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1.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-9, 2023. mapas, ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765447

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses [...].(AU)


O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a diversidade, distribuição (C) e abundância relativa (RA) da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) de Malakand e Dir Lower, Paquistão. A coleta de espécimes (n = 1087) foi feita durante o período de setembro de 2018 a julho de 2019 em seis habitats diferentes, incluindo corpos dágua, campos de arroz, galpões de animais, ambientes internos, ralos e águas residuais. Os espécimes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas luminosas, spray de piretro, aspiradores e redes e posteriormente mortos, preservados e depois dispostos em caixas entomológicas para identificação. Três gêneros foram identificados, nomeadamente Culex, Anopheles e Aedes. Um total de 14 espécies foi identificado, a saber: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) e An. annularis (Van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus foi encontrado constantemente distribuído na área de estudo com AR = 16,5% e C = 100%. A. annularis foi encontrada como espécie satélite, distribuída esporadicamente na área de estudo com RA = 0,9% e C = 17%. Os índices de diversidade de mosquitos nos habitats estudados foram encontrados como índice de Shannon-Wiener (2,415), índice de Simpson (9,919), índice de Fisher (2,269) e índice de Margalef (1,859). Uma diferença estatisticamente significativa foi registrada na diversidade de mosquitos nos seis habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, qui-quadrado, H = 17,5, df = 5, P = 0,003 em α = 0,05). O presente estudo abrange a fauna de mosquitos de Malakand, Paquistão, com respeito à diversidade, abundância relativa e distribuição em [...].(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Culicidae , Biodiversidade , Aedes/classificação , Anopheles/classificação , Culex/classificação
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247374, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285623

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a diversidade, distribuição (C) e abundância relativa (RA) da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) de Malakand e Dir Lower, Paquistão. A coleta de espécimes (n = 1087) foi feita durante o período de setembro de 2018 a julho de 2019 em seis habitats diferentes, incluindo corpos d'água, campos de arroz, galpões de animais, ambientes internos, ralos e águas residuais. Os espécimes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas luminosas, spray de piretro, aspiradores e redes e posteriormente mortos, preservados e depois dispostos em caixas entomológicas para identificação. Três gêneros foram identificados, nomeadamente Culex, Anopheles e Aedes. Um total de 14 espécies foi identificado, a saber: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) e An. annularis (Van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus foi encontrado constantemente distribuído na área de estudo com AR = 16,5% e C = 100%. A. annularis foi encontrada como espécie satélite, distribuída esporadicamente na área de estudo com RA = 0,9% e C = 17%. Os índices de diversidade de mosquitos nos habitats estudados foram encontrados como índice de Shannon-Wiener (2,415), índice de Simpson (9,919), índice de Fisher (2,269) e índice de Margalef (1,859). Uma diferença estatisticamente significativa foi registrada na diversidade de mosquitos nos seis habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, qui-quadrado, H = 17,5, df = 5, P = 0,003 em α = 0,05). O presente estudo abrange a fauna de mosquitos de Malakand, Paquistão, com respeito à diversidade, abundância relativa e distribuição em diversos habitats e em todas as estações do ano. Isso ajudará os cientistas que trabalham em vários campos relacionados com a epidemiologia, entomologia médica e veterinária, ecologia e áreas afins das ciências biológicas.


Assuntos
Animais , Culicidae , Paquistão , Estações do Ano , Ecossistema , Ecologia
3.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 874030, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35558890

RESUMO

An experimental infection approach was used to estimate the competence of the common mosquito, Culex pipiens, for hepatitis E virus replication and transmission, using an isolate of hepatitis E virus genotype 3 of human origin in varying infectious doses. The experimental approach was carried out in biosafety level 2 conditions on three batches of 120 Cx. pipiens females, each using an artificial feeding system containing the virus in aliquots of fresh avian blood. Mosquitoes from each batch were collected 1, 7, 14, and 21 days post-infection (dpi) and dissected. The proboscis was subjected to forced excretion of saliva to estimate potential virus transmission. HEV RNA presence in abdomen, thorax, and saliva samples was analyzed by PCR at the selected post-infection times. HEV RNA was detected in the abdomens of Cx. pipiens females collected 1 dpi in the two experimentally-infected batches, but not in the saliva or thorax. None of the samples collected 7-21 dpi were positive. Our results show that Cx. pipiens is not a competent vector for HEV, at least for zoonotic genotype 3.

4.
BMC Biol ; 20(1): 110, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes locate a human host by integrating various sensory cues including odor, thermo, and vision. However, their innate light preference and its genetic basis that may predict the spatial distribution of mosquitoes, a prerequisite to encounter a potential host and initiate host-seeking behaviors, remains elusive. RESULTS: Here, we first studied mosquito visual features and surprisingly uncovered that both diurnal (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) and nocturnal (Culex quinquefasciatus) mosquitoes significantly avoided stronger light when given choices. With consistent results from multiple assays, we found that such negative phototaxis maintained throughout development to adult stages. Notably, female mosquitoes significantly preferred to bite hosts in a shaded versus illuminated area. Furthermore, silencing Opsin1, a G protein-coupled receptor that is most enriched in compound eyes, abolished light-evoked avoidance behavior of Aedes albopictus and attenuated photonegative behavior in Aedes aegypti. Finally, we found that field-collected Aedes albopictus also prefers darker area in an Opsin1-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that mosquitoes consistently prefer darker environment and identifies the first example of a visual molecule that modulates mosquito photobehavior.

5.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 31: 100735, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569916

RESUMO

Vector-borne diseases represent a real threats worldwide, in reason of the lack of vaccine and cure for some diseases. Among arthropod vectors, mosquitoes are described to be the most dangerous animal on earth, resulting in an estimated 725,000 deaths per year due to their borne diseases. Geographical position of Algeria makes this country a high risk area for emerging and re-emerging diseases, such as dengue coming from north (Europe) and malaria from south (Africa). To prevent these threats, rapid and continuous surveillance of mosquito vectors is essential. For this purpose we aimed in this study to create a mosquito vectors locale database using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry technology for rapid identification of these arthropods. This methodology was validated by testing 211 mosquitoes, including four species (Aedes albopictus, Culex pipiens, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culiseta longiareolata), in two northern wilayahs of Algeria (Algiers and Bejaia). Species determination by MALDI TOF MS was highly concordant with reference phenotypic and genetic methods. Using this MALDI-TOF MS tool will allow better surveillance of mosquito species able to transmit mosquito borne diseases in Algeria.

6.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquito control is still the main prevention and control measure of numerous mosquito-borne diseases causing millions of deaths each year. New strategies for mosquito control are in demand. Proteases play an important role in mosquito physiology, therefore this study explored the inhibition of a serpin (serine protease inhibitor) in mosquitoes and its effect on reproductive capacity. RESULTS: A Factor Xa inhibitor homolog (named Pipiserpin) was amplified and identified in Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes. We expressed a recombinant Pipiserpin protein in vitro and against which a mouse antiserum was generated. We found that female mosquitoes expressed more Pipiserpin protein than male mosquitoes. After mating, female mosquitoes were fed with blood mixed with different amount of antisera and results showed that consumption of Pipiserpin impeded ovary development and decreased eggs hatching rates compared to that of pre-immune serum group. CONCLUSION: We identified a Culex mosquito Factor Xa inhibitor, Pipiserpin, which affects female reproductive potential. Our results suggest that Pipiserpin may be a novel target for mosquito population control. The conclusions from our study on Cx. pipiens pallens might serve as a reference for the development of control measures for other mosquitoes, as well. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol ; 261: 110750, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513264

RESUMO

The excessive and improper application of insecticides has caused the evolution of resistance in many mosquito populations, including Culex pipiens pallens (L.). Deltamethrin, a representative pyrethroid insecticide, is the most widely used synthetic insecticide in mosquito-borne control field. Comprehensively identifying genes and regulators associated with deltamethrin resistance and elucidating the manner in which they regulate this process is critical for effective control of mosquitoes. CircRNAs are the upstream regulatory factors of miRNAs and mRNAs, which play a role via the competitive endogenous RNA mechanism. In this study, we used high-throughput circRNA sequencing to identify circRNAs that were expressed differently in deltamethrin-susceptible strain (DS strain) and -resistant strain (DR strain) mosquitoes [NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database accession number: PRJNA714543]. We detected a total of 12,816 significantly differentially expressed circRNAs (DE-circRNAs). Among them, 6769 circRNAs were up-regulated and 6047 circRNAs were down-regulated in the DR strain compared to DS strain. Among the DE-circRNAs, we further screened that supercont3.352:252102|253283 was significantly over-expressed in the DR strain through qPCR multiple verification (P < 0.05).We used the divergent primer to amplify the rolling circle product and obtained the full-length sequence of supercont3.352:252102|253283 (GeneBank accession number: MW729338). Through software comparison and bioinformatics analysis, we predicted that supercont3.352:252102|253283 might participate in deltamethrin resistance by sponging cpp-miR-1671 and blocking its inhibition on CYP4G15.We further found that the expression of cpp-miR-1671 was significantly lower in DR strain (P < 0.01), while the expression of CYP4G15 was significantly higher in DR strain (P < 0.05).Taken together, the present study provided the most comprehensive circRNA expression profile of mosquitoes, and suggested that supercont3.352:252102|253283 might participate in deltamethrin resistance through the supercont3.352:252102|253283/cpp-miR-1671/CYP4G15 pathway.

8.
J Med Entomol ; 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522221

RESUMO

Culex vishnui Theobald, 1901, a main vector of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), is widely distributed in the Oriental region where it often accounts for a great part of the culicid fauna. This species also has been found naturally infected with at least 13 other arboviruses of medical and veterinary importance. Females blood feed predominantly upon pigs and birds, but may readily bite cattle and humans. Because of its abundance, medical importance, and presence throughout ecological gradients among urban, peri-urban, and rural areas, Cx. vishnui potentially may serve as a bridge vector transmitting viruses from natural and wild hosts to humans. Being zoo- and anthropophagic, omnipresent in the Oriental region, and presenting strong resistance to many insecticide families, this overlooked mosquito species may pose a serious health risk in one of the most densely populated regions of the world.

9.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 29(4): 2591-2596, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531167

RESUMO

In order to develop an eco-friendly botanical larvicide alternative to the synthetic larvicides, extracts were prepared from the Cinnamomum burmannii (C.B.) and Syzygium aromaticum (S.A.) with hexane using a sonicator. The extracts were evaluated for larvicidal activity individually and in combination against the Culex pipiens larvae. The LC50 value of C.B. and the S.A. hexane extracts tested individually were 184.2 and 363.7 µg/mL against Cx. pipiens respectively. All the combinations of the extract of C.B. and S.A. showed synergistic factors higher than one. Among the different ratios of extracts, the SA25%: CB75% extract was found to be more toxic than the other combinations (LC50:125.7 µg/mL). Midgut cells treated with S.A. 25%: C.B. 75% extract showed severe morphological alterations such as degradation of microvilli; degeneration of epithelial cells, and peritrophic membrane; loss of nuclei, irregular and damage of microvilli. The extract has a promising larvicidal potential against Cx. pipiens, However, the extract was toxic against HUVEC cells, as evident from MTT and cell morphology. Further investigation is required to assess the toxicity of the extract on aquatic animals.

10.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 29(4): 2389-2395, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531199

RESUMO

The pyrrolidine-2,4-dione derivatives were used to conduct a larvicidal test on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae of the second instar. Mannich base condensation method was used to synthesis the pyrrolidine-2,4-dione derivatives by grindstone method. The reaction conditions were mild, resulting in high yields. An analysis of the synthesized compounds was carried out using FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. Synthesized compounds (1a-h) were evaluated for larvicidal activities. Compound 1e (LD50: 26.06 µg/mL), and 1f (LD50: 26.89 µg/mL), and were notably more active against Culex quinquefasciatus than permethrin (LD50: 26.14 µg/mL). The docking studies also demonstrated that 1e, and 1f are potent larvicides with higher binding energy (-12.6 kcal/mol) than the control in the mosquito odorant binding protein (PDB ID: 3OGN). The larvicidal properties of lead molecules have made them important for use as insecticides.

