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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252426, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374656

RESUMO

Fresh dates of seventeen varieties and khalts from Southern Morocco were analysed for their colour, pigments content, and sensory profile. The results showed significant differences between the sensory profiles of the samples due to the variability of the genotype and their different origin. Fresh date varieties and khalts were a good source of ß-carotene (0.49 - 10.86 µg of ß-carotene /100 g FW). The results revealed that the date varieties and khalts were found to have an excellent functional composition and good sensory characteristics. Therefore, these varieties of Moroccan dates could be used for fresh consumption and in the processing industry, which will constitute a significant source of antioxidants.


Tâmaras frescas de 17 variedades e khalts do sul do Marrocos foram analisadas por sua cor, conteúdo de pigmentos e perfil sensorial. Os resultados mostraram diferenças significativas entre os perfis sensoriais das amostras devido à variabilidade do genótipo e suas diferentes origens. Variedades de tâmaras frescas e khalts foram consideradas uma boa fonte de ß-caroteno (0,49-10,86 µg de ß-caroteno / 100 g FW). Na verdade, os resultados revelaram que as variedades de tâmaras e khalts apresentam uma boa composição funcional e boas características sensoriais. Portanto, essas variedades de tâmaras marroquinas podem ser usadas para consumo in natura e na indústria de processamento, que constituirá uma fonte considerável de antioxidantes.


Assuntos
Pigmentação da Pele , Carotenoides , Phoeniceae/genética , Antioxidantes
2.
Food Chem ; 400: 134060, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108444

RESUMO

The published literature has shown that there are various evaluation methods for the process of carotenoids digestion and absorption. However, it was found that many concepts are ambiguous in the evaluation process, and the selection of evaluation methods is inappropriate and inaccurate. These deficiencies trouble readers, hamper comparisons among different studies, and generate controversy in different literature. Therefore, it is imperative to establish a complete and standardized system for evaluating the digestion and absorption process of carotenoids. This review begins by clarifying confusing concepts during the process of carotenoids digestion and absorption, including the release rate, micellization rate, bioaccessibility, relative bioavailability and absolute bioavailability. Then this review discusses relevant factors affecting the key process of the digestion and absorption of carotenoids. Finally, a more specific and standardized system for evaluating carotenoids bioavailability was suggested based on four dimensions: intake, digestion, absorption and metabolic process. Clarifying concepts such as digestion and absorption and standardizing corresponding research methods will help to obtain reliable data and support interoperability and comparisons across studies.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Digestão , Disponibilidade Biológica , Fenômenos Químicos
3.
Food Chem ; 398: 133909, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964568

RESUMO

Carotenoids are important secondary metabolites that may participate in response to extreme environments. Fruit color changes were observed in peaches growing at altitude on the Tibetan Plateau. Here, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed 43 kinds of carotenoids in 96 Tibetan peach and 12 cultivated peach fruit samples. Comparative analysis revealed that 25 kinds of carotenoids accumulated at significantly different levels between Tibetan peaches and cultivated peaches. Based on a population structure analysis, the carotenoid levels of Tibetan peaches were divided into two groups, which are mainly affected by the environmental factors light and temperature. The correlation analysis implied that the levels of 9 carotenoids were significantly correlated with altitude. qRT-PCR results showed that PSY, CCD4 and BCH were significantly differently expressed between the low and high altitude Tibetan peaches. In summary, this study showed that the abundant variation in carotenoids was highly associated with high-altitude adaptations in Tibetan peach fruit.


Assuntos
Prunus persica , Altitude , Carotenoides/análise , Frutas/química , Prunus persica/genética , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Tibet
4.
Food Chem ; 398: 133908, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988415

RESUMO

Color is the first attribute that influences the acceptance of foods as they become more attractive to consumers when they are more intense and uniform. In recent years, the interest of producers and consumers in purchasing products containing natural ingredients have constantly increased. Natural pigments are commonly extracted from fruits and vegetables, and have been proven to provide health benefits to reduce the risk of diseases such as type-1 diabetes, obesity, and coronary diseases. Additionally, advanced extraction and encapsulation technologies that make food matrices more efficient are useful tools for improving the use of these pigments. In this review, the state-of-the-art of pigments such as carotenoids, anthocyanins, and betalains of plant origin are discussed, including their main sources of production and the factors that affect their physicochemical stability. In addition, different extraction methods are discussed, listing their advantages and disadvantages, and providing some applications of natural pigments in food.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Betalaínas , Carotenoides , Pigmentação , Verduras
5.
Food Chem ; 399: 133969, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007443

