functional connectivity and multi-omics analyses indicate that caffeine intake modifies synaptic and metabolic processes, it is unclear how caffeine intake affects behavior, synaptic plasticity and its modulation by adenosine. We now report that male mice drinking caffeinated water (0.3 g/L) for 2 weeks were behaviorally indistinguishable (locomotion, mood, memory) from control mice (drinking water) and displayed superimposable synaptic plasticity (long-term potentiation) in different brain areas (hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, amygdala). Moreover, there was a general preservation of the efficiency of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors to control synaptic transmission and plasticity, although there was a tendency for lower levels of endogenous adenosine ensuring A1 receptor-mediated inhibition. In spite of similar behavioral and neurophysiological function, caffeine intake increased the energy charge and redox state of cortical synaptosomes. This increased metabolic competence likely involved a putative increase in the glycolytic rate in synapses and a prospective greater astrocyte-synapse lactate shuttling. It was concluded that caffeine intake does not trigger evident alterations of behavior or of synaptic plasticity but increases the metabolic competence of synapses, which might be related with the previously described better ability of animals consuming caffeine to cope with deleterious stimuli triggering brain dysfunction.


Assuntos
Adenosina , Cafeína , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Cafeína/farmacologia , Adenosina/farmacologia , Adenosina/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores Purinérgicos P1/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo
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