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Biotechnol Appl Biochem ; 70(3): 1258-1269, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36579721


Valorization of chicken feather is a long-sought approach for its sustainable disposal. Being protein rich, hydrolyzed chicken feather has a wide range of applications, not limited to formulation of microbiological culture media, animal feed, and biofertilizers, but extends to synthesis of bioplastic films, cosmetics, and biomedicals. In this study, a potent keratinolytic isolate was recovered from soil and identified by 16S rRNA as Bacillus thuringiensis. Feather degradation by the isolate was optimized through response surface methodology. First, one-variable-at-a-time technique to assign the factors that affect feather degradation, then Box-Behnken central composite design model were employed. The model, involving three independent variables (initial pH, inoculum size, and concentration of supplementary glucose), was significant (R2  = 0.9716). According to the model, complete feather degradation is obtained at an inoculum size of B. thuringiensis B4 equal to 1 × 1010  CFU/ml, when feather meal broth is supplemented with 1.5% (w/v) glucose and pH adjusted to 8.5. Protein content of the lysate was 327.8 ± 25 µg/ml, and no carbohydrates were detected. SEM/EDX analysis has shown that the hydrolysate consisted mainly of O, P, S, and Se in addition to carbon, while FTIR images assured the presence of carboxyl and amino groups characteristic of peptides and amino acids.

Bacillus thuringiensis , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Plumas/química , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/análise , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/metabolismo
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 95(5)2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985888


The use of feathers as nest material has been proposed as a kind of self-medication strategy because antimicrobial-producing microorganisms living on feathers may defend offspring against pathogenic infections. In this case, it is expected that density of antimicrobial-producing bacteria, and their antimicrobial effects, are higher in feathers that line the nests than in eggshells. Moreover, we know that feather pigmentation and breeding activity may influence density and antimicrobial production of bacteria. To test these predictions, we analyzed bacterial densities and antimicrobial activity of bacterial colonies isolated from bird eggshells and nest-lining feathers against bacterial strains comprising potential pathogens. Samples were collected from spotless starling (Sturnus unicolor) nests, and from artificial nests to isolate the effects of breeding activity on bacterial communities. The composition of feathers lining the nests was experimentally manipulated to create groups of nests with pigmented feathers, with unpigmented feathers, with both types of feathers or without feathers. Although we did not detect an effect of experimental feather treatments, we found that bacterial colonies isolated from feathers were more active against the tested bacterial strains than those isolated from eggshells. Moreover, bacterial density on feathers, keratinolytic bacteria on eggshells and antimicrobial activity of colonies isolated were higher in starling nests than in artificial nests. These results suggest that antimicrobial activity of bacteria growing on nest-lining feathers would be one of the mechanisms explaining the previously detected antimicrobial effects of this material in avian nests, and that breeding activity results in nest bacterial communities with higher antimicrobial activity.

Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Plumas/química , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cruzamento , Casca de Ovo/química , Casca de Ovo/microbiologia , Plumas/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Passeriformes/microbiologia
Waste Manag ; 84: 269-276, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691901


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of keratinolytic B. cereus PCM 2849 inoculum on the process of composting pig bristles, in the mixture with sawdust and lignite dust. The process was conducted in closed, static and dynamic reactors. The impact of the composting technique and inoculum on the mineralization and maturity indices during active stage of composting was evaluated. A beneficial effect of the inoculum was confirmed during composting with the application of a static technique and with the dynamic technique. The introduction of bacterial inoculum enhanced transformation of mineral compounds and had a positive effect on maturity, as established with maturity indexes i.e. C/N ratio, carbon solubility, oxidation index of mineral forms of nitrogen, humification ratio or content of humic and fulvic acids. Products after the active stage of composting, especially inoculated compost variants, were characterized by beneficial contents of minerals and met safety standards regarding occurrence of heavy metals. Moreover, inoculated variants, left on prisms for further maturation, reached a more advanced level of matter decomposition and stabilization, as compared to composts obtained after the active phase of composting. The use of B. cereus inoculum for composting pig bristles turned out to be an effective method for accelerating the biodegradation of this hard-to-degrade waste and enabled to produce a valuable fertilizing product.

Compostagem , Bactérias , Esterco , Nitrogênio , Solo , Suínos
J Basic Microbiol ; 59(1): 4-13, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353928


Feathers account for 5-7% of the total weight of chicken have become one of the major pollutants due to their recalcitrant nature. Feather which is constituted of 90% keratin can be a good source of peptides, amino acids, and minerals for use as organic fertilizer. Traditional feather degradation methods consume large amount of energy and reduces the overall quality of the proteins. However, degradation of keratin by keratinolytic bacteria may represent as an alternative for the development of cheap, cost effective, eco-friendly, and easily available nitrogen (N) and minerals rich source as potential organic fertilizers. Keratinase enzymes from bacteria are serine-type proteases showing optimal activity at pH 6 to 9 and 30 to 50 °C. Mechanism of degradation includes, sulfitolysis, proteolysis, followed by deamination. Keratinolytic bacteria showing antagonism against important plant pathogens may act as biocontrol agent. Feather hydrolyzate can also be employed as nitrogenous fertilizers for plant growth. Tryptophan release from the feather degradation can act as precursor for plant phytohormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Solubilization of inorganic phosphate (P) by keratinolytic bacteria may further elevate the growth of plant. Application of hydrolyzate increases the water holding capacity, N, carbon (C) and mineral content of the soil. It elevates protein, amino acids, and chlorophyll content of plant. Feather hydrolyzate enhances seed germination and growth of plant. Soil application further increases the population of beneficial bacteria. The use of keratinolytic bacteria having antagonistic and plant growth promoting activities, and feather hydrolyzate can emerge as sustainable and alternative tools to promote and improve organic farming, agro-ecosystem, environment, human health, and soil biological activities.

Agricultura , Bactérias/metabolismo , Plumas/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Queratinas/metabolismo , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbono/metabolismo , Galinhas , Plumas/química , Germinação , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo