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1.
Hig. Aliment. (Online) ; 38(298): e1146, jan.-jun. 2024. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1531450

RESUMO

Os Centros de Tradições Gaúchas (CTG) são entidades de divulgação e perpetuação da cultura do Rio Grande do Sul. A produção de refeições nessas entidades ocorre nos ensaios dos grupos de danças tradicionais e nos eventos oferecidos à comunidade, como jantares. Sabendo do impacto das doenças transmitidas por alimentos (DTA) na saúde humana, o objetivo deste trabalho é identificar a adequação dos CTG às boas práticas para manipulação de alimentos (BPM), explorar quem são os responsáveis pelas atividades de manipulação de alimentos e identificar a frequência e o número da produção de refeições servidas nessas instituições. A Portaria SES-RS nº 78/2009 e um questionário de coleta de dados dos grupos de dança e da produção de refeições foram aplicados em 5 CTG do Rio Grande do Sul. Outros 17 CTG do estado responderam a um segundo questionário, semelhante ao primeiro, com adição de perguntas sobre controle sanitário. Obteve-se uma média de adequação às BPM de 38% entre os CTG. Verificou-se que são servidas, em média, 4 refeições por semana entre os ensaios das invernadas artísticas próximos a competições. Em 36% dos CTG, ocorrem de 2 a 3 eventos por trimestre com produção de refeições. Em 45% dos CTG, são servidas de 100 a 200 pessoas nos eventos. Em relação aos trabalhos na cozinha, apenas 23,5% dos CTG têm como responsáveis dessas atividades pessoas devidamente capacitadas. Sendo os CTG instituições sem fins lucrativos, a criação de programas para a garantia do alimento seguro nesses espaços se faz necessária.


Centros de Tradições Gaúchas (CTG) are entities for the dissemination and perpetuation of Rio Grande do Sul culture. The production of meals in these entities takes place in the rehearsals of traditional dance groups and in events offered to the community, such as dinners. Knowing the impact of the foodborne diseases in human health, the objective of this work is to identify the adequacy of CTG to good food handling practices, to explore who are responsibles for food handling activities and identify the frequency and number of meals served in these institutions. The Portaria SES-RS No. 78/2009 and a questionnaire for data collection from dance groups and meals production were applied in 5 CTG in Rio Grande do Sul. Another 17 CTG in the state answered a second questionnaire, similar to the first, with the addition of questions about sanitary control. The average compliance with good practices was 38% among the CTG. It was found that, on average, 4 meals are served per week between rehearsals of the dance groups close to competitions. In 36% of the CTG, 2 to 3 events are held per quarter with production of meals. In 45% of the CTG, the number of people served at the events varies from 100 to 200. Regarding the work in the kitchen, only 23.5% of the CTG have duly trained people for these activities. Given that CTG are non-profit institutions, the creation of programs to ensure food safety in these spaces is necessary.


Assuntos
Higiene dos Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Organização Comunitária , Boas Práticas de Distribuição
2.
J Med Virol ; 96(5): e29651, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712743

RESUMO

Understanding how the infectious disease burden was affected throughout the COVID-19 pandemic is pivotal to identifying potential hot spots and guiding future mitigation measures. Therefore, our study aimed to analyze the changes in the rate of new cases of Poland's most frequent infectious diseases during the entire COVID-19 pandemic and after the influx of war refugees from Ukraine. We performed a registry-based population-wide study in Poland to analyze the changes in the rate of 24 infectious disease cases from 2020 to 2023 and compared them to the prepandemic period (2016-2019). Data were collected from publicly archived datasets of the Epimeld database published by national epidemiological authority institutions. The rate of most of the studied diseases (66.6%) revealed significantly negative correlations with the rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections. For the majority of infectious diseases, it substantially decreased in 2020 (in case of 83%) and 2021 (63%), following which it mostly rebounded to the prepandemic levels and, in some cases, exceeded them in 2023 when the exceptionally high annual rates of new cases of scarlet fever, Streptococcus pneumoniae infections, HIV infections, syphilis, gonococcal infections, and tick-borne encephalitis were noted. The rate of Clostridioides difficile enterocolitis was two-fold higher than before the pandemic from 2021 onward. The rate of Legionnaires' disease in 2023 also exceeded the prepandemic threshold, although this was due to a local outbreak unrelated to lifted COVID-19 pandemic restrictions or migration of war refugees. The influx of war migrants from Ukraine could impact the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases. The present analysis indicates that continued efforts are needed to prevent COVID-19 from overwhelming healthcare systems again and decreasing the control over the burden of other infectious diseases. It also identifies the potential tipping points that require additional mitigation measures, which are also discussed in the paper, to avoid escalation in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , Refugiados , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Feminino , Masculino , Pandemias , Adulto , Sistema de Registros , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Conflitos Armados
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(6): 1291-1293, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781985