RESUMO

Bloodroot (Haemodorum spicatum) is an Australian native bulb plant yielding red pigment. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic and carotenoid profiles of the 80% ethanol extract of the H. spicatum bulb by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS and HPLC-DAD. Results revealed the relatively low total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the bulb extract with the maximum absorbance at 477 nm. Only 2 carotenoids (lutein and capsanthin) were detected at relatively low levels in the extract. A total of 40 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified, including 5 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids and 22 other phenolic compounds, where 35 were reported for the first time in H. spicatum, together with 3 previously reported phenylphenalenones, haemodorol, haemoxiphidone and 2,5,6-trimethoxy-9-phenyl-1H-phenalen-1-one, and 2 oxabenzochrysenones, 5-hydroxy-2-methoxy-1H-naphtho[2,1,8-mna]xanthen-1-one and 5-hydroxy-1H-naphtho[2,1,8-mna]xanthen-1-one. This study provided the most comprehensive phenolic and carotenoid profiles of H. spicatum up to date.


Assuntos
Etanol , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Austrália , Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
6.
Cancer Res Commun ; 2(3): 202-210, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36134125

RESUMO

Cancer-related fatigue is a prevalent, debilitating condition, and preliminary evidence suggests a relationship between higher diet quality and lower fatigue. Serum-based carotenoids, Vitamin A, and Vitamin E are biomarkers of fruit and vegetable intake and therefore diet quality. To further elucidate the link between diet quality and cancer-related fatigue, associations were assessed between these serum-based nutrients and fatigue among American adults with special attention to cancer history. Data were analyzed from the United States 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset. Ten carotenoids, vitamin A, vitamin E, and γ-tocopherol were measured from fasting blood samples and fatigue was patient-reported. Associations between carotenoid concentration and fatigue were estimated using ordinal logistic regression models. Adjusted models included a diagnosis of cancer (with the exception on non-melanoma skin cancer, yes/no), age, body mass index, race/ethnicity, education, and exercise habits as covariates, and additional models included a cancer×nutrient interaction. Of 4091 participants, 272 (8.0%) reported a history of cancer. Greater fatigue was associated with lower serum trans-lycopene, retinyl palmitate, and retinyl stearate (all p<0.05) in separate models adjusting for potential confounders. For these nutrients, a one-standard deviation increase in nutrient was associated with a 6.8-9.9% lower risk of greater fatigue. Among cancer survivors only (n=272), statistically significant associations were not observed between any of the nutrients and fatigue. In conclusion, greater serum concentrations of carotenoid biomarkers were associated with less fatigue. These results support further exploration into relationships between carotenoid intake, diet quality, and persistent fatigue.

7.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(9)2022 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36136531

RESUMO

The two main methods for partitioning crude methanolic extract from Amphidinium carterae biomass were compared. The objective was to obtain three enriched fractions containing amphidinols (APDs), carotenoids, and fatty acids. Since the most valuable bioproducts are APDs, their recovery was the principal goal. The first method consisted of a solid-phase extraction (SPE) in reverse phase that, for the first time, was optimized to fractionate organic methanolic extracts from Amphidinium carterae biomass using reverse-phase C18 as the adsorbent. The second method consisted of a two-step liquid-liquid extraction coupled with SPE and, alternatively, with solvent partitioning. The SPE method allowed the recovery of the biologically-active fraction (containing the APDs) by eluting with methanol (MeOH): water (H2O) (80:20 v/v). Alternatively, an APD purification strategy using solvent partitioning proved to be a better approach for providing APDs in a clear-cut way. When using n-butanol, APDs were obtained at a 70% concentration (w/w), whereas for the SPE method, the most concentrated fraction was only 18% (w/w). For the other fractions (carotenoids and fatty acids), a two-step liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method coupled with the solvent partitioning method presented the best results.

