Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.341
Filtrar
1.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-14, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765512

RESUMO

A huge amount of rice cultivation and consumption occur in Asia particularly in Pakistan and China. However, multiple abiotic stresses especially high and low-temperature proved to be a substantial threat for rice production ultimately risks for food security. To overcome various types of abiotic stress; seed priming is among the effective approaches to improve the rice seed germination and growth vigor. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate physiological and biochemical modifications in Chinese and Pakistani rice varieties by Qiangdi 863 biological assistant growth apparatus nano treated water (NTW), Osmo priming Calcium chloride (CaCl2), redoxpriming hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hormonal priming by Salicylic acid (SA) under temperature stress conditions. The experiment was performed with completely randomize design conditions. Five rice varieties, nomenclature as Zhongzoa 39, (Chinese rice variety) KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati and PK 1121 aromatic (Pakistani rice variety) were sown under low temperature (LT) (17ºC), optimal temperature (OT) 27ºC and high temperature (HT) 37ºC conditions. The present study indicated that nanopriming were the most effective treatments increased Germination Energy Percentage (GEP) (96.1, 100, 100%), Speed of Germination (SG) (27.2, 35.45, 37.1), Final Germination Percentage (FGP) (98.2, 99.1, 99.4%), Seedling Dry Weight Biomass (DWB) (0.1, 0.137, 0.14g), Total Chlorophyll Content (0.502, 13.74, 15.21), antioxidant enzymes Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)(3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh-1), Catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) and decreased Malondialdehyde (MDA) (6.5, 12.2, 6.5 µmol g-1 FW) for Zhongzao 39 and KSK 133 rice varieties under low (LT+NTW), optimal temperature (OP+NTW) and high temperature (HT+NTW) stress., Therefore, nano-priming is recommended to cope with the high and low-temperature stress conditions along with improved productivity of rice.(AU)


Cultivo e consumo de arroz ocorrem em grandes quantidades na Ásia, particularmente no Paquistão e na China. No entanto, vários estresses abióticos, especialmente de alta e baixa temperatura, provaram ser uma ameaça considerável para a produção de arroz, em última análise, riscos para a segurança alimentar. Para superar vários tipos de estresse abiótico, o priming de sementes está entre as abordagens eficazes que melhoram a germinação e o vigor de crescimento das sementes de arroz. Portanto, o presente estudo foi planejado para avaliar as modificações fisiológicas e bioquímicas em variedades de arroz chinês e paquistanês por Qiangdi 863, aparelho assistente biológico de crescimento com água nanotratada (NTW), Osmopriming cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2), peróxido de hidrogênio redox (H2O2) e priming hormonal por ácido salicílico (SA) em condições de estresse de temperatura. O experimento foi realizado em condições de delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Cinco variedades de arroz, nomenclaturas como Zhongzoa 39 (variedade de arroz chinês), KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati e PK 1121 aromático (variedade de arroz do Paquistão) foram semeadas sob baixa temperatura (LT) (17 ºC), temperatura ótima (OT) 27 ºC e condições de alta temperatura (HT) 37 ºC. O presente estudo indicou que nanocondicionamento foi o tratamento mais eficaz: aumento da porcentagem de energia de germinação (GEP) (96,1%, 100%, 100%), velocidade de germinação (SG) (27,2, 35,45, 37,1), porcentagem de germinação final (FGP) (98,2%, 99,1%, 99,4%), biomassa de peso seco de mudas (DWB) (0,1 g, 0,137 g, 0,14 g), conteúdo total de clorofila (0,502, 13,74, 15,21), enzimas antioxidantes superóxido dismutase (SOD) (3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh- 1), catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) e malondialdeído diminuído (MDA) (6,5, 12,2, 6,5 µmol g-1 FW) para as variedades de arroz Zhongzao 39 e KSK 133 sob baixo (LT + NTW), temperatura ótima (OP + NTW) e estresse de alta temperatura [...].(AU)


Assuntos
Oryza/fisiologia , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Estresse Fisiológico
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245206, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339387

RESUMO

Abstract A huge amount of rice cultivation and consumption occur in Asia particularly in Pakistan and China. However, multiple abiotic stresses especially high and low-temperature proved to be a substantial threat for rice production ultimately risks for food security. To overcome various types of abiotic stress; seed priming is among the effective approaches to improve the rice seed germination and growth vigor. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate physiological and biochemical modifications in Chinese and Pakistani rice varieties by Qiangdi 863 biological assistant growth apparatus nano treated water (NTW), Osmopriming Calcium chloride (CaCl2), redox priming hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hormonal priming by Salicylic acid (SA) under temperature stress conditions. The experiment was performed with completely randomize design conditions. Five rice varieties, nomenclature as Zhongzoa 39, (Chinese rice variety) KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati and PK 1121 aromatic (Pakistani rice variety) were sown under low temperature (LT) (17ºC), optimal temperature (OT) 27ºC and high temperature (HT) 37ºC conditions. The present study indicated that nanopriming were the most effective treatments increased Germination Energy Percentage (GEP) (96.1, 100, 100%), Speed of Germination (SG) (27.2, 35.45, 37.1), Final Germination Percentage (FGP) (98.2, 99.1, 99.4%), Seedling Dry Weight Biomass (DWB) (0.1, 0.137, 0.14g), Total Chlorophyll Content (0.502, 13.74, 15.21), antioxidant enzymes Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)(3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh-1), Catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) and decreased Malondialdehyde (MDA) (6.5, 12.2, 6.5 µmol g-1 FW) for Zhongzao 39 and KSK 133 rice varieties under low (LT+NTW), optimal temperature (OP+NTW) and high temperature (HT+NTW) stress., Therefore, nano-priming is recommended to cope with the high and low-temperature stress conditions along with improved productivity of rice.


Resumo Cultivo e consumo de arroz ocorrem em grandes quantidades na Ásia, particularmente no Paquistão e na China. No entanto, vários estresses abióticos, especialmente de alta e baixa temperatura, provaram ser uma ameaça considerável para a produção de arroz, em última análise, riscos para a segurança alimentar. Para superar vários tipos de estresse abiótico, o priming de sementes está entre as abordagens eficazes que melhoram a germinação e o vigor de crescimento das sementes de arroz. Portanto, o presente estudo foi planejado para avaliar as modificações fisiológicas e bioquímicas em variedades de arroz chinês e paquistanês por Qiangdi 863, aparelho assistente biológico de crescimento com água nanotratada (NTW), Osmopriming cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2), peróxido de hidrogênio redox (H2O2) e priming hormonal por ácido salicílico (SA) em condições de estresse de temperatura. O experimento foi realizado em condições de delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Cinco variedades de arroz, nomenclaturas como Zhongzoa 39 (variedade de arroz chinês), KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati e PK 1121 aromático (variedade de arroz do Paquistão) foram semeadas sob baixa temperatura (LT) (17 ºC), temperatura ótima (OT) 27 ºC e condições de alta temperatura (HT) 37 ºC. O presente estudo indicou que nanocondicionamento foi o tratamento mais eficaz: aumento da porcentagem de energia de germinação (GEP) (96,1%, 100%, 100%), velocidade de germinação (SG) (27,2, 35,45, 37,1), porcentagem de germinação final (FGP) (98,2%, 99,1%, 99,4%), biomassa de peso seco de mudas (DWB) (0,1 g, 0,137 g, 0,14 g), conteúdo total de clorofila (0,502, 13,74, 15,21), enzimas antioxidantes superóxido dismutase (SOD) (3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh- 1), catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) e malondialdeído diminuído (MDA) (6,5, 12,2, 6,5 µmol g-1 FW) para as variedades de arroz Zhongzao 39 e KSK 133 sob baixo (LT + NTW), temperatura ótima (OP + NTW) e estresse de alta temperatura (HT + NTW). Portanto, o nanopriming é recomendado para lidar com as condições de estresse de alta e baixa temperatura, juntamente com a produtividade aprimorada do arroz.


Assuntos
Oryza , Sementes , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura , Germinação , Plântula , Peróxido de Hidrogênio
3.
Bioresour Technol ; : 127249, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500834

RESUMO

This study aims to accelerate biofilm formation and operational performance of moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) at 5 ℃ by adding specialized Quorum Sensing bacteria (sphingomonas rubra BH3T). Results showed that bio augmented MBBR (RS) achieved a higher chemical oxygen demand and NH4+-N removal rate (93% and 75%), which in accordance with its increased biofilm thickness, higher biofilm activity, and nitrifying bacteria abundance (Nitrospira). The increased biofilm thickness (60.23 %) during the whole operating time, accompanied by more potent adhesion force (61.59 %), was related to increased polysaccharides and proteins in the biofilm. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated that BH3T contributed to higher species richness and triggered the rapid growth of precursor microorganisms (Nakamurella, Micropruina, and Zoogloea) and the enrichment of multifunctional microorganisms (Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Arcobacter, Dechloromonas, and Flavobacterium) at low temperatures. This study provides an economical and practical new insight into accelerating start-up of MBBR system at low temperature.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501439