11.
Med Vet Entomol ; 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524681

RESUMO

The stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) is considered as the main mechanical vector of the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). In addition, the mosquito species Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) was shown to transmit the virus from donor to receptor animals. Retention of the virus for several days was shown for two additional tropical mosquito species and the biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). In the present study, viral retention for 10- or 7-days post feeding on virus-spiked blood through a membrane was shown for field-collected Aedes japonicus and laboratory-reared Culex pipiens, two widely distributed mosquito species in temperate regions. Viral DNA could be detected from honey-coated Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards and shedded faeces for 1 or 4 days after an infectious blood meal was given to Ae. aegypti. Virus increase over time and virus dissemination was observed in laboratory-reared C. nubeculosus, but the virus could be isolated from field-collected biting midges only from the day of exposure to the blood meal. Thus, mosquitoes might serve as mechanical vectors of LSDV in case of interrupted feeding. A putative biological virus transmission by Culicoides biting midges, as suspected from field observations, deserves further investigations.

12.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(9)2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35567194

RESUMO

The present study investigates the insecticidal effect of plant extract such as Mentha pulegium and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and some of their major compounds; these plants are well known for their many biological activities. The fumigant toxicity was evaluated, using glass jars, against female adults of Culex pipiens that constitute a mosquito vector of important diseases such as the West Nile virus. The adulticidal test showed that both essential oils and monoterpenes presented an insecticidal effect better than the chemical insecticide (Deltamethrin). The highest mortality percentages for the two essential oils have occurred at 312.5 µL/L air (between 56.14 ± 1.7% and 97.71 ± 3.03% after 24 h and 48 h of treatment). Moreover, all tested monoterpenes (carvone, R(+)-pulegone, 1,8-cineole, camphor and α-pinene) have produced high mortalities that varied depending on the time of the treatment and the concentrations used. Lethal concentrations (LC50) obtained for the essential oils and the main compounds have also varied according to the exposure time. M. pulegium and R. officinalis essential oil exhibited the lowest LC50 values after 24 h (72.94 and 222.82 µL/L air, respectively) and after 48 h (25.43 and 55.79 µL/L air, respectively) while the pure molecules revealed the lowest LC50 values after 48 h (between 84.96 and 578.84 µL/L air). This finding proves that the two essential oils and their main compounds have an insecticidal potential, which could help to develop natural toxic fumigants that may be used as an eco-friendly alternative in integrated and sustainable vector management.

13.
Evol Appl ; 15(5): 878-890, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603026

RESUMO

Mosquitoes transmit a wide variety of devastating pathogens when they bite vertebrate hosts and feed on their blood. However, three entire mosquito genera and many individual species in other genera have evolved a nonbiting life history in which blood is not required to produce eggs. Our long-term goal is to develop novel interventions that reduce or eliminate the biting behavior in vector mosquitoes. A previous study used biting and nonbiting populations of a nonvector mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii, as a model to uncover the transcriptional basis of the evolutionary transition from a biting to a nonbiting life history. Herein, we ask whether the molecular pathways that were differentially expressed due to differences in biting behavior in W. smithii are also differentially expressed between subspecies of Culex pipiens that are obligate biting (Culex pipiens pipiens) and facultatively nonbiting (Culex pipiens molestus). Results from RNAseq of adult heads show dramatic upregulation of transcripts in the ribosomal protein pathway in biting C. pipiens, recapitulating the results in W. smithii, and implicating the ancient and highly conserved ribosome as the intersection to understanding the evolutionary and physiological basis of blood feeding in mosquitoes. Biting Culex also strongly upregulate energy production pathways, including oxidative phosphorylation and the citric acid (TCA) cycle relative to nonbiters, a distinction that was not observed in W. smithii. Amino acid metabolism pathways were enriched for differentially expressed genes in biting versus nonbiting Culex. Relative to biters, nonbiting Culex upregulated sugar metabolism and transcripts contributing to reproductive allocation (vitellogenin and cathepsins). These results provide a foundation for developing strategies to determine the natural evolutionary transition between a biting and nonbiting life history in vector mosquitoes.