8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2022 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36151954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maize is a sought-after food crop since its micronutrient-rich and affordable. It is an excellent source of carotenoids and tocochromanols. To investigate ways to enhance the micronutrients in maize, we grew maize seedlings with ultrasonic pretreatment to study the effect of ultrasound pretreatment on the biofortification of tocochromanols and carotenoids using high-performance liquid chromatography and Real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Four tocopherol isomers, three tocotrienol isomers, and six carotenoid components were measured in maize seedlings. Compared with the untreated maize seedlings, carotenoid contents increased and reached the highest level at 8-min ultrasonic pretreatment (19.21±0.44 µg·g-1 FW), but tocotrienol contents decreased evidently. Tocopherol dropped at first but began to rise after 8-min ultrasonic pretreatment (258.1±6.4 µg·g-1 FW). In particular, zeaxanthin in maize seedlings doubled after pre-sonication, while lutein was boosted to 11.81±0.20 µg·g-1 FW. Ultrasonic pretreatment changed the predominant component of tocochromanols in maize seedlings from γ-tocotrienol to α-tocopherol, with the latter content being 1.3 times higher than in the untreated group. Up-regulation of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of tocopherols and carotenoids in maize seedlings as a result of both 2-minute and 6-minute sonication pretreatment. Especially Zm HPPD, Zm ZE, Zm ZDS, and Zm MPBQ-MT could partly explain the changes in these phytochemicals. CONCLUSION: Wet ultrasonic pretreatment could increase tocopherols and carotenoids accumulation in maize seedlings but decrease tocotrienols synthesis. Some up-regulating genes are related to relevant syntheses, such as Zm HPPD, Zm ZE, Zm ZDS, and Zm MPBQ-MT, which could influence the accumulation of tocopherols and carotenoids after ultrasonic pretreatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(9)2022 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36139750

RESUMO

Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-4,4'-diketo-ß-ß carotene), which belongs to the xanthophyll class, has shown potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models including as a potent antioxidant, anti-lipid peroxidation and cardiovascular disease prevention agent. It is mainly extracted from an alga, Haematococcus pluvialis. As a highly lipid-soluble carotenoid, astaxanthin has been shown to have poor oral bioavailability, which limits its clinical applications. Recently, there have been several suggestions and the development of various types of nano-formulation, loaded with astaxanthin to enhance their bioavailability. The employment of nanoemulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, chitosan-based and PLGA-based nanoparticles as delivery vehicles of astaxanthin for nutritional supplementation purposes has proven a higher oral bioavailability of astaxanthin. In this review, we highlight the pharmacological properties, pharmacokinetics profiles and current developments of the nano-formulations of astaxanthin for its oral delivery that are believed to be beneficial for future applications. The limitations and future recommendations are also discussed in this review.

10.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 190: 133-144, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115267

RESUMO

Waterlogging causes various metabolic, physiological, and morphological changes in crops, resulting in yield loss of most legumes in rainfed and irrigated agriculture. However, research on cowpea genotypes using physiological and biochemical traits as a measure of tolerance to waterlogging stress is limited. We evaluated the impacts of 7 days of waterlogging (DOW) and 7 days of recovery (DOR) on the physiology and biochemistry of two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) genotypes (UCR 369 and EpicSelect.4) with contrasting waterlogging tolerance. Cowpea genotypes were grown in a controlled environment until the R2 stage and then subjected to 7 DOW. Later, the waterlogged plants were reoxygenated for an additional 7 DOR. Overall, cowpea genotypes had a contrasting response to waterlogging using different mechanisms. Compared to the control, the photosynthetic parameters of both cowpea genotypes were impaired under 7 DOW and could not recover at 7 DOR, with a larger decline in EpicSelect.4.7 DOW caused significant loss in the chlorophyll and carotenoid content of both genotypes. However, only waterlogged UCR 369 was not photo-inhibited and able to restore the levels of chlorophyll and carotenoids at 7 DOR. In addition, 7 DOW induced intense stress in UCR 369 with increased zeaxanthin, sucrose, and flavonoid content, while these metabolites were decreased in EpicSelect.4. On the other hand, glucose, fructose, and phenolic content were increased in EpicSelect.4 but decreased in UCR 369 at 7 DOR. In summary, compared to EpicSelect.4, UCR 369 restored their photosynthetic pigments and metabolites to the control levels at 7 DOR, indicating a likely tolerance to waterlogging stress.