RESUMO

Food irradiation can reduce foodborne illnesses but is rarely used in the United States. We determined whether outbreaks related to Campylobacter, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes were linked to irradiation-eligible foods. Of 482 outbreaks, 155 (32.2%) were linked to an irradiation-eligible food, none of which were known to be irradiated.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Irradiação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , História do Século XXI
4.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 13(5)2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38786143

RESUMO

This review delves into using natural antimicrobials in the dairy industry and examines various sources of these compounds, including microbial, plant, and animal sources. It discusses the mechanisms by which they inhibit microbial growth, for example, by binding to the cell wall's precursor molecule of the target microorganism, consequently inhibiting its biosynthesis, and interfering in the molecule transport mechanism, leading to cell death. In general, they prove to be effective against the main pathogens and spoilage found in food, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp., Salmonella spp., mold, and yeast. Moreover, this review explores encapsulation technology as a promising approach for increasing the viability of natural antimicrobials against unfavorable conditions such as pH, temperature, and oxygen exposure. Finally, this review examines the benefits and challenges of using natural antimicrobials in dairy products. While natural antimicrobials offer several advantages, including improved safety, quality, and sensory properties of dairy products, it is crucial to be aware of the challenges associated with their use, such as potential allergenicity, regulatory requirements, and consumer perception. This review concludes by emphasizing the need for further research to identify and develop effective and safe natural antimicrobials for the dairy industry to ensure the quality and safety of dairy products for consumers.

5.
Braz J Microbiol ; 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561500

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using two ozone applications (gaseous and mist) as a disinfection method for fresh persimmon. To test these sanitizers, in vitro and in vivo assays were performed, and the Escherichia coli was selected because it is a pathogen that causes foodborne diseases in humans. For in vitro experiments, a plate was inoculated with Escherichia coli strain ATCC 25922 and treated. For in vivo assays, persimmon fruit surface was inoculated with the bacteria and treated. For both assays, it was used 10,15,20,30,40 and 50 µL L-1 of gaseous ozone or ozonized mist for five minutes. The results demonstrated that the gas ozone application significantly reduced the growth of E. coli on the plate surface in vitro at doses of 30, 40 and 50 µL L-1 (with 0.83, 0.89 and 0.95 log CFU mL-1, respectively). The application of ozonized mist showed a significant reduction for 50 µL L-1 (with 1.28 log CFU g-1). And, for the in vivo assays, ozonized mist significantly reduced the number of bacteria on the persimmon surface, with a 1.57 log reduction, which was the largest for 40 µL L-1. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the ozone application can contribute to the control of microorganisms present on fruit surfaces.

6.
Small ; : e2308317, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564785

RESUMO

Proactive management of foodborne illness requires routine surveillance of foodborne pathogens, which requires developing simple, rapid, and sensitive detection methods. Here, a strategy is presented that enables the detection of multiple foodborne bacteria using a 3D nanostructure swab and deep learning-based Raman signal classification. The nanostructure swab efficiently captures foodborne pathogens, and the portable Raman instrument directly collects the Raman signals of captured bacteria. a deep learning algorithm has been demonstrated, 1D convolutional neural network with binary labeling, achieves superior performance in classifying individual bacterial species. This methodology has been extended to mixed bacterial populations, maintaining accuracy close to 100%. In addition, the gradient-weighted class activation mapping method is used to provide an investigation of the Raman bands for foodborne pathogens. For practical application, blind tests are conducted on contaminated kitchen utensils and foods. The proposed technique is validated by the successful detection of bacterial species from the contaminated surfaces. The use of a 3D nanostructure swab, portable Raman device, and deep learning-based classification provides a powerful tool for rapid identification (≈5 min) of foodborne bacterial species. The detection strategy shows significant potential for reliable food safety monitoring, making a meaningful contribution to public health and the food industry.