RESUMO

Climate change and health are inextricably linked, especially the role of ambient temperature. This study aimed to analyze the non-communicable disease (NCD) burden attributable to low temperature globally, regionally, and temporally using data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2019. Globally, in 2019, low temperature was responsible for 5.42% DALY and 7.18% death of NCDs, representing the age-standardized disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and death rates (per 100,000 population) of 359.6 (95% uncertainty intervals (UI): 306.09, 416.88) and 21.36 (95% UI:18.26, 24.74). Ischemic heart disease was the first leading cause of DALY and death resulting from low temperature, followed by stroke. However, age-standardized DALY and death rates attributable to low temperature have exhibited wide variability across regions, with the highest in Central Asia and Eastern Europe and the lowest in Caribbean and Western sub-Saharan Africa. During the study period (1990-2019), there has been a significant decrease in the burden of NCDs attributable to low temperature, but progress has been uneven across countries, whereas nations exhibiting high sociodemographic index (SDI) declined more significantly compared with low SDI nations. Notably, three nations, including Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Lesotho, had the maximum NCDs burden attributed to low temperature and displayed an upward trend. In conclusion, ambient low temperature contributes to substantial NCD burden with notable geographical variations.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512680

RESUMO

Most transition-metal trihalides are dimorphic. The representative chromium-based triad, CrCl3, CrBr3, CrI3, is characterized by the low-temperature phase adopting the trigonal BiI3­type while the structure of the high-temperature phase is monoclinic of AlCl3 type (C2/m). The structural transition between the two crystallographic phases is of the first-order type with large thermal hysteresis in CrCl3 and CrI3. We studied crystal structures and structural phase transitions of vanadium-based counterparts VCl3, VBr3, and VI3 by measuring specific heat, magnetization, and X-ray diffraction as functions of temperature and observed an inverse situation. In these cases, the high-temperature phase has a higher symmetry while the low-temperature structure reveals a lower symmetry. The structural phase transition between them shows no measurable hysteresis in contrast to CrX3. Possible relations of the evolution of the ratio c/a of the unit cell parameters, types of crystal structures, and nature of the structural transitions in V and Cr trihalides are discussed.

6.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2200753, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522020

RESUMO

Most existing stretchable batteries can generally only be stretched uniaxially and suffer from poor mechanical and electrochemical robustness to withstand extreme mechanical and environmental challenges. A highly efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst is herein developed via the unique self-templated conversion of a guanosine-based supramolecular hydrogel and presents a fully integrated design strategy to successfully fabricate an omnidirectionally stretchable and extremely environment-adaptable Zn-air battery (ZAB) through the synergistic engineering of active materials and device architecture. The electrocatalyst demonstrates a very low reversible overpotential of only 0.68 V for oxygen reduction/evolution reactions (ORR/OER). This ZAB exhibits superior omnidirectional stretchability with a full-cell areal strain of >1000% and excellent durability, withstanding more than 10 000 stretching cycles. Promisingly, without any additional pre-treatment, the ZAB exhibits outstanding ultra-low temperature tolerance (down to -60 °C) and superior waterproofness, withstanding continuous water rinsing (>5 h) and immersion (>3 h). The present work offers a promising strategy for the design of omnidirectionally stretchable and high-performance energy storage devices for future on-skin wearable applications.

7.
Chemosphere ; : 134810, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508260

RESUMO

Thermal desorption (TD) is generally considered to be an effective but unsustainable technology. Decontamination performance, charring behaviors and physicochemical properties during TD of dibenzofuran-contaminated soil (DCS) are explored. After treatment at 300 °C for 20 min, the dibenzofuran concentration decreases from 3969.37 mg/kg to 17.29 mg/kg, lower than Chinese risk screening value. More than 99% of dibenzofuran in soil are removed at low temperature of 300 °C, meanwhile the organic carbon is partially retained in soil. Removal mechanism of DCS at 300 °C is proposed, including desorption, cracking, and charring. Char material of low H:C ratio is produced by the generation, polymerization and dehydrogenation of aromatic intermediates, and then increases carbon stocks and reduces the carbon footprint of contaminated soil. Meanwhile, due to the char generated, pH, cation exchange capacity and specific surface area of DCS heated at 300 °C are higher than those of raw DCS, promoting ecological restoration and enhancing carbon sink in soil ecosystems. The aforesaid saving energy, reducing carbon footprint and enhancing carbon sink are exactly the main innovative technologies for achieving carbon neutrality. Hence, it may be a contribution to climate change mitigation, in addition to a robust and sustainable remediation of organic contaminated soil.

8.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504271

RESUMO

In this study, an artificial compound eye lens (ACEL) was fabricated using a laser cutting machine and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution. A laser cutter was used to punch micro-sized holes (500 µm diameter-the smallest possible diameter) into an acrylic plate; this punched plate was then placed on the aqueous PVA solution, and the water was evaporated. The plate was used as the mold to obtain a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro lens array film, which was fixed to a dome-shaped three-dimensional-printed mold for further PDMS curing, and a hemispherical compound eye lens was obtained. Using a gallium nitride (GaN) photodetector, a light detection experiment was performed with the ACEL, bare lens, and no lens by irradiating light at various angles under low temperatures. The photodetector with the ACEL generated a high photocurrent under several conditions. In particular, when the light was irradiated at 0° and below -20 °C, the photocurrent of the GaN sensor with the ACEL increased by 61% and 81% compared with the photocurrent of GaN sensor with the bare lens and without a lens, respectively. In this study, a sensor for detecting light with ACEL was demonstrated in low-temperature environments, such as indoor refrigerated storages and external conditions in Antarctica and Arctic.

9.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2104531, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524637

RESUMO

The silicon oxide/graphite (SiO/C) composite anode represents one of the promising candidates for next generation Li-ion batteries over 400 Wh kg-1 . However, the rapid capacity decay and potential safety risks at low temperature restrict their widely practical applications. Herein, the fabrication of sulfide-rich solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on surface of SiO/C anode to boost the reversible Li-storage performance at low temperature is reported. Different from the traditional SEI layer, the present modification layer is composed of inorganic-organic hybrid components with three continuous layers as disclosed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The result shows that ROSO2 Li, ROCO2 Li, and LiF uniformly distribute over different layers. When coupled with LiNi0.8 Co0.1 Mn0.1 O2 cathode, the capacity retention achieves 73% at -20 °C. The first principle calculations demonstrate that the gradient adsorption of sulfide-rich surface layer and traditional intermediate layer can promote the desolvation of Li+ at low temperature. Meanwhile, the inner LiF-rich layer with rapid ionic diffusion capability can inhibit dendrite growth. These results offer new perspective of developing advanced SiO/C anode and low-temperature Li-ion batteries.

10.
Chemosphere ; : 134863, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561759

RESUMO

Spherical cerium dioxide (CeO2-S) nanoparticles were successfully prepared using a solvothermal method, and their performances in catalytic oxidation reactions were studied. The CeO2-S catalyst showed superior low-temperature catalytic activity for styrene removal (T90 = 118 °C, GHSV = 18,000 h-1) compared with commercial CeO2. The characterization results showed that there were numerous oxygen defects in CeO2-S that were key to its catalytic performance at low temperatures, high redox properties, and high adsorption capacity for the reaction gases (O2 and styrene). Moreover, the catalytic performance of CeO2-S was highly stable (132 h), and the particles were reusable. FTIR and in-situ DRIFTS results showed that the type of intermediates formed during the oxidation of styrene determined the CeO2 catalytic stability, and the main intermediates were bidentate carbonate species that accumulated on the surface of deactivated CeO2-S and were not thermally stable. Moreover, the soft carbon that also deposited on CeO2-S during the reaction was easily decomposed at higher temperatures. The role of the oxygen vacancies on the CeO2-S catalyst was further revealed by correlating the concentration of oxygen vacancies and the accumulation of coke on the catalyst surface.

11.
Int J Phytoremediation ; : 1-13, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570740

RESUMO

Sponge iron (SI) is widely used in water treatment. As effluents from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) require advanced treatment methodology, three forms of constructed wetlands (CWs): wetlands with sponge iron (SI), copper sulfate modified sponge iron (Cu/SI), and sponge iron coupled with solid carbon sources (C/SI), have been investigated in this paper for the removal effects of organic matter and nutrients in WWTP effluents, and the corresponding mechanisms have been analyzed. The results showed the effect of baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetland (BSFCW) with SI dosing to purify the WWTP effluents after the stable operation. The water flow of this BSFCW is the repeated combination of upward flow and downward flow, which can provide a longer treatment pathway and microbial exposure time. The average removal rates of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) were 27.80%, 30.17%, and 44.83%, and the average removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 19.96%, 23.73%, and 18.38%. The average removal rates of total phosphorus (TP) were 85.94%, 82.14%, and 83.95%. Cu/SI improved the dissolution of iron, C/SI improved denitrification, and a winter indoor temperature retention measure was adopted to increase the effectiveness of wetland treatment during the winter months. After comprehensively analyzing X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and two-dimensional numerical simulation diagrams, a plausible conjecture that microbes use electrons from SI for autotrophic denitrification is presented. Moreover, the stress effect of wetlands dosed with SI on plants decreased stepwise along the course since C/SI used on wetlands had less impact on plant stress.


1. Treatment of sequencing batch biofilm reactor reaction effluent indoors in low temperature using a combination of three wetland fillers, sponge iron + gravel, copper sulfate modified sponge iron + gravel, and sponge iron coupled carbon source + gravel.2. The use of the baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetland, combined with the distribution simulation diagram, especially the distribution simulation diagram of iron, gives an explanation to the degradation mechanism of the pollutants and the transformation of iron into wetlands.3. An conjecture of electron transport during microbial autotrophic denitrification involving iron is presented, plausibly explaining the variation in treatment effects.

12.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 860458, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35572674

RESUMO

There is an urgent call for contingency planning with effective and eco-friendly oil spill cleanup responses. In situ burning, if properly applied, could greatly mitigate oil in water and minimize the adverse environmental impacts of the spilled oil. Chemical herders have been commonly used along with in situ burning to increase the thickness of spilled oil at sea and facilitate combustion. These chemical surfactant-based agents can be applied to the edges of the oil slick and increase its thickness by reducing the water-oil interfacial tension. Biosurfactants have recently been developed as the next generation of herds with a smaller environmental footprint. In this study, the biosurfactant produced by Rhodococcus erythropolis M25 was evaluated and demonstrated as an effective herding agent. The impact of environmental and operational factors (e.g., temperature, herder dose, spilled oil amount, water salinity, and operation location) on its performance was investigated. A five-factor fractional design was applied to examine the importance of these factors and their impact on herding effectiveness and efficiency. The results of this study showed that higher temperature and a higher dose of herder could result in an increased oil slick thickness changing rate. Differences in water salinity at the same temperature led to the same trend, that is, the herding process effectively goes up with increasing herder-oil ratio (HOR). Further large-scale testing needs to be conducted for evaluating the applicability of the developed bioherder in the field.

13.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 855900, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574101

RESUMO

Environmental factors such as low temperature (LT) and high humidity (HH) hinder plant growth and development in plastic tunnels and solar greenhouses in the cold season. In this study, we examined the effect of melatonin (MT) on shoot-based tolerance to LT and HH conditions in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings and explored its underlying mechanism. LT and HH stress inhibited growth and biomass accumulation, produced leaf chlorosis, led to oxidative stress, lowered chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, reduced photosynthetic and photosystem II (PSII) activities, and increased the level of intercellular carbon dioxide and the non-photochemical quenching of photosystem I (PSI) and PSII. However, foliar application of MT significantly improved the morphological indices and photosynthetic efficiency of cucumber seedlings, which entailed the elevation of electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation, and reactive oxygen species accumulation by boosting the antioxidant enzyme defense system under LT and HH conditions. Additionally, the measurement of nitrogen (N), magnesium (Mg), and iron (Fe) contents in roots and leaves showed that MT significantly augmented the nutrient uptake of cucumber seedlings exposed to LT and HH stresses. Furthermore, MT application increased the transcripts levels of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes under LT and HH conditions, whereas treatment with LT and HH suppressed these genes, suggesting that MT application increases the LT and HH tolerance of cucumber seedlings. Overall, our results suggest that MT application increases the tolerance of cucumber seedlings to LT and HH stress by enhancing the plant morphometric parameters, regulating PSI and PSII, and activating the antioxidant defense mechanism. Thus, the exogenous application of MT could be potentially employed as a strategy to improve the LT and HH tolerance of cucumber.