11.
Biotechnol Adv ; 61: 108033, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096404

RESUMO

Carotenoids are natural pigments that widely exist in nature. Due to their excellent antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties, carotenoids are commonly used in food, medicine, cosmetic and other fields. At present, natural carotenoids are mainly extracted from plants, algae and microorganisms. With the rapid development of metabolic engineering and molecular biology as well as the continuous in-depth study of carotenoids synthesis pathways, industrial microorganisms have showed promising applications in the synthesis of carotenoids. In this review, we introduced the properties of several carotenoids and their biosynthetic metabolism process. Then, the microorganisms synthesizing carotenoids through the natural and non-natural pathways and the extraction methods of carotenoids were summarized and compared. Meanwhile, the influence of substrates on the carotenoids production was also listed. The methods and strategies for achieving high carotenoid production are categorized to help with future research.

12.
Front Nutr ; 9: 990529, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36118770

RESUMO

Finding promising purple tea germplasm that would target new tea products for diversification and value addition boost the tea industry's economic growth. Accordingly, 10 tea germplasm viz. TRA St. 817, TRA St. 293, TRA St. 400, TRA 177/3, TRA 376/2, TRA 376/3, TRA 427/7, TRA P7, TRA P8, and TV1 were evaluated in terms of gas exchange parameters, multiplication performance, and biochemical markers such as chlorophyll, carotenoids, and anthocyanin content, which are related to the purple tea quality. The investigated gas exchange and biochemical parameters revealed significant differences. Germplasm TRA St.817 was physiologically more efficient (24.7 µmol m-2 s-1), followed by TRA St. 293, exhibiting the highest net photosynthesis, water use efficiency (19.02 µmol mmol-1), carboxylation efficiency (0.73), chlorophyll fluorescence or photochemical efficiency of PSII (0.754) and mesophyll efficiency (ci/gs ratio: 2.54). Net photosynthesis was positively correlated with water use efficiency, carboxylation efficiency, mesophyll efficiency, and photochemical efficiency of PSII (r = 0.965**, 0.937**, 0.857**, 0.867**; P = 0.05), respectively, but negatively correlated with the transpiration ratio (r = -0.878**; P = 0.05) based on Pearson correlation analysis. The total anthocyanin content (4764.19 µg.g-1 fresh leaf weight) and carotenoid content (3.825 mg.g-1 fresh leaf weight) were highest in the TRA St.817 germplasm, followed by germplasm TRA St. 293 (2926.18 µg.g-1 FW). In contrast, total chlorophyll content was significantly low (1.779 mg.g-1 fresh weight), which is very suitable for manufacturing purple tea. The highest carotenoid concentration in TRA St. 817 was 3.825 mg.g-1 FW, followed by TRA P8 (3.475 mg.g-1 FW), favoring the formation of more volatile flavor constituents. The promising germplasm, TRA St 817, has a multiplication success rate of 91.4% through cleft grafting. The outcome reveals that TRA St.817 is a promising germplasm that can be used to make speciality teas, i.e., purple tea.

13.
Bioessays ; : e2200133, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127289

RESUMO

Carotenoids play pivotal roles in vision as light filters and precursor of chromophore. Many vertebrates also display the colorful pigments as ornaments in bare skin parts and feathers. Proteins involved in the transport and metabolism of these lipids have been identified including class B scavenger receptors and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases. Recent research implicates members of the Aster protein family, also known as GRAM domain-containing (GRAMD), in carotenoid metabolism. These multi-domain proteins facilitate the intracellular movement of carotenoids from their site of cellular uptake by scavenger receptors to the site of their metabolic processing by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases. We provide a model how the coordinated interplay of these proteins and their differential expression establishes carotenoid distribution patterns and function in tissues, with particular emphasis on the human retina.

14.
Food Res Int ; 160: 111590, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076433

RESUMO

Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that stand out from conventional food sources and ingredients due to their high growth rate and adaptability. In addition to being highly sustainable, significant concentrations of proteins, lipids, and pigments accumulate in their cell structures from photosynthesis. Hence, this study sought to evaluate the food potential of Scenedesmus obliquus biomasses obtained from photosynthetic cultures enriched with 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% carbon dioxide (CO2) (v/v). Cultivations with 3, 5, and 10% CO2 showed greater amino acids and proteins synthesis; the protein content reached values above 56% of the dry biomass and high protein quality, due to the presence of most essential amino acids at recommended levels for the human diet. The highest concentrations of chlorophylls were found in cultures with 15, 20, and 25% CO2 (24.2, 23.1 and 30.8 mg g-1, respectively), although the profiles showed higher percentages of degradation compounds. Carotenoid concentrations were three times higher in cultures with 3, 5, and 10% CO2 (25.3, 22.7 and 18.1 mg g-1, respectively) and all-trans-ß-carotene was the major compound. Lipid synthesis was intensified at higher CO2 enrichment; the percentages obtained were 14.8% of lipids in the culture with 15% CO2, 15.0% with 20% CO2, and 13.7% with 25% CO2. In addition, greater polyunsaturated fatty acids accumulation and a significant reduction in the n6/n3 ratio were also observed at the highest CO2 concentrations. Our findings showed that CO2 treatments significantly altered all compounds concentrations in S. obliquus biomasses, which presented satisfactory composition for application in foods and as ingredients.