7.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578010

RESUMO

Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, a probiotic, has shown potential to promote health benefits and control pathogens. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of BB-12 and its cell-free supernatant (CFS) in inhibiting the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. To assess the antimicrobial activity of BB-12, agar well diffusion, disk diffusion, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests were conducted. The bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay was performed to measure the protein concentration in CFS. The study's results indicated that the BB-12 strain inhibited the pathogens' growth. The disk diffusion test using BB-12 showed inhibitory results ranging from 11 to 14 mm for both bacteria. The agar well diffusion test reported the zone of inhibition ranging from 11.6 to 16 mm for both bacteria. The MIC test was conducted as a confirmatory test, which demonstrated the highest inhibitory zone using 2 McFarland (6 × 108 CFU/mL) concentrations of probiotics on L. monocytogenes (44.98%) and S. Typhimurium (66.41%). The disk diffusion test revealed that the probiotic CFS had a significant inhibitory impact on S. Typhimurium with a 16.6 mm zone of inhibition. The BCA test findings indicated that the 24- and 48-h CFSs exhibited inhibitory properties against infections. Notably, the 24-h CFS, including a protein level of 78.47 µg/mL, demonstrated a more pronounced inhibitory impact on both pathogens. The findings highlight that utilizing the BB-12 strain and its CFS can serve as a viable approach to battle infections, enhancing food safety and public health.

8.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597599

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen. In 2022, we collected 15 strains of L. monocytogenes isolated from patients in some foodborne disease sentinel monitoring hospitals in Sichuan Province. Through whole genome sequencing (WGS), we obtained the virulence genes carried by the strains, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), core genome MLST (cgMLST), clonal complex (CC), and serum groups and constructed a phylogenetic tree and minimum spanning tree with nonhuman strains. An analysis shows that all 15 strains of L. monocytogenes carry virulence genes LIPI-1 and LIPI-2, whereas the carrying rates of LIPI-3 and LIPI-4 virulence genes are relatively low. The MLST typing results showed a total of 10 sequence types (ST), including 10 CCs, with ST7 being the dominant type. The cgMLST clearly distinguishes strains of different lineages and CC types. The serum group is divided into three types: IIa, IIb, and IVb, with IIa being the dominant serum group. An analysis of antibiotic genes showed that all 15 strains carried FosX, lin, mprF, and norB with high carrying rates. The minimum inhibitory concentration results indicated that all were susceptible to eight antibiotics (ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, meropenem, erythromycin, vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). The analysis of strains isolated from different sources of Listeria revealed varying degrees of diversity, and the contamination of meat and environment within the province is closely related to clinical cases. L. monocytogenes isolated from clinical cases in Sichuan Province carry multiple virulence and antibiotic genes, with high potential pathogenicity. It is necessary to further strengthen the monitoring and control of food and environment by L. monocytogenes within Sichuan Province.

9.
Open Vet J ; 14(1): 274-283, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38633164

RESUMO

Background: Salmonella-related foodborne illnesses are a significant public health concern. Naturally, antibacterial food components have been shown to limit microbial growth proliferation with various degrees of efficacy. Aims: To examine the occurrence, microbial load, and effect of apple vinegar on Salmonella serovars in beef and beef products. Methods: 150 beef and beef products were collected between March and May 2022. Total viable count (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae count (ENT), isolation and identification of Salmonella, and their virulence factors detection by multiplex PCR were determined, and an experimental study of the effect of natural apple vinegar marination on Salmonella spp. Results: TVC was higher in meatballs (3.32 × 106 ± 1.07 × 106) while beef burgers (4.22 × 103 ± 0.71 × 103) had the highest ENT. Concerning the prevalence of Salmonella spp., meatball (46.7%) and beef burger (25.3%) samples were the highest contamination rate. The common serovars detected were Salmonella typhimurium (6%), Salmonella enteritidis (6%), and Salmonella infantis (4%). Based on the results of PCR, 12, 11, and 11 out of 18 samples of Salmonella isolates possess hila, stn, and invA genes. By immersing the inoculated steak meat in apple vinegar at different concentrations (50%, 70%, and 100%), the initial populations of the Salmonella strains after 12 hours were reduced to 0.38 × 102 ± 0.05 × 102 log CFU/ml; however, after 48 hours become the most reduction (0.31 × 102 ± 0.07 × 102 log CFU/ml) at a concentration of 100% apple vinegar. An enhancement in the sensory attributes was noted across all concentrations. Conclusion: The consumed beef and beef products are contaminated with pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. Marinades made using apple vinegar concentrations of 50%, 75%, and 100% effectively minimized the prevalence of artificially inoculated Salmonella and extended the shelf life of preserved refrigerated beef products to 48 hours.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético , Malus , Bovinos , Animais , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/veterinária , Antibacterianos , Salmonella typhimurium/genética
10.
Risk Anal ; 2024 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616416

RESUMO

The incidence of human illness due to Salmonella Infantis reported to Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network and the prevalence of Infantis on chicken carcasses reported by the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service have increased significantly in the past decade. However, the trends do not appear coincident, as would be expected if the increased prevalence in chicken led to the increase in the incidence of human illness. Salmonella Infantis incidence and prevalence trends are analyzed using penalized B-spline methods for generalized additive regression models. The association between the two time series is analyzed using time-lagged rank-order cross-correlation. Geographic variations in reported incidence and trends are also explored. The increase in human incidence of Salmonella Infantis began circa 2011. The increase in chicken carcass prevalence began circa 2015. A 4-year lag on chicken carcass prevalence maximizes the rank-order cross-correlation with the incidence of illness. While chicken consumption undoubtedly contributes to the incidence of human illness due to Salmonella Infantis, the initial increase in reported illness was likely due to one or more other transmission pathways. Other potential transmission pathways include non-chicken foodborne, waterborne, person-to-person, animal contact, and environmental.

11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(3)2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541231

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic originated in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the first case diagnosed since January 2020 in Taiwan. The study about the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on event, location, food source, and pathogens of foodborne disease (FBD) is limited in Taiwan. Our aim in this study is to investigate FBD in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: We collected publicly available annual summary data from the FBD dataset in the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration and Certifiable Disease on reported FBD in Taiwan from 2019 to 2020. We used logistic regression to evaluate changes in the occurrence or likelihood of FBD cases and Poisson regression to examine the relative risk (RR) between FBD and climate factors. Results: Similar events occurred in 2019 and 2020, but the total number of FBD cases decreased from 6935 in 2019 to 4920 in 2020. The places where FBD decreased were in schools, hospitals, outdoors, vendors, and exteriors. The top place in FBD shifted from schools to restaurants. The top food source for FBD has changed from boxed food to compound food. Bacillus cereus and Salmonella emerged as the top two observed bacterial pathogens causing FBD. The risk of FBD cases increased with a higher air temperature, with an RR of 1.055 (1.05-1.061, p < 0.001) every 1 °C. Conclusion: The incidence of FBD decreased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan. This decline may be attributed to protective measures implemented to control the spread of the virus. This shift in locations could be influenced by changes in public behavior, regulations, or other external factors. The study emphasizes the importance of understanding the sources and effectiveness of severe infection prevention policies. The government can use these findings to formulate evidence-based policies aimed at reducing FBD cases and promoting public health. Consumers can reduce the risk of FBD by following safe food handling and preparation recommendations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública
12.
Cureus ; 16(2): e54451, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38510894

RESUMO

Background Food is handled by many individuals in large food setups, therefore increasing the chance of contamination that leads to foodborne diseases (FBDs). This study was purposed to evaluate adults' understanding of food safety, FBDs, and hygiene practices across various demographic groups in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and to explore the link between their knowledge of food safety and their corresponding attitudes. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 402 adults using a validated, self-administered questionnaire available in both printed and online formats. The study was carried out at Gulf Medical University and Thumbay hospitals and clinics over six months, beginning in December 2022 to June 2023. Data analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 26.0 (Released 2019; IBM Corp., Armonk, New York, United States). The chi-squared test was employed to examine the association between variables, and significant associations were further analyzed through logistic regression. Results Out of the 402 participants, the population was predominantly female 275 (67.9%), and from Southeast Asia 222 (55.4%), with students comprising the largest occupational group 186 (47%). Only 106 (26.36%) had received food safety training, and a mere 187 (46.51%) demonstrated adequate knowledge. Awareness levels varied, with the highest for raw food safety (64.02%) and the lowest for canned foods (40.79%). Demographic analysis revealed significant associations: males exhibited more inadequate knowledge 79 (62.2%) than females 136 (49.4%), and students showed higher inadequacy 104 (55.9%) compared to healthcare workers 31 (35.6%). Positive attitudes towards food safety were prevalent 226 (56.2%), and positive attitudes were found in women 157 (57.1%), individuals above 30 years of age 110 (50.5%), individuals working in healthcare 140 (62%), and married individuals 117 (60.9%). With a strong correlation (p<0.001), women were 1.68 times more likely to possess adequate knowledge than men (95% CI: 1.09, 2.59), and healthcare workers were 2.33 times more likely than students (95% CI: 1.37, 3.95). Conclusion The study reveals a low level of knowledge about food safety among adults in the UAE. Therefore, emphasis should be placed on increasing awareness of these concepts to reduce the burden of FBDs on the healthcare system.

13.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 451, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food safety is a critical factor in promoting public health and nutrition, especially in developing countries like India, which experience several foodborne disease outbreaks, often with multidrug-resistant pathogens. Therefore, implementing regular surveillance of enteric pathogens in the human-animal-environment interface is necessary to reduce the disease burden in the country. OBJECTIVE: To establish a network of laboratories for the identification of major food and waterborne pathogens prevailing in the northeast region of India through integrated surveillance of animal, food, human, and environment and investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the pathogens of public health significance. METHODS: The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has identified FoodNet laboratories; based on their geographical location, inclination to undertake the study, preparedness, proficiency, and adherence to quality assurance procedures, through an 8-step process to systematically expand to cover the Northeastern Region (NER) with comprehensive diagnostic capacities for foodborne pathogens and diarrhea outbreak investigations. Network initiated in the NER given the unique food habits of the ethnic population. FINDINGS: This surveillance network for foodborne enteric pathogens was established in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, and Sikkim, and expanded to other four states, i.e., Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, and Nagaland, thereby covering the entire NER by including nine medical and three veterinary centers. All these centers are strengthened with periodic training, technical support, funding, capacity building, quality assurance, monitoring, centralized digital data management, and website development. RESULTS: The ICMR-FoodNet will generate NER-specific data with close to real-time reporting of foodborne disease and outbreaks, and facilitate the updating of food safety management protocols, policy reforms, and public health outbreak response. During 2020-2023, 13,981 food samples were tested and the detection of enteric pathogens ranged from 3 to 4%. In clinical samples, the detection rate of the pathogens was high in the diarrheal stools (8.9%) when 3,107 samples were tested. Thirteen outbreaks were investigated during the study period. CONCLUSION: Foodborne diseases and outbreaks are a neglected subject. Given the frequent outbreaks leading to the deaths of children, it is crucial to generate robust data through well-established surveillance networks so that a strong food safety policy can be developed for better public health.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Saúde Única , Criança , Animais , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Saúde Pública , Índia/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle
14.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 71(4): 381-391, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38195823