14.
Comput Biol Med ; 146: 105535, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487124

RESUMO

Embelin was isolated from the chloroform extract of Embelia ribes (Burm.f.) fruits; its derivative compounds 6-bromoembelin and vilangin were prepared, and they were evaluated for mosquitocidal activities against the third instar larvae and pupae of Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. (Diptera: Culicidae). The concentrations used were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 ppm. Embelin recorded LC50 values of 5.79 and 5.54 ppm against the larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Similarly, the LC50 values of embelin were 10.23 and 6.93 ppm against the pupae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Of the two derivatives tested, vilangin showed the highest larvicidal activity with LC50 values of 1.38 and 1.28 ppm against the larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Similarly, the LC50 values of vilangin were 1.60 and 1.43 ppm against the pupae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The LC50 values of 6-bromoembelin were 3.30 and 2.83 ppm against the larvae and 4.40 and 4.30 ppm against the pupae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The histopathological results displayed significant damage on cuboidal cells of the midgut (CU) in vilangin treated larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus at a concentration of 2.0 ppm. Similarly, peritrophic membrane (PM) was completely impaired in vilangin-treated larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and midgut content (MC) was very low in vilangin-treated larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. In addition, molecular docking and molecular dynamics studies demonstrated the efficacy of vilangin on the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE1) in Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The present results suggest that vilangin could be used to develop a natural active product against mosquito larvae.

15.
Pathogens ; 11(4)2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35456098

RESUMO

Mosquitoes breeding in urban sewage infrastructure are both a source of nuisance to the local population and a public health risk, given that biting mosquitoes can transmit pathogenic organisms to humans. The increasing presence of the invasive mosquito species Aedes albopictus in European cities has further exacerbated the problems already caused by native Culex pipiens. We tested the effectiveness of modifications to sewage structures as an alternative to the use of biocides to prevent mosquito breeding. The placing of a layer of concrete at the bottom of sand sewers to prevent water accumulation completely eliminated mosquito reproduction, and so eliminates the need for biocides in modified structures. Sewer modification is thus a valid low-cost alternative for mosquito control.

16.
Med Vet Entomol ; 2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396754

RESUMO

Culex pipiens (Linnaeus), one of the most abundant mosquito species in Europe, plays a crucial role in the endemic transmission of West Nile virus and caused the large outbreak with >1600 human cases in 2018. Although evidence of resistance to pyrethroids has been reported for Cx. pipiens populations from Spain and Greece, resistance monitoring has been largely neglected in Italy. Herein, we investigate susceptibility of Italian Cx. pipiens populations to the pyrethroids permethrin and deltamethrin. Results from WHO-tube-bioassays revealed mortalities ranging from 14-54%, indicating high levels of resistance, in four out of 10 populations exposed to permethrin (0.75%) and of 63% in one of three populations exposed to deltamethrin (0.05%). Reduced susceptibility (mortality<98%) was detected in almost all other populations. A clear association is shown between the resistant phenotype and the presence of kdr-alleles in position 1014 of the VSSC, strongly suggesting its role in reducing susceptibility. The study provides the first evidence of pyrethroid-resistance in Italian Cx. pipiens populations and reports levels of resistance paralleled in the European region only in Turkey. This highlights the urgent need to implement insecticide-resistance management plans to restore the efficacy of the nowadays only chemical weapon available to control arbovirus transmission in Europe.

17.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 58, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes harbor microbial communities that play important roles in their growth, survival, reproduction, and ability to transmit human pathogens. Microbiome transplantation approaches are often used to study host-microbe interactions and identify microbial taxa and assemblages associated with health or disease. However, no such approaches have been developed to manipulate the microbiota of mosquitoes. RESULTS: Here, we developed an approach to transfer entire microbial communities between mosquito cohorts. We undertook transfers between (Culex quinquefasciatus to Aedes aegypti) and within (Ae. aegypti to Ae. aegypti) species to validate the approach and determine the number of mosquitoes required to prepare donor microbiota. After the transfer, we monitored mosquito development and microbiota dynamics throughout the life cycle. Typical holometabolous lifestyle-related microbiota structures were observed, with higher dynamics of microbial structures in larval stages, including the larval water, and less diversity in adults. Microbiota diversity in recipient adults was also more similar to the microbiota diversity in donor adults. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first evidence for successful microbiome transplantation in mosquitoes. Our results highlight the value of such methods for studying mosquito-microbe interactions and lay the foundation for future studies to elucidate the factors underlying microbiota acquisition, assembly, and function in mosquitoes under controlled conditions. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Aedes , Culex , Microbiota , Animais , Humanos , Larva , Mosquitos Vetores
18.
Acta Trop ; 231: 106470, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430264

