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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253215, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360216

RESUMO

Abstract Frequencies, magnitudes, and distributions of occurrence can affect the events. The problem can be worse or the solution better if greater frequencies and magnitudes are presented with aggregated distribution in the production system. Indices, hence, are used to assist in decision-making on certain issues. The system formed by Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae), a typical and economically important Brazilian Cerrado tree species, and its several arthropods are adequate to evaluate a new index. This study aimed to test an index to identify the loss and solution sources and their importance in the system's loss or income gain. The index is: Percentage of Importance Indice % I . I . = k s 1 × c 1 × d s 1 / Σ k s 1 × c 1 × d s 1 + k s 2 × c 2 × d s 2 + k s n × c n × d s n x 100. T h e % I . I . separated the loss sources [e.g., Edessa rufomarginata De Geer, 1773 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on fruits = 41.90%)] on the percentage of reduction of fruit production (e.g., 0.13%), calculated the attention level (e.g., 0.10/fruit), with a total lost production of 1.35% (≈ 307 total lost fruits). The % I.I. also separated the solution sources [e.g., Zelus armillatus (Lep. and Servi., 1825) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) = 55.48%), the non-attention level (e.g., Z. armillatus: 0.394 for E. rufomarginata on fruit), with total income gain of 0.56% (≈ 128 total saved fruits) on the natural system (e.g., C. brasiliense trees). This index can calculate losses or the effectiveness of the solutions monetarily. Here I test the % I.I., an index that can detect the key loss and solution sources on the system, which can be applied in some knowledge areas.


Resumo Frequências, magnitudes e distribuição de ocorrência pode afetar os eventos. O problema pode ser pior ou a solução melhor se maiores frequências e magnitudes forem apresentadas com distribuição agregada no sistema de produção. Índices, então, são usados para assistir na decisão de certas questões. O sistema formado pelo Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae), uma espécie arbórea típica e economicamente importante do Cerrado brasileiro, e seus diversos artrópodes são adequados para avaliar um novo índice. A motivação deste trabalho foi testar um índice capaz de identificar as fontes de perda e de soluções, e suas importâncias em termos de perdas ou ganhos no sistema. O índice é: percentagem de importância % I . I . = k s 1 × c 1 × d s 1 / Σ k s 1 × c 1 × d s 1 + k s 2 × c 2 × d s 2 + k s n × c n × d s n x 100. O % I . I . separou as fontes de perda [ex., Edessa rufomarginata De Geer, 1773 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) em frutos = 41,90%)] na percentagem de redução na produção de frutos (ex., 0,13%), calculando o nível de atenção (ex., 0,10/fruto), com um total de perda de produção de 1,35% (≈ 307 frutos totais perdidos). O % I.I. também separou as fontes de solução [ex., Zelus armillatus (Lep. and Servi., 1825) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) = 55,48%)], o nível de não atenção (ex., Z. armillatus: 0,394 para E. rufomarginata em fruto), com total de ganho de 0,56% (≈ 128 total de frutos salvos) no sistema natural (ex., árvores de C. brasiliense). Esse índice pode calcular essas perdas ou a eficácia das soluções monetariamente. Aqui eu testo o % I.I., um índice capaz de detectar fatores chaves de perda e de soluções no sistema, capaz de ser aplicado em algumas áreas do conhecimento.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253218, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355863

RESUMO

Abstract Indices are used to help on decision-making. This study aims to develop and test an index, which can determine the loss (e.g., herbivorous insects) and solution (e.g., natural enemies) sources. They will be classified according to their importance regarding the ability to damage or to reduce the source of damage to the system when the final production is unknown. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs, and it is adequate to evaluate a new index. The formula was: Percentage of the Importance Indice-Production Unknown (% I.I.-PU) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. The loss sources Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and Tettigoniidae, and solution sources Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae), and Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) showed the highest % I.I.-PU on leaves of A. auriculiformis saplings. The number of Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was reduced per number of Salticidae; that of A. reticulatum that of Uspachus sp.; and that of Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) that of P. termitarius on A. auriculiformis saplings. However, the number of Aleyrodidae was increased per number of Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and that of A. reticulatum that of Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on A. auriculiformis saplings. The A. reticulatum damage was reduced per number of Uspachus sp., but the Aleyrodidae damage was increased per number of Cephalotes sp., totaling 23.81% of increase by insect damages on A. auriculiformis saplings. Here I show and test the % I.I.-PU. It is an new index that can detect the loss or solution sources on a system when production is unknown. It can be applied in some knowledge areas.


Resumo Índices são usados para ajudar na tomada de decisões. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver e testar um índice capaz de determinar fontes de perda (ex.: insetos herbívoros) e de solução (ex.: inimigos naturais). Eles serão classificados de acordo com sua importância quanto a habilidade de danificar ou reduzir danos no sistema, quando a produção final é desconhecida. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), uma espécie pioneira não nativa do Brasil com rápido crescimento e rusticidade, usada em programas de restauração, é adequada para avaliar um novo índice. A fórmula foi: Porcentagem de Índice de Importância-Produção Desconhecida (% I.I.-PD) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. As fontes de perda Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) e Tettigoniidae, e as fontes de solução Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae) e Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) apresentaram maiores % I.I.-PD nas folhas das mudas de A. auriculiformis. O número de Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) foi reduzido pelo número de Salticidae; o de A. reticulatum pelo de Uspachus sp.; e o de Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) pelo de P. termitarius em mudas de A. auriculiformis. Entretanto, o número de Aleyrodidae foi aumentado pelo número de Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) e o de A. reticulatum pelo de Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em mudas de A. auriculiformis. O dano de A. reticulatum foi reduzido pelo número de Uspachus sp., mas o dano de Aleyrodidae foi aumentado pelo número de Cephalotes sp., totalizando 23,81% de aumento de danos em mudas de A. auriculiformis. Aqui eu apresento e testo o % I.I.-PD. Ele é um novo índice capaz de detectar fontes de perda e de solução no sistema quando não se conhece a produção final. Ele pode ser aplicado em algumas áreas do conhecimento.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Besouros , Acacia , Hemípteros , Insetos
3.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(2): 410-415, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35900438

RESUMO

Modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT) has shown beneficial effects on motor function improvement after brain injury, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. In this study, amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) metrics measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was obtained to investigate the efficacy and mechanism of mCIMT in a control cortical impact (CCI) rat model simulating traumatic brain injury. At 3 days after control cortical impact model establishment, we found that the mean ALFF (mALFF) signals were decreased in the left motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, insula cortex and the right motor cortex, and were increased in the right corpus callosum. After 3 weeks of an 8-hour daily mCIMT treatment, the mALFF values were significantly increased in the bilateral hemispheres compared with those at 3 days postoperatively. The mALFF signal values of left corpus callosum, left somatosensory cortex, right medial prefrontal cortex, right motor cortex, left postero dorsal hippocampus, left motor cortex, right corpus callosum, and right somatosensory cortex were increased in the mCIMT group compared with the control cortical impact group. Finally, we identified brain regions with significantly decreased mALFF values at 3 days postoperatively. Pearson correlation coefficients with the right forelimb sliding score indicated that the improvement in motor function of the affected upper limb was associated with an increase in mALFF values in these brain regions. Our findings suggest that functional cortical plasticity changes after brain injury, and that mCIMT is an effective method to improve affected upper limb motor function by promoting bilateral hemispheric cortical remodeling. mALFF values correlate with behavioral changes and can potentially be used as biomarkers to assess dynamic cortical plasticity after traumatic brain injury.

4.
Subst Use Misuse ; 57(5): 730-741, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193461

RESUMO

Background: Rates of cannabis use appear to be highest among emerging adults (EA). Evidence suggests that cannabis smoking, as well as alternate methods of cannabis use (e.g., vaping, edibles) have become a prevalent mode of consumption among this population. Substance use or misuse peaks during emerging adulthood and may be influenced by extreme economic, social and community developments, such as policy changes, public health concerns, and significant global events such as pandemics. For instance, it is highly likely that cannabis consumption trends among at-risk populations were influenced by the legalization of recreational cannabis in Canada, the declaration of the "e-cigarette or vaping product use associated lung injury" or "EVALI" outbreak, and the "COVID-19" pandemic. ObjectivesWe aimed to examine self-reported changes in frequency of cannabis use among EA in Canada (N = 312): pre-legalization, post-legalization; pre-EVALI, post-EVALI; pre-COVID-19, since-COVID-19. ResultsThere was a gradual increase in average frequency of smoking and vaping cannabis across the six different time intervals from the pre-legalization period (2018) to the COVID-19 pandemic period (2020). Males reported higher frequencies of cannabis smoking and vaping compared to females. ConclusionsDespite health concerns and expectations that EVALI and COVID-19 events would lead to decreased consumption, our results suggest an average increase in smoking and vaping cannabis, although the most notable increase was after legalization. There are important sex differences in behavioral factors of cannabis use in EA, though it appears that the "gender-gap" in cannabis consumption is closing. These findings may facilitate the development of intervention programs for policy measures to address cannabis-attributable outcomes in the face of contextual factors that promote use, such as public emergencies or changes in policy landscapes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Políticas , Saúde Pública
5.
Front Neurol ; 13: 860290, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493835

RESUMO

Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) were used to detect the neuroimaging mechanism of Shugan Jieyu Capsule (SG) in ameliorating depression of post-stroke depression (PSD) patients. Fifteen PSD patients took SG for 8 weeks, completed the 24-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) assessment at the baseline and 8 weeks later, and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. Twenty-one healthy controls (HCs) underwent these assessments at the baseline. We found that SG improved depression of PSD patients, in which ReHo values decreased in the left calcarine sulcus (CAL.L) and increased in the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG.L) of PSD patients at the baseline. The fALFF values of the left inferior parietal cortex (IPL.L) decreased in PSD patients at the baseline. Abnormal functional activities in the brain regions were reversed to normal levels after the administration of SG for 8 weeks. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis found that the changes in three altered brain regions could be used to differentiate PSD patients at the baseline and HCs. Average signal values of altered regions were related to depression in all subjects at the baseline. Our results suggest that SG may ameliorate depression of PSD patients by affecting brain region activity and local synchronization.

6.
Dermatologie (Heidelb) ; 73(7): 563-574, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925205

RESUMO

The imaging of changes to the skin, the subcutis and especially the regional lymph nodes by high-resolution ultrasound is an integral part of routine dermatological diagnostics. This is mainly done with electronic scanners operating at frequencies between 7.5 and 20 MHz (conventional ultrasound diagnostics). In addition, there are very high-frequency ultrasound systems (frequencies up to 100 MHz) that are used for special scientific questions. Ultrasound diagnostics has a number of advantages over other cross-sectional imaging techniques but is more dependent than these on the individual experience of the examiner. Structured training and continuing education are therefore essential for ultrasound diagnostics, also in dermatology. The following overview describes the most important indications for conventional sonography in dermatology in addition to the physical, technical and administrative principles.


Assuntos
Dermatologia , Dermatologia/métodos , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 316: 114732, 2022 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926361

RESUMO

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been demonstrated to be effective in treating depressed patients. Previous neuroimaging studies have focused mainly on alterations in static brain activity and connectivity to study the effects of ECT in depressed patients. However, it remains unclear whether the temporal dynamics of brain activity are associated with mechanisms of ECT in depressed patients. We measured the dynamics of spontaneous brain activity using dynamic amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (dALFF) in healthy controls (n = 40) and patients diagnosed with unipolar depression (UD, n = 36) or bipolar disorder (BD, n = 9) before and after ECT. Furthermore, the temporal variability of intrinsic brain activity (iBA) was quantified as the variance of dALFF across sliding window. In addition, correlation analysis was performed to investigate the relationships among dALFF, depressive symptoms, and cognitive function in depressed patients. We lack second resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data for healthy controls. After ECT, patients showed decreased brain dynamics (less temporal variability) in the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the right precuneus, whereas they showed increased brain dynamics in the bilateral superior medial frontal cortex (mSFC). No significant correlation was found between the dALFF and clinical variables in depressed patients. Our findings suggest that right dACC, right precuneus, and bilateral mSFC play an important role in response to ECT depressed patients from the perspective of dynamic local brain activity, indicating that the dALFF variability may be useful in further understanding the mechanisms of ECT's antidepressant effects.

8.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 147: 108205, 2022 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932532

RESUMO

Repetitive magnetic stimulation (rMS) has been suggested as a non-invasive treatment for various neurological or psychiatric diseases. Contrary to the application previously used, the purpose of the present study was to elucidate whether low-frequency rMS could suppress tumor progression in in vitro and in vivo neuroblastoma models, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrated that low-frequency rMS treatment significantly suppressed cell proliferation and tumor progression in the models. Moreover, low-frequency rMS treatment downregulated the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway and induced apoptosis. The Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway activator, Wnt agonist, was found to counteract the effect of low-frequency rMS treatment, while the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway inhibitor, Wnt antagonist, exhibited a tumor suppression effect, similar to the effect of low-frequency rMS treatment. Taken together, our data demonstrated that low-frequency rMS treatment suppressed neuroblastoma progression by downregulating the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway, suggesting that low-frequency rMS treatment may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the tumor suppression.

9.
Cybersecur (Singap) ; 5(1): 26, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35936976

RESUMO

The collection of user attributes by service providers is a double-edged sword. They are instrumental in driving statistical analysis to train more accurate predictive models like recommenders. The analysis of the collected user data includes frequency estimation for categorical attributes. Nonetheless, the users deserve privacy guarantees against inadvertent identity disclosures. Therefore algorithms called frequency oracles were developed to randomize or perturb user attributes and estimate the frequencies of their values. We propose Sarve, a frequency oracle that used Randomized Aggregatable Privacy-Preserving Ordinal Response (RAPPOR) and Hadamard Response (HR) for randomization in combination with fake data. The design of a service-oriented architecture must consider two types of complexities, namely computational and communication. The functions of such systems aim to minimize the two complexities and therefore, the choice of privacy-enhancing methods must be a calculated decision. The variant of RAPPOR we had used was realized through bloom filters. A bloom filter is a memory-efficient data structure that offers time complexity of O(1). On the other hand, HR has been proven to give the best communication costs of the order of log(b) for b-bits communication. Therefore, Sarve is a step towards frequency oracles that exhibit how privacy provisions of existing methods can be combined with those of fake data to achieve statistical results comparable to the original data. Sarve also implemented an adaptive solution enhanced from the work of Arcolezi et al. The use of RAPPOR was found to provide better privacy-utility tradeoffs for specific privacy budgets in both high and general privacy regimes.

10.
Food Res Int ; 159: 111663, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940820

RESUMO

French fries are popular items in the diets of many countries, but the high oil content is a major health concern for consumers. Numerous novel frying techniques have been explored by the fast food service industry and the research community to address such concern. This research aimed to study the influence of microwave heating at two frequencies (2.45 and 5.85 GHz), both individually or in combination, in frying and post-frying on oil reduction in French fries. Results showed that microwave frying reduced the frying time by 30 - 40%, with equivalent product quality attributes in terms of oil content, color, and texture, as compared to deep-oil frying. Oil intake increased with increasing moisture loss during frying, regardless of the frying methods. Post-frying condition was the key to oil reduction. Specifically, a 60 s microwave heating after frying reduced the oil content by 18 - 23%. Compared to 2.45 GHz, microwaves at 5.85 GHz could produce French fries with significantly lower oil content (p ≤ 0.05) and better quality attributes such as color and texture. This study demosntrated the potential of microwave heating in production of deep-fried French fries with lower oil content and better quality.


Assuntos
Micro-Ondas , Solanum tuberosum , Culinária/métodos , Fast Foods , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos
11.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 10: 965769, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942007

RESUMO

There is a need to improve the efficacy and safety of endovascular techniques in venous thrombotic diseases, and microbubble enhanced sonothrombolysis is a promising approach. However, whether endovascular low-frequency ultrasound (LFUS) can be utilized in microbubble enhanced sonothrombolysis is unclear. Here, we present a catheter-based thrombolytic system that combines unfocused low-frequency low-intensity ultrasound with novel fibrin-targeted drug-loaded bifunctional microbubbles. We develop an in vitro flow model and an in vivo rabbit inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis model to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the thrombolytic system. The results indicate that microbubble enhanced sonothrombolysis with endovascular LFUS treatment for 30 min is equally effective compared to pure pharmacologic treatment. Furthermore, the thrombolytic efficacy of this system is safely and substantially improved by the introduction of a fibrin-targeted drug-loaded bifunctional microbubble with a reduction of the fibrinolytic agent dosage by 60%. The microbubble enhanced endovascular LFUS sonothrombolysis system with excellent thrombolytic efficacy may serve as a new therapeutic approach for venous thrombotic diseases.

12.
Front Neurosci ; 16: 915744, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942153

RESUMO

Spoken language comprehension requires rapid and continuous integration of information, from lower-level acoustic to higher-level linguistic features. Much of this processing occurs in the cerebral cortex. Its neural activity exhibits, for instance, correlates of predictive processing, emerging at delays of a few 100 ms. However, the auditory pathways are also characterized by extensive feedback loops from higher-level cortical areas to lower-level ones as well as to subcortical structures. Early neural activity can therefore be influenced by higher-level cognitive processes, but it remains unclear whether such feedback contributes to linguistic processing. Here, we investigated early speech-evoked neural activity that emerges at the fundamental frequency. We analyzed EEG recordings obtained when subjects listened to a story read by a single speaker. We identified a response tracking the speaker's fundamental frequency that occurred at a delay of 11 ms, while another response elicited by the high-frequency modulation of the envelope of higher harmonics exhibited a larger magnitude and longer latency of about 18 ms with an additional significant component at around 40 ms. Notably, while the earlier components of the response likely originate from the subcortical structures, the latter presumably involves contributions from cortical regions. Subsequently, we determined the magnitude of these early neural responses for each individual word in the story. We then quantified the context-independent frequency of each word and used a language model to compute context-dependent word surprisal and precision. The word surprisal represented how predictable a word is, given the previous context, and the word precision reflected the confidence about predicting the next word from the past context. We found that the word-level neural responses at the fundamental frequency were predominantly influenced by the acoustic features: the average fundamental frequency and its variability. Amongst the linguistic features, only context-independent word frequency showed a weak but significant modulation of the neural response to the high-frequency envelope modulation. Our results show that the early neural response at the fundamental frequency is already influenced by acoustic as well as linguistic information, suggesting top-down modulation of this neural response.

13.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 957369, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942178

RESUMO

The coexistence of insulinoma and type 2 diabetes is rare and the diagnostic process is often challenging. Continuous glucose monitoring system devices, which are more readily available nowadays, provide a useful tool for the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment response. Curative surgery is often the mainstay of treatment for insulinoma. Here, we report a Chinese patient with insulinoma diagnosed simultaneously with type 2 diabetes. His insulinoma was managed with endoscopic ultrasound guided-radiofrequency ablation (EUS-RFA) and the patient achieved complete resolution of hypoglycaemic episodes. The case illustrates that while EUS-RFA is an emerging non-invasive treatment modality for pancreatic lesions, limitations exist especially when histological confirmation is essential.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insulinoma , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Ablação por Radiofrequência , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Humanos , Insulinoma/complicações , Insulinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Insulinoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
14.
Harmful Algae ; 117: 102289, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944949

RESUMO

Harmful algal blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis occur almost annually on the West Florida Shelf (WFS) of the eastern Gulf of Mexico. To date, however, comprehensive assessments of K. brevis bloom spatial extent and temporal occurrence are lacking due to limitations in the two primary bloom monitoring techniques: microscopy evaluation of field-collected water samples and satellite remote sensing of ocean color. This is despite community efforts in expanding sampling coverage statewide and developing remote sensing algorithms to interpret color changes of surface waters. In this work, an approach is developed to combine the strengths of both techniques to estimate mean bloom occurrence frequency and bloom intensity as well as bloom extent at weekly, bi-weekly, monthly, and annual intervals between 2003 and 2019. Here, due to technical constraints on ocean color remote sensing, a bloom is defined as waters with K. brevis concentrations greater than 1.5 × 105 cells L-1. While microscopy examination of surface water samples provides K. brevis cell concentrations to help delineate bloom locations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer on Aqua (MODIS/A) images, the imagery provides far more synoptic and frequent observations to make the bloom characterization statistically meaningful. Such derived bloom statistics often show bloom patterns that are not always known previously or at the time of the event, and in some years, they also differ from those determined from microscopic taxonomy data alone. For example, in terms of bloom size, two major bloom periods are observed in 2005 - 2007 and 2014 - 2018, respectively, when annual cumulative bloom size exceeded ∼50,000 km2. While preliminary in nature, the approach and results from this work may represent a first step to integrate water sample analysis and satellite remote sensing towards an improved characterization of K. brevis blooms on the WFS.

15.
Hear Res ; : 108592, 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945069

RESUMO

Study of the characteristics, neural processing, and behavioral effects of communication sounds are an important focus of hearing research. The goal of this paper is to bring attention to another, rather neglected class of sounds that are omnipresent and that are arguably at least equally important for the daily survival of many species and have been in the evolution of the mammalian auditory system. All terrestrial mammals produce adventitious sounds when they locomote. The handful of studies that examined the characteristics of such sounds suggests that high-frequency transients are an important component. Acoustic propagation of such sounds is limited in distance, particularly for sources and receivers on a vegetated ground plane. It follows that the presence of such sounds is an indication of a nearby animal, and that detection and localization of high-frequency transients is vital for both prey and predator. It is suggested that consideration of adventitious sounds is important in grasping the importance of auditory morphological and physiological features. As an illustration, a hypothesis on the relationship of one binaural brainstem circuit to adventitious sounds is briefly discussed.

16.
Front Neurol ; 13: 925764, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937074

RESUMO

Objectives: To study the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients experiencing an ischemic stroke during Ramadan vs. non-Ramadan months in a tertiary academic center in an Islamic country. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients with ischemic stroke (IS) in Ramadan and non-Ramadan months for four consecutive years (February 2016-June 2019). All demographics, vascular risk factors, laboratory results, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at admission and discharge, National Institute Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and in-hospital complication data were collected for all patients. Results: One thousand and 58 patients were included (non-Ramadan, n = 960; during Ramadan, n = 98). The mean age during Ramadan was 59 ± 13 years. Most non-Ramadan IS patients during Ramadan were male (68.5%; 57.1%, respectively). There was no statistical difference in vascular risk factors and medical history between the two groups. However, Ramadan patients had higher median NIHSS scores at discharge (p = 0.0045). In addition, more ICU admissions were noted among Ramadan patients (p = 0.009). In the gender-specific analysis for Ramadan patients, we found a statistically significant difference in smoking and urinary tract infection (p = 0.006, p = 0.005, respectively). Conclusion: Based on our results, there was no difference, in general, between patients with IS during Ramadan and non-Ramadan months. However, IS patients had higher NIHSS scores at discharge and more ICU admissions during Ramadan. Last, we suggest future studies with larger sample sizes, longer duration, and including all types of strokes.

17.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 16: 881291, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937675

RESUMO

In order for electroencephalography (EEG) with sensory stimuli measures to be used in research and neurological clinical practice, demonstration of reliability is needed. However, this is rarely examined. Here we studied the test-retest reliability of the EEG latency and amplitude of evoked potentials and spectra as well as identifying the sources during pin-prick stimulation. We recorded EEG in 23 healthy older adults who underwent a protocol of pin-prick stimulation on the dominant and non-dominant hand. EEG was recorded in a second session with rest intervals of 1 week. For EEG electrodes Fz, Cz, and Pz peak amplitude, latency and frequency spectra for pin-prick evoked potentials was determined and test-retest reliability was assessed. Substantial reliability ICC scores (0.76-0.79) were identified for evoked potential negative-positive amplitude from the left hand at C4 channel and positive peak latency when stimulating the right hand at Cz channel. Frequency spectra showed consistent increase of low-frequency band activity (< 5 Hz) and also in theta and alpha bands in first 0.25 s. Almost perfect reliability scores were found for activity at both low-frequency and theta bands (ICC scores: 0.81-0.98). Sources were identified in the primary somatosensory and motor cortices in relation to the positive peak using s-LORETA analysis. Measuring the frequency response from the pin-prick evoked potentials may allow the reliable assessment of central somatosensory impairment in the clinical setting.

18.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 16: 959579, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937677

RESUMO

Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness, also known as PPPD or 3PD, is a chronic functional vestibular disorder characterized by persistent sensation of rocking or swaying unsteadiness and/ or non-spinning dizziness without vertigo lasting at least 3 months. Symptoms typically worsen with upright posture (like standing or sitting upright), head or body motion and exposure to busy or visually rich environments. The article describes the application of Infra-Low Frequency Neurofeedback (ILF NF) over 32 sessions on an unmedicated individual with symptoms related to PPPD that were still present 3 years after the initial diagnosis. Along with significant reduction in those symptoms, other accompanying symptoms (like anxiety, intrusive violent thoughts, suicidal thoughts) were markedly improved with ILF NFB. Consistent symptom tracking from session to session, as well as before and after CPT data were used to document reported changes with ILF NF.

19.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 16: 917385, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937678

RESUMO

This study investigates the relationship between the frequency of basketball training and executive functions (inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility) in boys aged 6 to 8. A total of 40 boys recruited from a local after-school basketball training club were divided into a low-frequency group (once a week) and a high-frequency group (at least twice a week). An additional 20 age-matched boys recruited from a local elementary school were considered as the control group (no training experience). All subjects conducted the Stop-signal task, the N-back task, and the switching task at rest. The mean reaction time and accuracy data obtained from each task were used in statistical analysis. There was no significant group difference in either the accuracy or reaction time of inhibitory control. Meanwhile, no significant difference was found in the reaction time of working memory across groups. However, the high-frequency group exhibited significantly higher accuracy (93.00 ± 4.31%) with regard to working memory than the low-frequency group (85.4 ± 6.04%, P < 0.001) and the control group (83.73 ± 7.70%, P < 0.001), respectively. A positive correlation was also found between the accuracy of working memory and groups. Furthermore, in comparison with the control group, the high-frequency group exhibited significantly higher cognitive flexibility accuracy (91.93 ± 7.40% vs. 85.70 ± 9.75%, P = 0.004) and shorter reaction time (934.24 ± 213.02 ms vs. 1,122.06 ± 299.14 ms, P < 0.001). There was also a positive correlation between the accuracy of cognitive flexibility and groups. These findings suggest that regular basketball training, especially with higher frequency, is beneficial to working memory and cognitive flexibilityin boys aged 6 to 8.

20.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 895186, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937801

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate changes in local spontaneous brain activity in patients with active thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and explore the relationship between such alterations and microvascular indices. Methods: Thirty-six active TAO patients with active phase and 39 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled in this study. All participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), neuropsychological tests, and ophthalmological examinations. The rs-fMRI-based fractional low-frequency fluctuation amplitude (fALFF) analysis methods were used to assess spontaneous brain activity in both groups. The structure (peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, pRNFL) and microvascular indices (the optic nerve head (ONH) whole image vessel density, ONH-wiVD, and peripapillary vessel density) were analyzed through optical coherence tomographic angiography imaging. The relationship between abnormal spontaneous brain activity and ophthalmological indices was analyzed using the Spearman's rank correlation analysis. Results: Compared with HCs, active TAO patients had increased fALFF in the right inferior temporal gyrus (R.ITG) and left posterior cingulate gyrus (L.PCC), but decreased fALFF in the right calcarine (R.CAL). The fALFF values in L.PCC were positively correlated with peripapillary vessel density, whereas fALFF values in R.CAL were negatively related to peripapillary vessel density. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that changes in spontaneous brain activity of active TAO are accompanied by peripapillary microvascular variations. These results provide insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of active TAO. In addition, the combination of fALFF values and peripapillary vessel density may be served as important references for better clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatia de Graves , Disco Óptico , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Densidade Microvascular , Disco Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
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