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1.
Poult Sci ; 103(5): 103606, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479096

RESUMO

The tons of keratin waste are produced by the poultry and meat industry which is an insoluble and protein-rich material found in hair, feathers, wool, and some epidermal wastes. These waste products could be degraded and recycled to recover protein, which can save our environment. One of the potential strategy to achieve this target is use of microbial biotreatment which is more convenient, cost-effective, and environment-friendly by formulating hydrolysate complexes that could be administered as protein supplements, bioactive peptides, or animal feed ingredients. Keratin degradation shows great promise for long-term protein and amino acid recycling. According to the MEROPS database, known keratinolytic enzymes currently belong to at least 14 different protease families, including S1, S8, S9, S10, S16, M3, M4, M14, M16, M28, M32, M36, M38, and M55. In addition to exogenous attack (proteases from families S9, S10, M14, M28, M38, and M55), the various keratinolytic enzymes also function via endo-attack (proteases from families S1, S8, S16, M4, M16, and M36). Biotechnological methods have shown great promise for enhancing keratinase expression in different strains of microbes and different protein engineering techniques in genetically modified microbes such as bacteria and some fungi to enhance keratinase production and activity. Some microbes produce specific keratinolytic enzymes that can effectively degrade keratin substrates. Keratinases have been successfully used in the leather, textile, and pharmaceutical industries. However, the production and efficiency of existing enzymes need to be optimized before they can be used more widely in other processes, such as the cost-effective pretreatment of chicken waste. These can be improved more effectively by using various biotechnological applications which could serve as the best and novel approach for recycling and degrading biomass. This paper provides practical insights about molecular strategies to enhance keratinase expression to effectively utilize various poultry wastes like feathers and feed ingredients like soybean pulp. Furthermore, it describes the future implications of engineered keratinases for environment friendly utilization of wastes and crop byproducts for their better use in the poultry feed industry.

2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 263(Pt 1): 130688, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458294

RESUMO

This study reports the rational engineering of the S1' substrate-binding pocket of a thermally-stable keratinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4-3 (4-3Ker) to improve substrate specificity to typical keratinase (K/C > 0.5) and catalytic activity without compromising thermal stability for efficient keratin degradation. Of 10 chosen mutation hotspots in the S1' substrate-binding pocket, the top three mutations M128R, A138V, and V142I showing the best catalytic activity and substrate specificity were identified. Their double and triple combinatorial mutants synergistically overcame limitations of single mutants, fabricating an excellent M128R/A138V/V142I triple mutant which displayed a 1.21-fold increase in keratin catalytic activity, 1.10-fold enhancement in keratin/casein activity ratio, and a 3.13 °C increase in half-inactivation temperature compared to 4-3Ker. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed enhanced flexibility of critical amino acid residues at the substrate access tunnel, improved global protein rigidity, and heightened hydrophobicity within the active site likely underpinned the increased catalytic activity and substrate specificity. Additionally, the triple mutant improved the feather degradation rate by 32.86 % over the wild-type, far exceeding commercial keratinase in substrate specificity and thermal stability. This study exemplified engineering a typical keratinase with enhanced substrate specificity, catalytic activity, and thermal stability from thermally-stable 4-3Ker, providing a more robust tool for feather degradation.


Assuntos
Queratinas , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Queratinas/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Temperatura , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
3.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(3): 99, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351393

RESUMO

Feather waste is a highly prevalent form of keratinous waste that is generated by the poultry industry. The global daily production of feather waste has been shown to approach 5 million tons, typically being disposed of through methods such as dumping, landfilling, or incineration which contribute significantly to environmental pollutions. The proper management of these keratinous wastes is crucial to avoid environmental contamination. The study was carried out to isolate the keratinolytic fungi from the poultry disposal sites of different region of North-East India to evaluate its potential in bioremediation of the feathers wastes. Out of 12 fungal strains isolated from the sites, the fungus showing the highest zone of hydrolysis on both the skim milk and keratin agar medium was selected for the study and the molecular identification of the isolate was performed through DNA sequence analysis by amplifying the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The sequence results showed higher similarity (above 95%) with Aspergillus spp. and was named Aspergillus sp. Iro-1. The strain was further analyzed for its feather degrading potential which was performed in submerged conditions under optimized conditions. The study showed that the strain could effectively degrade the feathers validated through weight loss method, and the structural deformations in the feathers were visualized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Aspergillus sp. Iro-1 was obtained from the southern region of Assam. It would be of great importance as the implementation of this sp. can help in the bioremediation of feathers wastes in this region. This is the first study of identification of feather degrading fungus from southern part of Assam (Barak).


Assuntos
Peptídeo Hidrolases , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Queratinas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Galinhas , Temperatura
4.
J Biotechnol ; 382: 37-43, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38244699

RESUMO

Keratinase, a vital enzyme in hair degradation, requires enhanced stability for industrial applications in the harsh reaction environment used for keratin hydrolysis. Previous studies have focused on improving keratinase thermostability. In this study, directed evolution was applied to enhance the organic solvent stability of the keratinase BLk from Bacillus licheniformis. Three mutants were identified, exhibiting significant enhanced stability in various solvents, although no similar improvements were observed in terms of thermostability. The identified mutations were located on the enzyme surface. The half-lives of the D41A, A24E, and A24Q mutants increased by 47-, 63-, and 61-fold, respectively, in the presence of 50% (v/v) acetonitrile compared to that of the wild type (WT). Similarly, in the presence of 50% (v/v) acetone, the half-lives of these mutants increased by 22-, 27-, and 27-fold compared to that of the WT enzyme. Notably, the proteolytic activity of all the selected mutants was similar to that of the WT enzyme. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulation was used to assess the possible reasons for enhanced solvent stability. These results suggest that heightened intramolecular interactions, such as hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions, contribute to improved solvent tolerance. The mutants obtained in this study hold significant potential for industrial applications.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Hidrolases , Solventes/química , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Mutação , Hidrólise , Estabilidade Enzimática , Temperatura
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 260(Pt 2): 129659, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38266845

RESUMO

KerJY-23 was a novel keratinase from feather-degrading Ectobacillus sp. JY-23, but its enzymatic characterization and structure are still unclear. In this study, the KerJY-23 was obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), and enzymatic properties indicated that KerJY-23 was optimal at 60 °C and pH 9.0 and could be promoted by divalent metal ions or reducing agents. Furthermore, KerJY-23 had a broad substrate specificity towards casein, soluble keratin, and expanded feather powder, but its in vitro degradation against chicken feathers required an additional reducing agent. Homology modeling indicated that KerJY-23 contained a highly conserved zinc-binding HELTH motif and a His-Asp-Ser catalytic triad that belonged to the typical characteristics of M4-family metallo-keratinase and serine-keratinase, respectively. Molecular docking revealed that KerJY-23 achieved a reinforced binding on feather keratin via abundant hydrogen bonding interactions. This work not only deepened understanding of the novel and interesting metallo-serine keratinase KerJY-23, but also provided a theoretical basis for realizing the efficient use of waste feather keratin.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Serina , Animais , Serina/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Plumas/metabolismo , Queratinas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Temperatura
6.
Waste Manag ; 174: 528-538, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38134540

RESUMO

Feather waste, a rich source of proteins, has traditionally been processed through high-temperature puffing and acid-base hydrolysis, contributing to generation of greenhouse gases and H2S. To address this issue, we employed circular economy techniques to recover the nutritional value of feather waste. Streptomyces sp. SCUT-3, an efficient proteolytic and chitinolytic bacterium, was isolated for feather degradation previously. This study aimed to valorize feather waste for feed purposes by enhancing its feather transformation ability through promoter optimization. Seven promoters were identified through omics analysis and compared to a common Streptomyces promoter ermE*p. The strongest promoter, p24880, effectively enhanced the expression of three candidate keratinases (Sep39, Sep40, and Sep53). The expression efficiency of double-, triple-p24880 and sandwich p24880-sep39-p24880 promoters were further verified. The co-overexpression strain SCUT-3-p24880-sep39-p24880-sep40 exhibited a 16.21-fold increase in keratinase activity compared to the wild-type. Using this strain, a solid-state fermentation process was established that increased the feather/water ratio (w/w) to 1:1.5, shortened the fermentation time to 2.5 days, and increased soluble peptide and free amino acid yields to 0.41 g/g and 0.14 g/g, respectively. The resulting has high protein content (90.49 %), with high in vitro digestibility (94.20 %). This method has the potential to revolutionize the feather waste processing industry.


Assuntos
Plumas , Streptomyces , Animais , Plumas/química , Streptomyces/genética , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Fermentação , Galinhas/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Queratinas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
7.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(1): 30, 2023 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38057391

RESUMO

Keratinases have drawn increasing attention in recent decades owing to their catalytic versatility and broad applications from agriculture to medicine. In the present study, we isolated a highly keratinolytic and fibrinolytic bacterium from the campus soil and named it Stenotrophomonas sp. LMY based on genetic information. To identify the potential keratinase genes, the genome sequence of the strain was obtained and analyzed. Sequence alignment and comparison revealed that the protein 1_737 (KerZJ) had the highest sequence homology to a reported keratinase KerBL. We recombinantly expressed KerZJ in Escherichia coli Origami™ (DE) pLysS and purified it to homogeneity. KerZJ showed the highest activity at 40 °C and pH 9.0, and metal ions exhibited no significant effects on its activity. Although reducing agents would break the disulfide bonds in KerZJ and reduce its activity, KerZJ still exhibited the ability to hydrolyze feather keratin in the presence of ß-ME. KerZJ could efficiently digest human prion proteins. In addition, KerZJ showed fibrinolytic activity on fibrin plates and effectively eliminated blood clots in a thrombosis mouse model without side effects. Our results suggest that KerZJ is a versatile keratinase with significant potential for keratin treatment, decontamination of prions, and fibrinolytic therapy.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Hidrolases , Stenotrophomonas , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Stenotrophomonas/genética , Stenotrophomonas/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Queratinas , Plumas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
8.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(1): 35, 2023 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38057620

RESUMO

Feather, horn, hoof, and other keratin waste are protein-rich but limited by natural keratinase synthesis, activity, pH, and temperature stability. It is challenging to realize its large-scale application in industries. Bacillus subtilis spores are a safe, efficient, and highly resistant immobilized carrier, which can improve target proteins' resistance. In this research, KERQ7, the keratinase gene of Bacillus tequilensis strain Q7, was fused to the Bacillus subtilis genes coding for the coat proteins CotG and CotB, respectively, and displayed on the surface of B. subtilis spores. Compared with the free KERQ7, the immobilized KERQ7 showed a greater pH tolerance and heat resistance on the spore surface. The activity of CotG-KERQ7 is 1.25 times that of CotB-KERQ7, and CotG-KERQ7 is more stable. When the flexible linker peptide L3 was used to connect CotG and KERQ7, the activity was increased to 131.2 ± 3.4%, and the residual enzyme activity was still 62.5 ± 2.2% after being kept at 60 ℃ for 4 h. These findings indicate that the flexible linker and CotG were more effective for the spore surface display of keratinase to improve stress resistance and promote its wide application in feed, tanning, washing, and other industries.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Esporos Bacterianos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Esporos Bacterianos/genética , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 253(Pt 5): 127194, 2023 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37793516

RESUMO

Keratin wastes are abundantly available but rich in hard-degrading fibrous proteins, and the keratinase-producing microorganisms have gained significant attention due to their biodegradation ability against keratinous materials. In order to improve the degradation efficiency of feather keratins, the keratinase gene (kerJY-23) from our previously isolated feather-degrading Ectobacillus sp. JY-23 was overexpressed in Bacillus subtilis WB600 strain. The recombinant KerJY-23 strain degraded chicken feathers rapidly within 48 h, during which the activities of disulfide reductase and keratinase KerJY-23 were sharply increased, and the free amino acids especially the essential phenylalanine and tyrosine were significantly accumulated in feather hydrolysate. The results of structural characterizations including scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, demonstrated that the feather microstructure together with the polypeptide bonds and SS bonds in feather keratins were attacked and destroyed by the recombinant KerJY-23 strain. Therefore, the recombinant KerJY-23 strain contributed to feather degradation through the synergistic action of the secreted disulfide reductase to break the SS bonds and keratinase (KerJY-23) to hydrolyze the polypeptide bonds in keratins. This study offers a new insight into the underlying mechanism of keratin degradation, and provides a potential recombinant strain for the valorization of keratin wastes.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Galinhas , Animais , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Plumas/química , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Queratinas/genética , Queratinas/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
10.
J Environ Manage ; 346: 118986, 2023 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37714086

RESUMO

Poultry feathers are widely discarded as waste worldwide and are considered an environmental pollutant and a reservoir of pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, developing sustainable and environmentally friendly methods for managing feather waste is one of the important environmental protection requirements. In this study, we investigated a rapid and eco-friendly method for the degradation and valorization of feather waste using keratinase-producing Pseudomonas geniculata H10, and evaluated the applicability of keratinase in environmentally hazardous chemical processes. Strain H10 completely degraded chicken feathers within 48 h by producing keratinase using them as sources of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. The culture contained a total of 402.8 µM amino acids, including 8 essential amino acids, which was higher than the chemical treatment. Keratinase was a serine-type metalloprotease with optimal temperature and pH of 30 °C and 9, respectively, and showed relatively high stability at 10-40 °C and pH 3-10. Keratinase was also able to degrade various insoluble keratins such as duck feathers, wool, human hair, and nails. Furthermore, keratinase exhibited more efficient depilation and wool modification than chemical treatment, as well as novel functionalities such as nematicidal and exfoliating activities. This suggests that strain H10 is a promising candidate for the efficient degradation and valorization of feather waste, as well as the improvement of current industrial processes that use hazardous chemicals.

11.
ACS Synth Biol ; 12(10): 3106-3113, 2023 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37677132

RESUMO

Bacillus subtilis has been shown to be an excellent expression host for keratinases due to its powerful secretion system. However, cellular autolysis limits its production capacity. Here, we selected seven genes with significantly upregulated transcript levels from 15 genes associated with cellular autolysis as knockout targets by qRT-PCR and constructed a total of 127 strains to reduce cellular autolysis. Among them, the biomass of B. subtilis BSΔXLPC-ker deficient in xpf, lytC, pcfA, and cwlC increased by 57%. This was confirmed by cell staining, green fluorescent protein imaging, and extracellular nucleic acid leakage assay. Keratinase activity was increased by 1.46-fold in the 5 L fermenter. In addition, the activities of nattokinase and subtilisin E were also increased by 1.50-fold and 1.43-fold, respectively, in the modified chassis cells, which further confirms the generalizability of the strategy. Thus, reducing cellular autolysis to increase the ability of B. subtilis to produce subtilisins is promising.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Reatores Biológicos , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
12.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 30(10): 103787, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37705700

RESUMO

The increasing demands of keratinases for biodegradation of recalcitrant keratinaceous waste like chicken feathers has lead to research on newer potential bacterial keratinases to produce high-value products with biological activities. The present study reports a novel keratinolytic bacterium Bacillus velezensis strain ZBE1 isolated from deep forest soil of Western Ghats of Karnataka, which possessed efficient feather keratin degradation capability and induced keratinase production. Production kinetics depicts maximum keratinase production (11.65 U/mL) on 4th day with protein concentration of 0.61 mg/mL. Effect of various physico-chemical factors such as, inoculum size, metal ions, carbon and nitrogen sources, pH and temperature influencing keratinase production were optimized and 3.74 folds enhancement was evidenced through response surface methodology. Silver (AgNP) and zinc oxide (ZnONP) nanoparticles with keratin hydrolysate produced from chicken feathers by the action of keratinase were synthesized and verified with UV-Visible spectroscopy that revealed biological activities like, antibacterial action against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. AgNP and ZnONP also showed potential antioxidant activities through radical scavenging activities by ABTS and DPPH. AgNP and ZnONP revealed cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with IC50 of 5.47 µg/ml and 62.26 µg/ml respectively. Characterizations of nanoparticles were carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and atomic force microscopy analysis to elucidate the thermostability, structure and surface attributes. The study suggests the prospective applications of keratinase to trigger the production of bioactive value-added products and significant application in nanotechnology in biomedicine.

13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 107(23): 7055-7070, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37750916

RESUMO

Feathers become hazardous pollutants when deposited directly into the environment. The rapid expansion of the poultry industry has significantly increased feather waste, necessitating the development of new ways to degrade and utilize feathers. This study investigated the ability of Bacillus licheniformis WHU to digest intact chicken feathers in water. The results indicated that yields of free amino acids, bioactive peptides, and keratin-derived nano-/micro-particles were improved in bacteria- versus purified keratinase-derived feather hydrolysate. Bacteria-derived feather hydrolysate supplementation induced health benefits in mice, including significantly increased intestinal villus height and zonula occludens-1 protein expression, as well as increased secretory immunoglobulin A levels in the intestinal mucosa and superoxide dismutase activity in serum. Additionally, feather hydrolysate supplementation modulated the mouse gut microbiota, reflected by increased relative abundance of probiotics such as Lactobacillus spp., decreased relative abundance of Proteobacteria at the phylum level and pathogens such as Staphylococcus spp., and increased Bacteroidota/Firmicutes ratio. This study developed a simple, cost-effective method to degrade feathers by B. licheniformis WHU digestion, yielding a hydrolysate that can be directly used as a bioactive nutrient resource. The study findings have applications in the livestock, poultry, and aquaculture industries, which have high demands for cheap protein. KEY POINTS: • Bacillus licheniformis could degrade intact feather in water. • The resulting feather hydrolysate shows prebiotic effects on mouse.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Animais , Camundongos , Bacillus licheniformis/metabolismo , Plumas/química , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Água/metabolismo , Galinhas , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas , Bactérias/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Queratinas/metabolismo
14.
Microorganisms ; 11(5)2023 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37317082

RESUMO

In this study, we describe the characterization of three efficient chicken feather-degrading Streptomyces bacteria isolated from honeybee samples and assess the impact of their co-cultivation on this activity and antistaphylococcal activity. Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus AD2 was the strain showing the highest keratinolytic activity (4000 U × mL-1), followed by Streptomyces albidoflavus AN1 and Streptomyces drozdowiczii AD1, which both generated approximately 3000 U × mL-1. Moreover, a consortium constituted of these three strains was able to use chicken feathers as its sole nutrient source and growth in such conditions led to a significant increase in antibiotic production. S. griseoaurantiacus AD2 was the only strain that exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. UPLC analyses revealed that a significant number of peaks detected in the extracts of co-cultures of the three strains were missing in the extracts of individual cultures. In addition, the production of specialized metabolites, such as undecylprodigiosin and manumycin A, was clearly enhanced in co-culture conditions, in agreement with the results of the antimicrobial bioassays against S. aureus. Our results revealed the benefits of co-cultivation of these bacterial species in terms of metabolic wealth and antibiotic production. Our work could thus contribute to the development of novel microbial-based strategies to valorize keratin waste.

15.
Microbiol Res ; 274: 127439, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37364416

RESUMO

Microbial keratinases have prominent potential in biotransformation of recalcitrant keratin substrates to value-added products which has made keratinases a research focus in the past decades. In this study, an efficient feather-degrading bacterium was isolated and identified as a novel species in Ectobacillus genus and designated as Ectobacillus sp. JY-23. The degradation characteristics analysis revealed that Ectobacillus sp. JY-23 could utilize chicken feathers (0.4% w/v) as the sole nutrient source and degraded 92.95% of feathers in 72 h. A significant increase in sulfite and free sulfydryl group content detected in the feather hydrolysate (culture supernatant) indicated efficient reduction of disulfide bonds, which inferred that the degradation mechanism of isolated strain was a synergetic action of sulfitolysis and proteolysis. Moreover, abundant amino acids were also detected, among which proline and glycine were the predominant free amino acids. Then, the keratinase of Ectobacillus sp. JY-23 was mined and Y1_15990 was identified as the keratinase encoding gene of Ectobacillus sp. JY-23 and designated as kerJY-23. Escherichia coli strain overexpressing kerJY-23 degraded chicken feathers in 48 h. Finally, bioinformatics prediction of KerJY-23 demonstrated that it belonged to the M4 metalloprotease family, which was a third keratinase member in this family. KerJY-23 showed low sequence identity to the other two keratinase members, indicating the novelty of KerJY-23. Overall, this study presents a novel feather-degrading bacterium and a new keratinase in the M4 metalloprotease family with remarkable potential in feather keratin valorization.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Plumas , Animais , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Queratinas/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
16.
BMC Microbiol ; 23(1): 158, 2023 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37248454

RESUMO

In this study, 25 actinomyces isolates were obtained from 10 different poultry farms and tested for their keratinase activity. The isolate with the highest keratinase activity was identified through molecular identification by PCR and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to be Streptomyces spp. and was named Streptomyces werraensis KN23 with an accession number of OK086273 in the NCBI database. Sequential mutagenesis was then applied to this strain using UV, H2O2, and SA, resulting in several mutants. The best keratinolytic efficiency mutant was designated as SA-27 and exhibited a keratinase activity of 106.92 U/ml. To optimize the keratinase expression of mutant SA-27, the Response Surface Methodology was applied using different parameters such as incubation time, pH, carbon, and nitrogen sources. The optimized culture conditions resulted in a maximum keratinase specific activity of 129.60 U/ml. The genetic diversity of Streptomyces werraensis KN23 wild type compared with five mutants was studied using Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR). The highest total and polymorphic unique bands were revealed in the S. werraensis KN23 and SA-18 mutant, with 51 and 41 bands, respectively. The dendrogram based on combined molecular data grouped the Streptomyces werraensis and mutants into two clusters. Cluster I included SA-31 only, while cluster II contained two sub-clusters. Sub-cluster one included SA-27, and sub-cluster two included SA-26. The sub-cluster two divided into two sub-sub clusters. Sub-sub cluster one included SA-18, while sub-sub cluster two included one group (SA-14 and S. werraensis KN23).


Assuntos
Plumas , Streptomyces , Animais , Plumas/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Streptomyces/genética , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Mutagênese , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
17.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1132760, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37234543

RESUMO

The keratin-degrading bacterium Bacillus licheniformis secretes a keratinase with potential industrial interest. Here, the Keratinase gene was intracellularly expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) using pET-21b (+) vector. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that KRLr1 is closely related to Bacillus licheniformis keratinase that belongs to the serine peptidase/subtilisin-like S8 family. Recombinant keratinase appeared on the SDS-PAGE gel with a band of about 38 kDa and was confirmed by western blotting. Expressed KRLr1 was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography with a yield of 85.96% and then refolded. It was found that this enzyme has optimum activity at pH 6 and 37°C. PMSF inhibited the KRLr1 activity and Ca2+ and Mg2+ increased the KRLr1 activity. Using keratin 1% as the substrate, the thermodynamic values were determined as Km 14.54 mM, kcat 912.7 × 10-3 (S-1), and kcat/Km 62.77 (M-1 S-1). Feather digestion by recombinant enzyme using HPLC method, showed that the amino acids cysteine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and lysine had the highest amount compared to other amino acids obtained from digestion. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of HADDOCK docking results exhibited that KRLr1 enzyme was able to interact strongly with chicken feather keratine 4 (FK4) compared to chicken feather keratine 12 (FK12). These properties make keratinase KRLr1 a potential candidate for various biotechnological applications.

18.
Arch Microbiol ; 205(6): 235, 2023 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37179267

RESUMO

The disposal of keratinous wastes produced by several leather industries is evolving into a global problem. Around 1 billion tonnes of keratin waste are released into the environment each year. In the breakdown of tannery waste, certain enzymes, such as keratinases produced from microorganisms, might be a better substitute for synthetic enzymes. Keratinase enzymes are able to hydrolyze gelatin, casein, bovine serum albumin and insoluble protein present in wool, feather. Therefore, in this study, bacterial strains from tannery effluent-contaminated soil and bovine tannery hide were isolated and assessed for their ability to produce the keratinolytic enzyme. Among the six isolates, the strain NS1P showed the highest keratinase activity (298 U/ml) and was identified as Comamonas testosterone through biochemical and molecular characterization. Several bioprocess parameters such as pH, temperature, inoculum size, carbon sources, and nitrogen sources were optimized in order to maximize crude enzyme production. The optimized media were used for inoculum preparation and subsequent biodegradation of hide hairs. The degradation efficacy of the keratinase enzyme produced by Comamonas testosterone was examined by degrading bovine tannery hide hairs, and it was found to be 73.6% after 30 days. The morphology of the deteriorated hair was examined using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), which revealed significant degradation. Thus, our research work has led to the conclusion that Comamonas testosterone may be a promising keratinolytic strain for the biodegradation of tannery bovine hide hair waste and the industrial production of keratinases.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cabelo , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Solo , Curtume , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Cabelo/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Queratinas/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo
19.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 107(4): 1003-1017, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633625

RESUMO

Keratin is regarded as the main component of feathers and is difficult to be degraded by conventional proteases, leading to substantial abandonment. Keratinase is the only enzyme with the most formidable potential for degrading feathers. Although there have been in-depth studies in recent years, the large-scale application of keratinase is still associated with many problems. It is relatively challenging to find keratinase not only with high activity but could also meet the industrial application environment, so it is urgent to exploit keratinase with high acid and temperature resistance, strong activity, and low price. Therefore, researchers have been keen to explore the degradation mechanism of keratinases and the modification of existing keratinases for decades. This review critically introduces the basic properties and mechanism of keratinase, and focuses on the current situation of keratinase modification and the direction and strategy of its future application and modification. KEY POINTS: •The research status and mechanism of keratinase were reviewed. •The new direction of keratinase application and modification is discussed. •The existing modification methods and future modification strategies of keratinases are reviewed.


Assuntos
Endopeptidases , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Animais , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Queratinas/metabolismo , Plumas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(5): 2421-2429, 2023 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629862

RESUMO

Keratinases specifically degrade insoluble keratin waste, thus contributing to environmental protection and sustainable biomass development. However, their industrial application is hindered by inefficient enzyme production and poor biomass generation. In this study, the heterologous expression of keratinase was found to have cytotoxicity and might block host cell growth due to its proteolytic property. To address this problem, an autoregulatory expression system based on quorum sensing was developed to synergistically regulate cell growth and keratinase production in Bacillus subtilis. The growth-dependent promoter PaprE was chosen and shown to be effective in delaying keratinase production while promoting host cell proliferation. Copy number screening and core region mutations further balanced the two states. Carbon supplement optimization indicated that addition of 2% glucose facilitated biomass accumulation during the early stage of fermentation. Cell density increased to 15.6 (OD600 nm) from 8 with keratinase activity raised to 4200 U·mL-1 from 1162 U·mL-1. Keratinase was then utilized in the bioconversion of feather waste to prepare soluble keratins, polypeptides, and amino acids. This study provides a powerful system for efficient production of keratinase and paves the way for keratin waste recycling.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Animais , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Queratinas , Proliferação de Células , Plumas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
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