14.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 873677, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574104

RESUMO

Aerobic rice production (AP) consumes less water compared to flooded systems. Developing genotypes and identifying genomic regions associated with low temperature (LT) tolerance at the young microspore stage (YMS) is imperative for AP, particularly for temperate regions. Using a recombinant inbred line population derived from the Australian LT tolerant variety Sherpa, experiments were conducted to map and dissect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with spikelet sterility (SS) after exposure to LT and to investigate floral traits contributing to the development of lower SS. Significant genotypic variation for SS was observed in the population after exposure to LT at YMS. Three genomic regions associated with SS, qYMCT3, qYMCT4, and qYMCT8.1 were identified in chromosomes 3, 4, and 8 respectively, using multiple QTL models explaining 22.4% of the genotypic variation. Introgression of the favorable allele from qYMCT3 was estimated to reduce SS by up to 15.4%. A co-locating genomic region with qYMCT3, qDTHW3.1 was identified as the major QTL affecting days to heading and explained as much as 44.7% of the genotypic variation. Whole-genome sequence and bioinformatic analyses demonstrated OsMADS50 as the candidate gene for qYMCT3/qDTHW3.1 and to our knowledge, this was the first attempt in connecting the role of OsMADS50 in both LT and flowering in rice. Differential sets selected for extreme SS showed LT tolerant genotype group produced higher total pollen per spikelet resulting in a higher number of dehisced anthers and pollen on stigma and eventually, lower SS than THE sensitive group. The relationship between these key floral traits with SS was induced only after exposure to LT and was not observed in warm ideal temperature conditions. Identification of elite germplasm with favorable QTL allele and combinations, gene cloning, and pyramiding with additional high-value QTL for key traits should empower breeders to develop AP adapted genotypes for temperate growing regions, and ultimately produce climate-resilient rice.

15.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 884990, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574110

RESUMO

The ALAD gene encodes an enzyme that is essential for chlorophyll biosynthesis and is involved in many other physiological processes in plants. In this study, the CaALAD gene was cloned from pepper and sequenced. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of ALAD proteins from nine plant species showed that ALAD is highly conserved, and that CaALAD shows the highest homology with the ALAD protein from eggplant. Subcellular localization indicated that the CaALAD protein is mainly localized to the chloroplasts. After transferring CaALAD into the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, cold tolerance of the transgenic lines improved. Overexpression of CaALAD increased the relative transcription of the AtCBF2, AtICE1, and AtCOR15b genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants exposed to low temperature (4°C) stress, and the contents of reactive oxygen species decreased due to increased activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase. Moreover, chlorophyll biosynthesis, as determined by the contents of porphobilinogen, protoporphyrin IX, Mg-protoporphyrin IX, prochlorophyllate, and chlorophyll in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, increased in response to low temperature stress. In addition, the transgenic lines were more sensitive to exogenous ALA and NaHS, and the H2S content of transgenic line plants increased more rapidly than in the wild-type, suggesting that CaALAD may respond to low temperatures by influencing the content of H2S, a signaling molecule. Our study gives a preliminary indication of the function of CaALAD and will provide a theoretical basis for future molecular breeding of cold tolerance in pepper.

16.
Plasma Process Polym ; : e2200012, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574246

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has greatly stressed the global community, exposing vulnerabilities in the supply chains for disinfection materials, personal protective equipment, and medical resources worldwide. Disinfection methods based on cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) technologies offer an intriguing solution to many of these challenges because they are easily deployable and do not require resource-constrained consumables or reagents needed for conventional decontamination practices. CAP technologies have shown great promise for a wide range of medical applications from wound healing and cancer treatment to sterilization methods to mitigate airborne and fomite transfer of viruses. This review engages the broader community of scientists and engineers that wish to help the medical community with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic by establishing methods to utilize broadly applicable CAP technologies.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544602

RESUMO

The classical high-temperature synthesis process of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells limits their applications on high-temperature intolerant substrates. In this study, a novel low-temperature (400 °C) fabrication strategy of CIGS solar cells is reported using the bismuth (Bi)-doping method, and its growth-promoting mechanism is systematically studied. Different concentrations of Bi are incorporated into pure chalcopyrite quaternary target sputtered-CIGS films by controlling the thickness of the Bi layer. Bi induces considerable grain growth improvement, and an average of approximately 3% absolute efficiency enhancement is achieved for Bi-doped solar cells in comparison with the Bi-free samples. Solar cells doped with a 50 nm Bi layer yield the highest efficiency of 13.04% (without any antireflective coating) using the low-temperature technology. The copper-bismuth-selenium compounds (Cu-Bi-Se, mainly Cu1.6Bi4.8Se8) are crucial in improving the crystallinity of absorbers during the annealing process. These Bi-containing compounds are conclusively observed at the grain boundaries and top and bottom interfaces of CIGS films. The growth promotion is found to be associated with the superior diffusion capacity of Cu-Bi-Se compounds in CIGS films, and these liquid compounds function as carriers to facilitate crystallization. Bi atoms do not enter the CIGS lattices, and the band gaps (Eg) of absorbers remain unchanged. Bi doping reduces the number of CIGS grain boundaries and increases the copper vacancy content in CIGS films, thereby boosting the carrier concentrations. Cu-Bi-Se compounds in grain boundaries significantly enhance the conductivity of grain boundaries and serve as channels for carrier transport. The valence band, Fermi energy level (EF), and conduction band of Bi-doped CIGS films all move downward. This band shift strengthens the band bending of the CdS/CIGS heterojunction and eventually improves the open circuit voltage (Voc) of solar cells. An effective doping method and a novel mechanism can facilitate the low-temperature preparation of CIGS solar cells.

18.
Bioresour Technol ; 355: 127295, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550923

RESUMO

Two anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactors (AnDMBRs) were set up for the treatment of synthetic blackwater at room temperature (20-25 °C) and mesophilic conditions for 180 days with progressively increased organic loading rates(OLR). Despite dynamic membranes (DM), organics removal at room temperature was similar to removal within the mesophilic conditions of the reactor, with some disparities in methane production. A dense sludge filtration layer was more likely to be formed on the DM at room temperature, resulting in a faster membrane fouling. Microbial community analysis revealed that microorganisms had higher richness and lower diversity at room temperature, which was beneficial to the growth of Actinobacteriota, especially Propioniciclava. This comparative study discusses the feasibility of operating an AnDMBR under room temperature conditions versus mesophilic conditions. This analysis provides novel insights into future large-scale attempts to treat blackwater at room temperature.

19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35562997

RESUMO

Low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma has been used in various fields such as plasma medicine, agriculture, food safety and storage, and food manufacturing. In the field of plasma agriculture, plasma treatment improves seed germination, plant growth, and resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses, allows pesticide removal, and enhances biomass and yield. Currently, the complex molecular mechanisms of plasma treatment in plasma agriculture are fully unexplored, especially those related to seed germination and plant growth. Therefore, in this review, we have summarized the current progress in the application of the plasma treatment technique in plants, including plasma treatment methods, physical and chemical effects, and the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of low-temperature plasma treatment. Additionally, we have discussed the interactions between plasma and seed germination that occur through seed coat modification, reactive species, seed sterilization, heat, and UV radiation in correlation with molecular phenomena, including transcriptional and epigenetic regulation. This review aims to present the mechanisms underlying the effects of plasma treatment and to discuss the potential applications of plasma as a powerful tool, priming agent, elicitor or inducer, and disinfectant in the future.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563058

RESUMO

Improving tolerance to low-temperature stress during the rice seedling stage is of great significance in agricultural science. In this study, using the low silicon gene 1 (Lsi1)-overexpressing (Dular-OE) and wild-type rice (Dular-WT), we showed that Lsi1 overexpression enhances chilling tolerance in Dular-OE. The overexpression of the Lsi1 increases silicon absorption, but it was not the main reason for chilling tolerance in Dular-OE. Instead, our data suggest that the overexpression of a Lsi1-encoding NIP and its interaction with key proteins lead to chilling tolerance in Dular-OE. Additionally, we show that the high-mobility group protein (HMG1) binds to the promoter of Lsi1, positively regulating its expression. Moreover, Nod26-like major intrinsic protein (NIP)'s interaction with α and ß subunits of ATP synthase and the 14-3-3f protein was validated by co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP), bimolecular fluorescent complementary (BiFC), and GST-pulldown assays. Western blotting revealed that the overexpression of NIP positively regulates the ATP-synthase subunits that subsequently upregulate calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinases (CIPK) negatively regulating 14-3-3f. Overall, these NIP-mediated changes trigger corresponding pathways in an orderly manner, enhancing chilling tolerance in Dular-OE.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA