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1.
J Neurol Sci ; 460: 122999, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Whether intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) detected using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) affects the clinical outcomes of patients with large-vessel occlusion (LVO) treated with mechanical thrombectomy (MT) remains unclear. This study investigated the clinical features of ICH after MT detected solely by MRI. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of patients with acute ischemic stroke and occlusion of the internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery treated with MT between April 2011 and March 2021. Among 632 patients, patients diagnosed with no ICH using CT, with a pre-morbid modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≤ 2, and those who underwent MRI including T2* and computed tomography (CT) within 72 h from MT were enrolled. The main outcomes were the association between ICH detected solely by MRI and clinical outcomes at 90 days. Poor clinical outcomes were defined as mRS score > 2 at 90 days after onset. RESULTS: Of the 246 patients, 29 (12%) had ICH on MRI (MRI-ICH(+)), and 217 (88%) were MRI-ICH(-). There was no significant difference between number of patients with MRI-ICH(+) experiencing poor (10 [12%]) and favorable (19 [12%]) outcomes. The mRS score at 90 days between patients with MRI-ICH (+) and MRI-ICH(-) was not significantly different (2 [1-4] vs. 2 [1-4], respectively). Higher age and lower ASPECTS were independent risk factors for poor outcomes, as shown by multivariate regression analysis. MRI-ICH(+) status was not associated with poor outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: ICH detected by MRI alone did not influence clinical outcomes in patients with LVO treated with MT.


Assuntos
Hemorragias Intracranianas , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Trombectomia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombectomia/métodos , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Resultado do Tratamento , Relevância Clínica
2.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1381472, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726008

RESUMO

X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by immune dysregulation. The three most common clinical phenotypes are EBV-associated infectious mononucleosis (FIM), abnormal gammaglobulinemia, and lymphoma. We present a rare case of XLP1 with neurovasculitis, which is non-EBV-related and involves multiple systems, a condition rarely seen in children. The patient initially presented with an unsteady gait, which progressively evolved into language and consciousness disorders. Additionally, CT scans revealed multiple nodules in the lungs. Subsequent genetic testing and brain tissue biopsy confirmed the diagnosis: XLP1-related cerebral vasculitis and cerebral hemorrhage. Tragically, during the diagnostic process, the child experienced a sudden cerebral hemorrhage and herniation, ultimately resulting in fatality. This case offers a comprehensive insight into XLP1-related cerebral vasculitis and cerebral hemorrhage, underscoring the significance of early diagnosis and prompt treatment, while also imparting valuable clinical experience and lessons to the medical community.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos , Vasculite do Sistema Nervoso Central , Humanos , Vasculite do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Vasculite do Sistema Nervoso Central/etiologia , Masculino , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/complicações , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Evolução Fatal
3.
Brain Res ; 1838: 148988, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729332

RESUMO

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have potent anti-inflammatory effects, including the suppression of brain microglial activation. Veliparib, a well-known PARP1/2 inhibitor, exhibits particularly high brain penetration, but its effects on stroke outcome is unknown. Here, the effects of veliparib on the short-term outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the most lethal type of stroke, were investigated. Collagenase-induced mice ICH model was applied, and the T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed to evaluate lesion volume. Motor function and hematoma volume were also measured. We further performed immunofluorescence, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, and blood-brain barrier assessment to explore the potential mechanisms. Our results demonstrated veliparib reduced the ICH lesion volume dose-dependently and at a dosage of 5 mg/kg, veliparib significantly improved mouse motor function and promoted hematoma resolution at days 3 and 7 post-ICH. Veliparib inhibited glial activation and downregulated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Veliparib significantly decreased microglia counts and inhibited peripheral immune cell infiltration into the brain on day 3 after ICH. Veliparib improved blood-brain barrier integrity at day 3 after ICH. These findings demonstrate that veliparib improves ICH outcome by inhibiting inflammatory responses and may represent a promising novel therapy for ICH.

4.
J Endovasc Ther ; : 15266028241252730, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733296

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to perform a meta-analysis comparing the effectiveness of uterine artery embolization (UAE) versus peripartum hysterectomy for acute refractory postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically searched 6 medical databases for studies comparing UAE and hysterectomy in PPH. Outcomes examined were mortality, hospitalization duration (HD) in days, and red blood cells (RBC) units utilization. Statistical analysis used RevMan 5.1.7 and random-effects models. Odds ratios (OR) and mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used for dichotomous and continuous outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: We included 833 patients from 4 cohort studies, with 583 (70%) undergoing UAE. The UAE population required fewer RBC units (MD: -7.39; 95% CI: -14.73 to -0.04; p=0.05) and had shorter HD (MD: -3.22; 95% CI: -5.42 to -1.02; p=0.004). Lower mortality rates were noted for UAE in the pooled analysis, but no statistical significance. Uterine artery embolization demonstrated lower procedural complications (16.45% vs. 28.8%), in which UAE had less ureter and bladder lesions (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01-0.38; p=0.004 and OR: 0.02; 95% CI: 0.00-0.15; p<0.001, respectively). Only 35 (6%) required conversion to hysterectomy, while 27 (4.6%) underwent re-embolization with 100% bleeding control. Uterine artery embolization did not hinder fertility, with normal menstruation restored in 19 patients with postoligomenorrhea. CONCLUSION: Uterine artery embolization for the control of PPH is associated with lower use of RBC units and HD, but similar rates of mortality are noted when compared to hysterectomy. These results associated with uterine preservation could support its importance for refractory PPH management. CLINICAL IMPACT: Uterine Artery Embolization is associated with a shorter hospitalization duration and reduced use of red blood cell units when compared with hysterectomy in refractory postpartum hemorrhage. Although demonstrating similar mortality rates, these findings, together with fertility preservation, support the method incorporation as a valuable option in obstetric services.

5.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 32(1): 42, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines from Scandinavian Neuro Committee mandate a 24-hour observation for head trauma patients on anticoagulants, even with normal initial head CT scans, as a means not to miss delayed intracranial hemorrhages. This study aimed to assess the prevalence, and time to diagnosis, of clinically relevant delayed intracranial hemorrhage in head trauma patients treated with oral anticoagulants. METHOD: Utilizing comprehensive two-year data from Region Skåne's emergency departments, which serve a population of 1.3 million inhabitants, this study focused on adult head trauma patients prescribed oral anticoagulants. We identified those with intracranial hemorrhage within 30 days, defining delayed intracranial hemorrhage as a bleeding not apparent on their initial CT head scan. These cases were further defined as clinically relevant if associated with mortality, any intensive care unit admission, or neurosurgery. RESULTS: Out of the included 2,362 head injury cases (median age 84, 56% on a direct acting oral anticoagulant), five developed delayed intracranial hemorrhages. None of these five cases underwent neurosurgery nor were admitted to an intensive care unit. Only two cases (0.08%, 95% confidence interval [0.01-0.3%]) were classified as clinically relevant, involving subdural hematomas in patients aged 82 and 87 years, who both subsequently died. The diagnosis of these delayed intracranial hemorrhages was made at 4 and 7 days following initial presentation to the emergency department. CONCLUSION: In patients with head trauma, on oral anticoagulation, the incidence of clinically relevant delayed intracranial hemorrhage was found to be less than one in a thousand, with detection occurring four days or later after initial presentation. This challenges the effectiveness of the 24-hour observation period recommended by the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee guidelines, suggesting a need to reassess these guidelines to optimise care and resource allocation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This is a retrospective cohort study, does not include any intervention, and has therefore not been registered.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Hemorragias Intracranianas , Humanos , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Masculino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/complicações , Idoso , Prevalência , Administração Oral , Sistema de Registros , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
6.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 299(1): 50, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734849

RESUMO

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the major causes of death and disability, and hypertensive ICH (HICH) is the most common type of ICH. Currently, the outcomes of HICH patients remain poor after treatment, and early prognosis prediction of HICH is important. However, there are limited effective clinical treatments and biomarkers for HICH patients. Although circRNA has been widely studied in diseases, the role of plasma exosomal circRNAs in HICH remains unknown. The present study was conducted to investigate the characteristics and function of plasma exosomal circRNAs in six HICH patients using circRNA microarray and bioinformatics analysis. The results showed that there were 499 differentially expressed exosomal circRNAs between the HICH patients and control subjects. According to GO annotation and KEGG pathway analyses, the targets regulated by differentially expressed exosomal circRNAs were tightly related to the development of HICH via nerve/neuronal growth, neuroinflammation and endothelial homeostasis. And the differentially expressed exosomal circRNAs could mainly bind to four RNA-binding proteins (EIF4A3, FMRP, AGO2 and HUR). Moreover, of differentially expressed exosomal circRNAs, hsa_circ_00054843, hsa_circ_0010493 and hsa_circ_00090516 were significantly associated with bleeding volume and Glasgow Coma Scale score of the subjects. Our findings firstly revealed that the plasma exosomal circRNAs are significantly involved in the progression of HICH, and could be potent biomarkers for HICH. This provides the basis for further research to pinpoint the best biomarkers and illustrate the mechanism of exosomal circRNAs in HICH.


Assuntos
Exossomos , RNA Circular , Humanos , RNA Circular/genética , RNA Circular/sangue , Exossomos/genética , Exossomos/metabolismo , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Hemorragia Intracraniana Hipertensiva/genética , Hemorragia Intracraniana Hipertensiva/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hemorragia Cerebral/genética , Hemorragia Cerebral/sangue , Redes Reguladoras de Genes
7.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct oral factor Xa inhibitors are widely used as alternatives to conventional vitamin K antagonists in managing venous thromboembolism and nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Unfortunately, bleeding-related adverse events remain a major concern in clinical practice. In case of bleeding or emergency surgery, rapid-onset reversal agents may be required to counteract the anticoagulant activity. OBJECTIVES: The ability of factor Xa variants to bypass the direct oral factor Xa inhibitors was assessed. METHODS: Human factor Xa variants were generated through substitution of phenylalanine 174 (F174) for either alanine, isoleucine, or serine. Factor Xa variants were stably expressed in HEK293 cells and purified to homogeneity using ion-exchange chromatography. RESULTS: F174-substituted human factor X variants demonstrated efficacy in restoring thrombin generation in plasma containing direct factor Xa inhibitors (apixaban, rivaroxaban, edoxaban). Their ability to bypass the anticoagulant effects stems from a significant reduced sensitivity for the direct factor Xa inhibitors, due to a decrease in binding affinity determined using molecular dynamics simulations and free energy computation. Furthermore, F174 modification resulted in a partial loss of inhibition by tissue factor pathway inhibitor, enhancing the procoagulant effect of F174-substituted factor X. Consequently, the F174A- and F174S-substituted factor X variants effectively counteracted the effects of two widely used anticoagulants, apixaban and rivaxoraban, in plasma of atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism patients. CONCLUSIONS: These human factor X variants have the potential to serve as a rescue reversal strategy to overcome the effect of direct factor Xa inhibitors in case of life-threatening bleeding events or emergency surgical interventions.

8.
Neurocrit Care ; 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis dosing is not well described in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with an external ventricular drain (EVD). Our patients with SAH with an EVD who receive prophylactic enoxaparin are routinely monitored using timed anti-Xa levels. Our primary study goal was to determine the frequency of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and secondary intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) for this population of patients who received pharmacologic prophylaxis with enoxaparin or unfractionated heparin (UFH). METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients with SAH admitted to the neurocritical care unit at Emory University Hospital between 2012 and 2017. All patients with SAH who required an EVD were included. RESULTS: Of 1,351 patients screened, 868 required an EVD. Of these 868 patients, 627 received enoxaparin, 114 received UFH, and 127 did not receive pharmacologic prophylaxis. VTE occurred in 7.5% of patients in the enoxaparin group, 4.4% in the UFH group (p = 0.32), and 3.2% in the no VTE prophylaxis group (p = 0.08). Secondary ICH occurred in 3.83% of patients in the enoxaparin group, 3.51% in the UFH group (p = 1), and 3.94% in the no VTE prophylaxis group (p = 0.53). As steady-state anti-Xa levels increased from 0.1 units/mL to > 0.3 units/mL, there was a trend toward a lower incidence of VTE. However, no correlation was noted between rising anti-Xa levels and an increased incidence of secondary ICH. When compared, neither enoxaparin nor UFH use was associated with a significantly reduced incidence of VTE or an increased incidence of ICH. CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective study of patients with nontraumatic SAH with an EVD who received enoxaparin or UFH VTE prophylaxis or no VTE prophylaxis, there was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of VTE or secondary ICH. For patients receiving prophylactic enoxaparin, achieving higher steady-state target anti-Xa levels may be associated with a lower incidence of VTE without increasing the risk of secondary ICH.

9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 33(7): 107755, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705497

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Data on sex differences in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages are limited. METHODS: An automated comprehensive scoping literature review was performed using PubMed and Scopus. Articles written in English about spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and sex were reviewed. RESULTS: Males experience spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage more frequently than females, at younger ages, and have a higher prevalence of deep bleeds compared to females. Risk factors between sexes vary and may contribute to differing incidences and locations of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage. Globally, females receive less aggressive care than males, likely impacting survival. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage vary by sex, with limited and oftentimes conflicting data available. Further research into the sex-based differences of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage is necessary for clinicians to better understand how to evaluate and guide treatment in the future.

10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 33(7): 107757, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current literature lacks guidance on the safety of administering anticoagulation in acute ischemic stroke with emergent indications that require anticoagulation other than atrial fibrillation. Therefore, we tend to rely on studies investigating acute ischemic stroke in atrial fibrillation for anticoagulation recommendations. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data for patients with acute ischemic stroke who had a non-atrial fibrillation emergent indication for anticoagulation (e.g., intra-arterial thrombus, intracardiac thrombus, acute coronary syndrome, acute limb ischemia, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) diagnosed within 3 days of acute ischemic stroke. Patients who received anticoagulation ≤ 3 days of stroke onset (Group A) were compared to those who either received it afterwards or did not receive it at all (Group B). RESULTS: Out of the 558 patients, only 88 patients met our inclusion criteria. Of the total cohort, 55.7 % patients were males, and basic demographics were similar in both groups except for milder strokes in Group A (national institute of health stroke scale 6 vs. 12.5, p = 0.03). Only 2 patients in Group A and 1 patient in Group B developed intracranial hemorrhage, which was not statistically significant. Group A patients had a lower incidence of both new diagnosis (2 % vs. 34.2 % %, p < 0.001) and propagation of an established venous thromboembolism. They also had a lower rate of any thromboembolic complication (2 % vs. 42 %, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Early anticoagulation (i.e., ≤ 3 days) in non-atrial fibrillation ischemic stroke patients with an emergent indication may be safe and carry a lower risk of thromboembolic complications than later anticoagulation.

11.
Surg Neurol Int ; 15: 117, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741990

RESUMO

Background: Although uncommon, cerebellar contusions are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Literature is lacking in the prognostic and morphological factors relating to their clinical picture and outcomes, especially within children. The objective of this study is to evaluate prognostic and anatomic factors in the clinical picture of cerebellar contusions, including effacement of the 4th ventricle and cisterna magna. Methods: This is a retrospective chart review over 11 years across two medical centers. Patients included were under 18 years who presented with a cerebellar contusion. Patients were stratified within the study group based on discharge Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) and reviewed for prognostic factors contributing to outcome. Mid sagittal area of the 4th ventricle and cisterna magna were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and compared within the groups. Results: A total of 21 patients met the study criteria, of which 16 (76.2%) were male, with an average patient age of 8.65 years. Poor outcome at discharge (GOS <4) was associated with decreased admission Glasgow coma scale (P = 0.003), admission motor response (P = 0.006), pupil reactivity (P = 0.014), presence of concomitant subarachnoid hemorrhage (P = 0.010), contusion volume (P < 0.001), and decreased area of the cisterna magna (P = 0.012). Patients with poor outcomes were also more likely to require surgical intervention (P = 0.042). Conclusion: There are multiple prognostic factors associated with the overall outcome following cerebellar contusions. The rate of good outcomes in this study was superior to that in previous studies in adults.