RESUMO

AIMS: Enteric pathogens with a livestock reservoir pose a unique risk to people in occupations with regular contact with animals. However, public health surveillance of occupational exposures is inadequate, with surveillance for occupation typically focusing on the risk of transmission and the need for worker exclusion, rather than workplace exposures. To improve surveillance for occupational zoonoses, the Colorado Integrated Food Safety Center of Excellence convened a group of subject matter experts who developed a set of variables on occupation, industry, and exposures, which were integrated into Colorado's surveillance system in 2017. We evaluated the quality and completeness of these new occupational fields for interviewed cases with laboratory-confirmed zoonotic infections and compared occupations to cases with a non-zoonotic infection (Shigella) and to employment data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. METHODS AND RESULTS: From March 2017 through December 2019, 3668 domestically acquired, laboratory-confirmed sporadic infections of Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and non-typhoidal Salmonella among individuals ≥14 years of age were interviewed by public health. We found asking explicitly about occupational exposure risks and focusing on animal exposures, improved data quality and accuracy. Of the cases who stated that they were employed, 262 (13%) reported working in an occupation with regular animal exposure, and 254 (14%) reported an industry with regular animal exposure. Cases with an animal exposure occupation were more likely to be male and live in a rural or frontier county compared to other occupations. All occupations with regular animal contact were reported at a higher frequency than among Shigella cases or the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Public health efforts, both in occupational health and communicable disease sectors, should be made to improve surveillance for enteric zoonoses and identify opportunities for prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Zoonoses , Humanos , Animais , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Colorado/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde Ocupacional , Masculino , Adulto , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Feminino
15.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38265447

RESUMO

Shigellosis is spread through the fecal-oral route, including sexual activity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends collecting a sexual history from people diagnosed with shigellosis to enhance the understanding of its epidemiology and outbreak detection and the design of disease prevention messaging, although individual jurisdictions decide if and how this is done. Moreover, enteric disease interviewers typically receive in-depth general interviewing training, but often not sexual history question training. The goal of this project was to inform national practices around sexual history questions asked during shigellosis interviews by collecting information from U.S. state health agencies and evaluating sexual history data from people diagnosed with shigellosis in Colorado. From November 2021 to January 2022, information on sexual history questions asked of persons with reported shigellosis and accompanying training resources were collected from U.S. state health departments. Data completeness and quality of shigellosis sexual history questions from Colorado's notifiable disease database from 2018 to 2022 were also evaluated. Of 48 states, 54% reported routinely asking all adults about their sexual history during shigellosis interviews. Of 44 states, 18% indicated having accompanying training materials for interviewers. In Colorado, the proportion of unknown/missing responses to questions about recent sexual contact with male and female partners was lower for males (3.3% unknown and 3.3% missing) than females (5.4% and 6.2%) and highest among those 66 years and older (6.7% and 10%). Among those reporting new sexual partners, 93.5% indicated how they met. The evaluation of Colorado data demonstrates that routine collection of complete, high-quality, actionable sexual history data from all adults with reported shigellosis is feasible. Nearly half of the responding states indicated not doing so, and few had training resources. We recommend training enteric disease interviewers to routinely ask all adults with reported shigellosis about their sexual history, including new partner meeting location.

16.
Saudi Med J ; 45(1): 98-103, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38220233

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a questionnaire to assess the food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices (KPPs) of hospital food service staff (FSS) amidst the challenges of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: The questionnaire was subjected to a rigorous evaluation process, which included a literature review and focus groups comprising the general public, FSS, and key experts in food service. The pilot testing highlighted its utility and determined its content validity ratio (CVR). RESULTS: Most items received high CVR scores of 0.96, indicating excellent content validity. A subsequent pilot study involved 40 FSS. Reliability testing, using Cronbach's alpha value of 0.914, demonstrated good internal consistency across the questionnaire scales. The final version consisted of 115 items. CONCLUSION: The developed questionnaire, available in both English and Arabic, exhibits both validity and reliability. It acts as a crucial tool for healthcare facilities to assess food safety KPPs among FSS, both under regular operations and during crises like the COVID-19 pandemic. This tool is adaptable to various hospital settings, aiding in the reduction of foodborne diseases risks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviço Hospitalar de Nutrição , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos Piloto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Psicometria
17.
Int J Environ Health Res ; 34(2): 885-897, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36842960

RESUMO

We studied regional food control inspection grades and their relation to regional incidence of domestically acquired foodborne diseases (caused by Campylobacter spp. Salmonella spp. enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), and Listeria monocytogenes) using food control inspection data of local food business operators and infectious disease data from 2014 to 2019 from Finland. We observed that inferior overall inspection grades were associated with increased incidence of Salmonella infections (p=0.02). Specifically, inferior grades on cleanliness of facilities, surfaces, and equipment were associated with increased incidence of Salmonella infections (p=0.04). For this topical inspection area, a high effect size was also seen for Campylobacter infections (p=0.06). Of the individual inspection items, an association between increased incidence of Campylobacter infections and inferior grades on storage of foodstuffs (p=0.01) and verification of hygiene proficiency (p=0.03) was observed. These results suggest that food control recognizes non-compliances that may predispose to foodborne diseases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Infecções por Salmonella , Humanos , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Incidência , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia
18.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(1): e0341823, 2024 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38063356

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: This study is important because it shows the potential epidemiological silence associated with the use of culture as the primary diagnostic method for the laboratory identification of human campylobacteriosis. Also, we show how polymerase chain reaction methods are associated with a systematic increase in the number of human campylobacteriosis episodes as reported by routine disease surveillance. These findings are operationally relevant and have public health implications because they tell how crucial it is to consider changes in diagnostic methods, e.g., in the epidemiological analysis of historical data and in the interpretation of future data in light of the past. We also believe that this study highlights how the synergy between microbiology and epidemiology is essential for disease surveillance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter , Gastroenterite , Humanos , Infecções por Campylobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Campylobacter/genética , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
19.
Risk Anal ; 44(3): 641-649, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37330987

RESUMO

Retrospective review is a key to designing effective food safety measures. Despite the reported reduction of Salmonella prevalence in poultry products, there has not been a concomitant reduction of the overall incidence of Salmonella illnesses reported to the US Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) since 1996. However, there have been significant annual trends among Salmonella serotypes. This analysis examines trends in the reported incidence of illness due to poultry- and nonpoultry associated Salmonella serotypes. Overall, the findings indicate declining trends in illness due to the poultry-associated serotypes and increasing trends in illness due to Salmonella serotypes not associated with poultry.


Assuntos
Produtos Avícolas , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Sorogrupo , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Salmonella
20.
J Food Prot ; 87(1): 100202, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38052368

RESUMO

Food service facilities are important sites where foodborne diseases have been reported to occur frequently. This study aims to determine the correlation between self-reported foodborne diseases and food-safety practices followed by food handlers of various food service facilities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March 1, 2022 to December 30, 2022 in Wuhu City, Anhui Province, China. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and having the selected food handlers fill in a self-compiled questionnaire. Of the 1072 food handlers included in the study, 88 (8.2%) reported having experienced symptoms of foodborne diseases in the past 4 weeks. The following food-safety practices correlated with self-reported foodborne diseases: (1) infrequently using 3-compartment sinks to separately clean different types of raw food materials (P < 0.05, OR = 2.312); (2) infrequently removing non-edible parts of aquatic products outside a specific room for food processing (P < 0.001, OR = 3.916); (3) infrequently immediately refrigerating cold dishes prepared in advance to be consumed later (P < 0.001, OR = 4.048); (4) often store perishable foods at 8-60°C in the indoor environment after cooking and before eating (P < 0.05, OR = 2.068); (5) infrequently reheating cooked perishable food stored at 8-60°C for more than 2 h before eating (P < 0.05, OR = 1.934); and (6) often storing raw and cooked food in the same container (P < 0.001, OR = 3.818). Hence, a better supervision of food-safety practices of catering workers may reduce the frequency of foodborne-disease outbreaks in food service facilities.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Humanos , Autorrelato , Estudos Transversais , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , China/epidemiologia
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