Assuntos
Clorofíceas , Scenedesmus , Biomassa , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clorofíceas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipídeos , Fotossíntese , Scenedesmus/metabolismo
15.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preliminary work by our center has reported behavior and functional benefits in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) following targeted micronutritional supplementation. OBJECTIVE: To build on the existing exploratory research and investigate the impact of these micronutrients on the natural progression of AD in a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Patients with mild-moderate AD consumed daily 1 g fish oil (of which 500 mg DHA, 150 mg EPA), 22 mg carotenoids (10 mg lutein, 10 mg meso-zeaxanthin, 2 mg zeaxanthin), and 15 mg vitamin E or placebo for 12 months in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Carotenoids, ω-3FAs, and vitamin E were quantified in blood. Carotenoids were also measured in skin. AD severity was measured using the mini-mental state examination and dementia severity rating scale tools. Behavior, mood, and memory were measured using an informant-based questionnaire. RESULTS: Following 12 months of supplementation, the active group (n = 50) compared to the placebo group (n = 27), demonstrated statistically significant improvements in skin carotenoid measurements, blood carotenoids, ω-3FAs, and vitamin E concentrations (p <  0.05, for all). The active group also performed better in objective measures of AD severity (i.e., memory and mood), with a statistically significant difference reported in the clinical collateral for memory (p <  0.001). CONCLUSION: Exponential increases in the prevalence of AD and its relentless progressive nature is driving the need for interventions that help to ameliorate symptoms and improve quality of life in AD patients. Given the positive outcomes demonstrated in this trial, this combined micronutrient dietary supplement should be considered in the overall management of AD.

16.
Curr Med Chem ; 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111759

RESUMO

In the context of a balanced diet, wheat, mainly when used as whole grains, is a good source of nutrients, including fibers and bioactive compounds. Cereals belong to the Poaceae family and are crucial for maintaining a healthy status, granted by their nutritional and chemical properties. Recent studies have demonstrated that the intake of whole grains and grain-based products may reduce the risk of oxidative stress, thus lowering chronic and age-related disorders, such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes and cancer. Indeed, several studies report that the regular whole grain consumption is associated with lower levels of total and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, blood pressure and body mass index. Moreover, ancient wheat species have acquired increasing interest for human health, as they contain several nutraceutical compounds, such as vitamins, minerals and others. The numerous phytochemicals present in ancient wheat (polyphenols, carotenoids, phytosterols and phenolic compounds) provide, in fact, antioxidant properties, which are essential in the prevention of various chronic and degenerative diseases. The aim of this review is to report the existing information on ancient wheat species, discussing their composition and nutraceuticals properties compared with modern varieties and highlight the beneficial impact on human health.

17.
Bioresour Technol ; 363: 127921, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089131

RESUMO

In order to improve the potential of cyanobacterial cell factories, Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 was engineered as 'one cell-two wells bio-refinery', for ethylene ('heterologous' hydrocarbon) and carotenoids ('natural' metabolites) production, and demonstrating its outdoor performance. Although the cultures showed better production outdoor, they experienced multiple collapses during scale-up. Hence, flux balance analysis was performed which predicted higher ethylene production with increase in carbon input under outdoor light conditions. Furthermore, FBA predicted that ethylene production will not increase beyond a threshold carbon input flux, owing to limitations on ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration. Hence, a bicarbonate-supplementation strategy was devised. Cultures grown outdoor at optimal bicarbonate concentration (20 g/L) resulted in improved growth (0.141/h) and ethylene productivity (1.88 mL/L.h) for > 10 days, with enhanced carotenoid titres (40.4 mg/L). In a 100 L air-lift photo-bioreactor; cultures exhibited efficient ethylene (2.464 mL/L.h) and biomass (0.3 g/L.d) productivities, and carotenoids titres (64.4 mg/L), establishing a significant step towards commercialization.

18.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-24, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062817

RESUMO

Due to the unstable chemical properties and poor water solubility of carotenoids, their processing adaptation and oral bioavailability are poor, limiting their application in hydrophilic food systems. Lipid-biomacromolecular compounds can be excellent carriers for carotenoid delivery by taking full advantage of the solubilization of lipids to non-polar nutrients and the water dispersion and gastrointestinal controlled release properties of biomacromolecules. This paper reviewed the research progress of lipid-biomacromolecular compounds as encapsulation and delivery carriers of carotenoids and summarized the material selection and preparation methods for biomacromolecular compounds. By considering the interaction between the two, this paper briefly discussed the effect of these compounds on carotenoid water solubility, stability, and bioavailability, emphasizing their delivery effect on carotenoids. Finally, various challenges and future trends of lipid-biomacromolecular compounds as carotenoid delivery carriers were discussed, providing new insight into efficient loading and delivery of carotenoids.

19.
J Tradit Complement Med ; 12(5): 488-498, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081822

RESUMO

Background: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT)-induced oral mucositis (OM) causes oral pain, malnutrition, and impaired quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Phytochemicals play a potential role in eliminating cancer therapy toxicity. Objective: To evaluate the effect of phytochemical-rich vegetable and fruit juice (VFJ) consumption in preventing CCRT-induced OM among patients with locally advanced HNC. Methods: Forty-nine patients with HNC undergoing CCRT were enrolled. All patients received nutritional counseling before CCRT and weekly follow-up. The VFJ group (25 patients) received 600 mL/day VFJ, 5 days/week for two weeks preceding CCRT and during CCRT, and the control group (24 patients) did not. The contents of total polyphenols and carotenoids in the VFJ were determined. Changes in anthropometric, dietary, and laboratory profiles were compared. Assessment of OM was based on the World Health Organization (WHO) scoring system. Results: Total polyphenols content was 64.6 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 mL of the VFJ, and the main carotenoids were ß-carotene and lycopene. The mean daily consumption of the VFJ was 538 mL for VFJ group. Changes in body weight, albumin, and energy intake were not significantly different between the two groups. The incidence of ulcerative OM was significantly lower in VFJ (64.0%) than in control (95.8%) subjects at week 6 of CCRT. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that VFJ consumption correlated significantly with lower risks of ulcerative OM. Conclusion: Consumption of VFJ rich in phytochemicals including total polyphenols and carotenoids effectively alleviates the severity of CCRT-induced OM among patients with locally advanced HNC. Section: Preventive Medicine; Dietary Therapy/Nutrition Supplements. Taxonomy: (classification by EVISE)Preventive medicine, dietary therapy, nutrition supplements.

20.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-26, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069234

RESUMO

Dietary lipids are key ingredients during cooking, processing, and seasoning of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables, playing vitals in affecting the absorption and utilization of carotenoids for achieving their health benefits. Besides, dietary lipids have also been extensively studied to construct various delivery systems for carotenoids, such as micro/nanoparticles, micro/nanoemulsions, and liposomes. Currently, the efficacies of these techniques on improving carotenoid bioavailability are often evaluated using the micellization rate or "bioaccessibility" based on in vitro models. However, recent studies have found that dietary lipids may also affect the carotenoid uptake via intestinal epithelial cells and the efflux of intracellular chyle particles via lipid transporters. An increasing number of studies reveal the varied impact of different dietary lipids on the absorption of different carotenoids and some lipids may even have an inhibitory effect. Consequently, it is necessary to clarify the relationship between the addition of dietary lipids and the intestinal absorption of carotenoid to fully understand the role of lipids during this process. This paper first introduces the intestinal absorption mechanism of carotenoids, including the effect of bile salts and lipases on mixed micelles, the types and regulation of lipid transporters, intracellular metabolizing enzymes, and the efflux process of chyle particles. Then, the regulatory mechanism of dietary lipids during intestinal carotenoid absorption is further discussed. Finally, the importance of selecting the dietary lipids for the absorption and utilization of different carotenoids and the design of an efficient delivery carrier are emphasized. This review provides suggestions for precise dietary carotenoid supplementation and offere an important reference for constructing efficient transport carriers for liposoluble nutrients.

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