RESUMO

West Nile virus (WNV) infections have increased over recent years to the extent that WNV has become one of the most widespread arboviruses in the world, with potential consequences for both human and animal health. While much is known about WNV and the vectors that transmit it from their primary hosts across continental Europe, little is known about the epidemiology of the disease on the island of Cyprus. In this study, the aim was to investigate the prevalence of WNV infection in potential mosquito vectors for the first time in the Republic of Cyprus, using WNV surveillance of mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were collected in 2019, during which an outbreak in humans had occurred, and sampled mosquitoes were then examined for WNV infection by testing them for the presence of WNV RNA. Of 126 mosquito pools tested, one pool, containing Culex pipiens mosquitoes sampled from the Nicosia district, was found to be positive for the presence of WNV RNA. The positive pool found in this study represents the first demonstration of WNV in mosquitoes in Cyprus and confirms that human cases in Cyprus are likely the result of transmission via local Culex mosquitoes.

19.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 609: 156-162, 2022 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430419

RESUMO

The insect repellent methyl salicylate elicits excitatory responses upon interaction with CquiOR32, an odorant receptor (OR) from the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. By contrast, eucalyptol binds to CquiOR32 to generate electrophysiological and behavioral inhibitory responses. In an attempt to identify CquiOR32 variants displaying more robust inhibitory responses for more accurate current-voltage analysis, we sequenced 31 CquiOR32 clones. In the Xenopus oocyte recording system, CquiOR32V2/CquiOrco-expressing oocytes yielded eucalyptol-elicited outward (inhibitory) currents relatively larger than methyl salicylate-generated inward (excitatory) currents. Rescuing experiments showed that two of the amino acid substitutions in CquiOR32V2 located in a predicted transmembrane helix of the receptor are determinants of the outward/inward ratios. These findings, along with co-stimulus assays, suggest that odorant and inhibitor may bind to the same binding pocket. Current-voltage relationships obtained with standard perfusion buffer and those devoid of Na+ or Cl- indicated that both excitatory and inhibitory currents are mediated, at least in part, by cation. We then concluded that eucalyptol is an inverse agonist, which shifts the open ⇔ closed equilibrium of the receptor toward the closed conformation, thus reducing the spontaneous activity. By contrast, the binding of methyl salicylate shifts the equilibrium towards the open conformation and, consequently, leads to an increase in cation influx.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Receptores Odorantes , Animais , Eucaliptol/farmacologia , Odorantes , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Olfato/fisiologia
20.
Environ Res ; : 113309, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487260

RESUMO

The present study is focused on synthesis of silver nanoparticles from weeds and an assessment of their mosquito larvicidal efficacy. This study also presented the toxicological effects as well as the stability of these nanoparticles in aquatic mesocosms. The weed Digiteria sanguinallis was first time used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques, such as UV-VIS, TEM, FESEM, EDX, XRD, FTIR, and zeta potential study. The result revealed that the nanoparticles are crystalline, spherical shape with band gap 2.44 eV, and average size 18 nm. The LC50 value of synthesized AgNPs were recorded as 7.47 and 6.31 mg/L at 24 h against Cx. quinquefasciatus and A. albopictus respectively. In contrast, larvicidal activity of weed extract was insignificant against two target species. In aquatic mesocosm study, AgNPs (LC50 dose) does not alter the nature of water parameters within experimental period. However only EC % and ORP were changes because of silver ion oxidation. In biochemical parameters, only stress enzymes for animal and plant species were moderately altered under long term exposure. But glycogen, protein, and AchE of two mosquito species were significantly changed under same mesocosm setup within short exposure. Comparatively, in control mesocosm, synthesized AgNPs are naturally change their nano form within 20 days with the presence of all non-target species and pond sediment. Therefore, it can be concluded that biosynthesized AgNPs could be used as a larvicidal agent in near future with negligible effects on aquatic organisms.

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