12.
Surg Neurol Int ; 15: 121, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742000

RESUMO

Background: Bilateral vertebral artery dissection aneurysm (VADA) is a rare condition that leads to severe stroke. However, the surgical strategy for its treatment is controversial because the pathology is very complicated and varies in each case. Here, we report a case of bilateral VADA that was successfully treated with staged bilateral VADA occlusion and low-flow bypass. Case Description: A Japanese man in his 40s presented with bilateral VADA with subarachnoid hemorrhage. He had only mild headaches without any other neurological deficits. Subsequently, the ruptured left VADA was surgically trapped. However, on postoperative day 11, the contralateral VADA enlarged. The right VADA was then proximally clipped via a lateral suboccipital approach. Furthermore, a superficial temporal artery-superior cerebellar artery bypass was performed through a subtemporal approach in advance to preserve cerebral flow in the posterior circulation. The bilateral VADA was obliterated, and the patient had an uneventful postoperative course during the 1-year and 6-month follow-up period. Conclusion: Bilateral VADA can be successfully treated with staged bilateral VADA obstruction and low-flow bypass. In this case, as the posterior communicating arteries were the fetal type and the precommunicating segments of the posterior cerebral arteries (P1) were hypoplastic, a low-flow bypass was used to supply the basilar and cerebellar arteries, except the posterior cerebral and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries. Furthermore, low-flow bypass is a less invasive option than high-flow bypass.

13.
Surg Neurol Int ; 15: 119, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742002

RESUMO

Background: Cupping therapy is an alternative treatment that uses a small glass cup to suck the skin with a needle and has been used to manage skin problems and pain. However, serious complications have been reported. Herein, we describe a case of intracranial mycotic aneurysm rupture after cupping therapy. Case Description: A 25-year-old male patient presented with a headache and fever after cupping therapy for atopic dermatitis. He was diagnosed with infective endocarditis, and antibiotic therapy was initiated. After that, he suddenly lost consciousness, and head imaging revealed a cerebral hemorrhage due to a ruptured intracranial mycotic aneurysm. He underwent craniotomy, which was successful, and he was transferred to a rehabilitation center with a modified Rankin scale score of 2 at three months post-stroke. Conclusion: This case serves as a reminder of life-threatening infectious complication risks after cupping therapy. A patient who has a compromised skin barrier may experience serious adverse effects, especially when cupping is performed without implementing suitable infection prevention measures.

14.
Surg Neurol Int ; 15: 149, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742004

RESUMO

Background: Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) of the craniocervical junction (CCJ) and intradural AVFs are often associated with aneurysms and varics, and it is sometimes difficult to identify the ruptured point on radiological images. We report a case in which vessel wall magnetic resonance image (VW-MRI) was useful for identifying the ruptured point at the CCJ AVF. Case Description: A 70-year-old man presented with a sudden onset of headache. He had Glasgow Coma Scale E4V5M6, world federation of neurosurgical societies (WFNS) Grade I. Fisher group 3 subarachnoid hemorrhage and hydrocephalus were found on head computed tomography. Cerebral angiography showed a spinal AVF at the C1 level of the cervical spine. Magnetic resonance image-enhanced motion sensitized driven equilibrium (MSDE-method showed an enhancing effect in part of the AVF draining vein, but the vascular architecture of this lesion was indeterminate. We performed continuous ventricular drainage for acute hydrocephalus and antihypertensive treatment. Cerebral angiography was performed 30days after the onset of the disease, and was revealed an aneurysmal structure in a portion of the AVF draining vein, which VW-MRI initially enhanced. On the 38th day after onset, he underwent direct surgery to occlude the AV fistula and dissect the aneurysmal structure. Histopathology showed that the aneurysmal structure was varices with lymphocytic infiltration, and hemosiderin deposition was observed near the varices. Conclusion: Recently, VW-MRI has been reported to show an association between the enhancement of varices in dural AVF and rupture cases. VW-MRI, especially the enhanced MSDE method, may be useful in estimating the ruptured point in arteriovenous shunt disease.

15.
Surg Neurol Int ; 15: 115, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742007

RESUMO

Background: Hemorrhagic meningiomas are rare. We report a rare case of nontraumatic convexity and interhemispheric acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) caused by a falx meningioma. Case Description: An 84-year-old woman with a history of atrial fibrillation and hypertension who was taking warfarin presented to our emergency department with a sudden disorder of consciousness. The patient had no traumatic events associated with her symptoms. Computed tomography (CT) revealed right convexity and interhemispheric ASDH, mass lesions in the left frontal lobes, and brain herniation. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed vascular structures within the mass lesion. CT angiography (CTA) revealed no aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation, and the venous phase revealed occlusion in the anterior portion of the superior sagittal sinus. The patient had her right convexity and interhemispheric ASDH removed endoscopically. A mass lesion located on the falx, which was easily bleeding, soft, and suctionable, was immediately detected. Histopathological examination revealed fibrous meningioma, a benign meningioma of the World Health Organization grade 1. Despite undergoing aggressive treatment, the patient's general condition deteriorated. Conclusion: Hemorrhagic meningiomas can easily be missed with plain CT, and the enhancement effect of CTA and tumor shadow on digital subtraction angiography may not be observed during the acute phase. Surgery for nontraumatic ASDH should be performed considering the possibility that a meningioma causes it.

16.
Heliyon ; 10(9): e30013, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742061

RESUMO

Objective: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was a stroke with high occurrence and mortality. At the early stage, SAH patients have severe cerebral injury which is contributed by inflammation. In this study, we aimed to explore the anti-inflammation effect of low-dose IL-2 in SAH mice. Methods: The 12-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were conducted with SAH surgery (Internal carotid artery puncture method). Different dose of IL-2 was injected intraperitoneally for 1 h, 1 day, and 2 days after SAH. Single-cell suspension and flow cytometry were used for the test of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Immunofluorescence staining was used to investigate the phenotypic polarization of microglia and inflammation response around neurons. Enzyme-Linked Immuno-sorbent Assay (ELISA) was applied to detect the level of pro-inflammatory factors. Results: Low-dose IL-2 could enrich the Treg cells and drive the microglia polarizing to M2. The level of pro-inflammatory factors, IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α decreased in the low-dose IL-2 group. The inflammation response around neurons was attenuated. Low-dose IL-2 could increase the number of Treg cells, which could exert a neuroprotective effect against inflammation after SAH. Conclusion: Low-dose IL-2 had the potential to be an effective clinical method to inhibit inflammation after SAH.

17.
Crit Care ; 28(1): 163, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Signal complexity (i.e. entropy) describes the level of order within a system. Low physiological signal complexity predicts unfavorable outcome in a variety of diseases and is assumed to reflect increased rigidity of the cardio/cerebrovascular system leading to (or reflecting) autoregulation failure. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is followed by a cascade of complex systemic and cerebral sequelae. In aSAH, the value of entropy has not been established yet. METHODS: aSAH patients from 2 prospective cohorts (Zurich-derivation cohort, Aachen-validation cohort) were included. Multiscale Entropy (MSE) was estimated for arterial blood pressure, intracranial pressure, heart rate, and their derivatives, and compared to dichotomized (1-4 vs. 5-8) or ordinal outcome (GOSE-extended Glasgow Outcome Scale) at 12 months using uni- and multivariable (adjusted for age, World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grade, modified Fisher (mFisher) grade, delayed cerebral infarction), and ordinal methods (proportional odds logistic regression/sliding dichotomy). The multivariable logistic regression models were validated internally using bootstrapping and externally by assessing the calibration and discrimination. RESULTS: A total of 330 (derivation: 241, validation: 89) aSAH patients were analyzed. Decreasing MSE was associated with a higher likelihood of unfavorable outcome independent of covariates and analysis method. The multivariable adjusted logistic regression models were well calibrated and only showed a slight decrease in discrimination when assessed in the validation cohort. The ordinal analysis revealed its effect to be linear. MSE remained valid when adjusting the outcome definition against the initial severity. CONCLUSIONS: MSE metrics and thereby complexity of physiological signals are independent, internally and externally valid predictors of 12-month outcome. Incorporating high-frequency physiological data as part of clinical outcome prediction may enable precise, individualized outcome prediction. The results of this study warrant further investigation into the cause of the resulting complexity as well as its association to important and potentially preventable complications including vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Humanos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/fisiopatologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Adulto , Escala de Resultado de Glasgow/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Prognóstico
18.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 239: 113927, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714078

RESUMO

Humans often have bleeding, which exerts substantial selective pressure on the coagulation system to optimize hemostasis in a variety of situations. Uncontrolled hemorrhage due to severe trauma leads to morbidity and mortality. Although nonbiological surfaces such as silicates can activate coagulation factor XII (FXII), the presence of Zn (Zinc) in the material stimulates and activates the various steps in the coagulation cascade. This results in blood clotting. The Zn@SiO2 nanocomposite has an excellent hemostatic property that establishes hemostasis by activating the factors responsible for the formation of a stable clot called fibrin mesh. This can be used as a hemostatic agent during surgeries and in any other trauma condition related to bleeding. Zn@SiO2 was synthesized and characterized with XRD, FTIR and HRTEM. It is analyzed for its RBC (Red Blood Corpuscles) aggregation and Platelet adhesion ability, fibrin formation, thrombus formation and prothrombin time (PT), Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT), D-dimer for its ability to activate the coagulation cascade to achieve stable clotting.

19.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 8(3): 102403, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706783

RESUMO

Background: Anticoagulation therapy is the mainstay of therapy for patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, continuing or stopping anticoagulants after the first 3 to 6 months is a difficult decision that requires ascertainment of the risk of bleeding and recurrent VTE. Despite the development of several statistical models to predict bleeding, the benefit of machine learning (ML) models has not been investigated in depth. Objectives: To assess the benefits of ML algorithms in bleeding risk evaluation in VTE patients and gain insight into their baseline information. Methods: The baseline clinical, demographic, and genotype information was collected for 2542 patients with VTE who were on extended anticoagulation therapy. Six unsupervised dimensionality reduction and clustering ML algorithms were used to visualize and cluster the data for patients with major bleeding (118 patients) and nonbleeders. Eight supervised ML algorithms were trained and compared with the previously derived clinical models using a 5-fold nested cross-validation scheme. Results: The baseline dataset for bleeders and nonbleeders showed a high degree of similarity. Two novel clusters were discovered within the dataset for bleeders based on the presence of isolated pulmonary embolism or isolated deep vein thrombosis, though the difference in bleeding risks was not statistically significant (P = .32). The supervised analysis showed that the ML and clinical models have similar discrimination (c-statistics, ∼62%) and calibration performance (Brier score, ∼0.045). Conclusion: The clinical variables recorded at baseline are not distinctive enough to improve bleeding prediction beyond the performance of the existing models, and other strategies or data modalities should be considered.

20.
Cureus ; 16(4): e57515, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707101

RESUMO

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis, is a rare and potentially life-threatening autoimmune disease characterized by antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculature inflammation. It presents as a systemic autoimmune disease with necrotizing granulomatous inflammation and pauci-immune small vessel vasculitis. This case initially posed a diagnostic challenge due to its atypical presentation and was misdiagnosed as hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The avian precipitin screening assay was positive in our patient, which may be consistent with bird breeder's lung disease or a non-specific reactivity of the chicken antigen test. However, the presence of positive c-ANCA was pivotal for the GPA diagnosis. Here, we describe in detail the clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and treatment of GPA in a 54-year-old female who presented with alveolar hemorrhage, but no renal involvement. Treatment involved the use of high-dose corticosteroids to suppress the autoimmune response. Finally, we discuss the striking response of this unique form of granulomatosis with polyangiitis to corticosteroid treatment and emphasize the importance of early initiation of treatment.

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