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Hig. Aliment. (Online) ; 38(298): e1144, jan.-jun. 2024.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1531444


As falhas na higienização em um estabelecimento de alimentos podem refletir em problemas causando a contaminação ou deterioração do produto produzido. Esta pesquisa foi motivada por reclamações de consumidores informando que os queijos apresentaram fungos, mesmo estando dentro do prazo de validade e por solicitação do Serviço de Inspeção Municipal. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a contaminação ambiental em uma agroindústria da agricultura familiar produtora de queijo colonial no Sudoeste Paranaense. Foram realizadas a contagem para aeróbios mesófilos em equipamentos e superfícies que entram em contato com o alimento e análise microbiológica ambiental de bolores e leveduras na sala de secagem dos queijos. A coleta foi realizada com método de esfregaço de suabe estéril para aeróbios mesófilos e semeadas em placas de Petri com Ágar Padrão de Contagem. Para a coleta ambiental foram expostas placas de Petri com ágar Saboraund durante 15 minutos. Os resultados demonstraram ausência de contaminação nas superfícies, mas foram encontrados bolores e leveduras de forma acentuada na sala de secagem dos queijos, o que pode contribuir para a deterioração do produto, diminuindo sua validade. Para minimizar as perdas por contaminação é necessário que o processo de higienização dos ambientes seja realizado de forma eficiente.

Failures in hygiene in a food establishment can result in problems causing contamination or deterioration of the product produced. This research was motivated by complaints from consumers reporting that the cheeses had mold, even though they were within their expiration date and at the request of the Municipal Inspection Service. This research was to evaluate environmental contamination in an agroindustry in the family farm producing colonial cheese in Southwest Paraná. For the microbiological assessment of environmental contamination, counting for mesophilic aerobes was carried out on equipment and surfaces that come into contact with food and, environmental microbiological analysis of molds and yeast in the cheese drying room. The collection was carried out using the sterile swab smear for mesophilic aerobes and seeded in Petri dishes with Counting Standard Agar. For environmental collection, sheets of Petri with Saboraund agar for 15 minutes. The results demonstrated absence of contamination on surfaces. But the presence of molds and yeasts in the drying room cheeses, which can contribute to the deterioration of the product and thus reduce the validity. To minimize losses due to contamination, it is It is necessary that the process of cleaning and disinfecting environments is carried out efficiently.

Higiene dos Alimentos , Queijo/microbiologia , Brasil , Boas Práticas de Fabricação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; : 502190, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719183


Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a clinical entity recognized since ancient times; it represents the consequences of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine associated with malabsorption. Recently, SIBO as a term has been popularized due to its high prevalence reported in various pathologies since the moment it is indirectly diagnosed with exhaled air tests. In the present article, the results of duodenal/jejunal aspirate culture testing as a reference diagnostic method, as well as the characteristics of the small intestinal microbiota described by culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques in SIBO, and their comparison with exhaled air testing are presented to argue about its overdiagnosis.

Cir Esp (Engl Ed) ; 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663468


INTRODUCTION: The current treatment for acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC) is early laparoscopic cholecystectomy, in association with appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy. In our country, the evolution of the prevalence of the germs involved and their resistance patterns have been scarcely described. The aim of the study was to analyze the bacterial etiology and the antibiotic resistance patterns in ACC. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective, observational study of consecutive patients diagnosed with ACC between 01/2012 and 09/2019. Patients with a concomitant diagnosis of pancreatitis, cholangitis, postoperative cholecystitis, histology of chronic cholecystitis or carcinoma were excluded. Demographic, clinical, therapeutic and microbiological variables were collected, including preoperative blood cultures, bile and peritoneal fluid cultures. RESULTS: A total of 1104 ACC were identified, and samples were taken from 830 patients: bile in 89%, peritoneal fluid and/or blood cultures in 25%. Half of the bile cultures and less than one-third of the blood and/or peritoneum samples were positive. Escherichia coli (36%), Enterococcus spp (25%), Klebsiella spp (21%), Streptococcus spp (17%), Enterobacter spp (14%) and Citrobacter spp (7%) were isolated. Anaerobes were identified in 7% of patients and Candida spp in 1%. Nearly 37% of patients received inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy. Resistance patterns were scrutinized for each bacterial species. The main causes of inappropriateness were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria (34%) and Enterococcus spp (45%), especially in patients older than 80 years. CONCLUSIONS: Updated knowledge of microbiology and resistance patterns in our setting is essential to readjust empirical antibiotic therapy and ACC treatment protocols.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588998


This 32-centre multicentre study addresses the lack of knowledge about the prevalence and significance of microbial keratitis (MK) associated with contact lens (CL) wear in Spain. A total of 304 cases recruited from 32 hospitals were studied and showed that infectious keratitis associated with contact lens wear mainly affects young women during the summer months. In this study, soft lenses with monthly replacement and single solution cleaning were most commonly used, purchased and fitted in opticians' shops. Common risk factors were identified among users, such as topping off solutions, prolonging the life of lenses, and frequently sleeping, swimming and showering with lenses. Overnight lens wear was significantly associated with a higher incidence of corneal opacities, and the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in bacterial cultures was associated with more severe sequelae and a greater need for corneal transplantation. Although most cases were benign, the time taken to heal was long, which poses a problem for working patients. This study provides valuable epidemiological, microbiological and risk factor information and estimates the incidence of CL related MK in Spain to be approximately 1 case per 30,000 inhabitants per year.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37029045


INTRODUCTION: The profound impact of the Covid-19 pandemic, together with other factors such as globalisation and climate change, has emphasised the growing relevance of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. METHODS: The Spanish scientific production in both categories of the Web of Science databases over the period 2014-2021 has been analysed. RESULTS: 8037 documents have been identified in Infectious Diseases and 12008 documents in Microbiology (6th most productive country worldwide in both cases, with growth rates of 41% and 46.2%, respectively). Both areas present a high degree of international collaboration (45-48% of the documents) and between 45-66% of the documents have been published in journals of excellence (first quartile) according to the rankings of the Journal Citation Reports. CONCLUSIONS: Spain is in a prominent position worldwide in both areas, with an outstanding scientific production in journals of high visibility and impact.

Doenças Transmissíveis , Pandemias , Humanos , Editoração , Bibliometria , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Espanha
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 82(1): s00441779035, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533830


Abstract Background Infectious meningoencephalitis is a potentially fatal clinical condition that causes inflammation of the central nervous system secondary to the installation of different microorganisms. The FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis panel allows the simultaneous detection of 14 pathogens with results in about one hour. Objective This study is based on retrospectively evaluating the implementation of the FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis panel in a hospital environment, highlighting the general results and, especially, analyzing the consistency of the test results against the clinical and laboratory conditions of the patients. Methods Data were collected through the results reported by the BioFire FilmArray system software from the meningitis/encephalitis panel. The correlated laboratory tests used in our analysis, when available, included biochemical, cytological, direct and indirect microbiological tests. Results In the analyzed period, there were 496 samples with released results. Of the total of 496 samples analyzed, 88 (17.75%) were considered positive, and 90 pathogens were detected, and in 2 of these (2.27%) there was co-detection of pathogens. Viruses were the agents most frequently found within the total number of pathogens detected. Of the 496 proven samples, 20 (4.03%) were repeated, 5 of which were repeated due to invalid results, 6 due to the detection of multiple pathogens and 9 due to disagreement between the panel results and the other laboratory tests and/or divergence of the clinical-epidemiological picture. Of these 20 repeated samples, only 4 of them (20%) maintained the original result after repeating the test, with 16 (80%) being non-reproducible. The main factor related to the disagreement of these 16 samples during retesting was the detection of bacterial agents without any relationship with other laboratory tests or with the patients' clinical condition. Conclusion In our study, simply reproducing tests with atypical results from the FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis panel proved, in most cases, effective and sufficient for interpreting these results.

Resumo Antecedentes A meningoencefalite infecciosa é uma condição clínica potencialmente fatal que causa inflamação do sistema nervoso central secundária à instalação de diversos microrganismos. O painel de meningite/encefalite FilmArray permite a detecção simultânea de 14 patógenos, com resultados em cerca de uma hora. Objetivo Este estudo baseia-se em avaliar retrospectivamente a implementação do painel de meningite/encefalite FilmArray em ambiente hospitalar, destacando os resultados gerais e, principalmente, analisando a consistência dos resultados do teste frente às condições clínicas e laboratoriais dos pacientes. Métodos Os dados foram coletados por meio dos resultados relatados pelo software do sistema BioFire FilmArray do painel de meningite/encefalite. Os exames laboratoriais correlacionados utilizados em nossa análise, quando disponíveis, incluíram exames bioquímicos, citológicos, microbiológicos diretos e indiretos. Resultados No período analisado, foram 496 amostras com resultados divulgados. Do total de 496 amostras analisadas, 88 (17,75%) foram consideradas positivas e 90 patógenos foram detectados, sendo que em duas destas (2,27%) houve codetecção de patógenos. Os vírus foram os agentes mais frequentemente encontrados dentro do total de patógenos detectados. Das 496 amostras analisadas, 20 (4,03%) foram repetidas, sendo 5 repetidas por resultado inválido, 6 pela detecção de múltiplos patógenos e 9 por discordância dos resultados do painel com os demais exames laboratoriais e/ou divergência do quadro clínico-epidemiológico. Destas 20 amostras repetidas, apenas 4 delas (20%) mantiveram o resultado original após a repetição do teste, sendo 16 (80%) não reprodutíveis. O principal fator relacionado à discordância destas 16 amostras na retestagem foi a detecção de agentes bacterianos sem qualquer relação com os demais exames laboratoriais ou com o quadro clínico dos pacientes. Conclusão Em nosso estudo, a simples repetição dos testes com resultados atípicos do painel de meningite/encefalite FilmArray mostrou-se, na maior dos casos, efetiva e suficiente para a interpretação destes achados.

Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(3): e2021, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520219


ABSTRACT A 33-year-old male presented with unilateral subacute infectious keratitis 4 weeks after surgery. Corneal inflammation was resistant to standard topical antibiotic regimens. During diagnostic flap lifting and sampling, the corneal flap melted and separated. Through flap lifting, corneal scraping, microbiological diagnosis of atypical mycobacteria, and treatment with topical fortified amikacin, clarithromycin, and systemic clarithromycin, clinical improvement was achieved.

RESUMO Paciente do sexo masculino, 33 anos, apresentou ceratite infecciosa subaguda unilateral 4 semanas após a cirurgia. A inflamação da córnea foi resistente aos regimes de antibióticos tópicos padrão. A aba da córnea foi derretida e seccionada durante o levantamento e amostragem para diagnóstico. A melhora clínica só foi alcançada após levantamento do retalho, raspagem e diagnóstico microbiológico de micobactérias atípicas e tratamento com amicacina fortificada tópica, claritromicina e claritromicina sistêmica.

Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(6): e2022, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520242


ABSTRACT Purpose: To study epidemiological data, laboratory results, and risk factors associated with microbial keratitis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of corneal sample cultures from patients with microbial keratitis from January 2010 to December 2019. Results were analyzed according to the etiological diagnosis of bacterial, mycotic, or parasitic infection and were associated with related risk factors. Results: We analyzed 4810 corneal samples from 4047 patients (mean age 47.79 ± 20.68 years; male 53.27%). The prevalence of bacterial, fungal, and Acanthamoeba infections were 69.80%, 7.31%, and 3.51%, respectively. The most frequently isolated bacteria were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) (45.14%), S. aureus (10.02%), Pseudomonas spp. (8.80%), and Corynebacterium spp. (6.21%). Among CoNS, the main agent was S. epidermidis (n=665). For mycotic keratitis, Fusarium spp. (35.42%) and Candida parapsilosis (16.07%) were the most common agents among filamentous and yeasts isolates, respectively. Contact lens use was associated with a positive culture for Acanthamoeba spp. (OR = 19.04; p < 0.001) and Pseudomonas spp. (OR = 3.20; p < 0.001). Previous ocular trauma was associated with positive fungal cultures (OR = 1.80; p = 0.007), while older age was associated with positive bacterial culture (OR = 1.76; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated a higher positivity of corneal sample cultures for bacteria. Among those, CoNS was the most frequently identified, with S. epidermidis as the main agent. In fungal keratitis, Fusarium spp. was the most commonly isolated. Contact lens wearers had higher risks of positive cultures for Acanthamoeba spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Ocular trauma increased the risk of fungal infection, while older age increased the risk of bacterial infection.

RESUMO Objetivo: Estudar os dados epidemiológicos, resultados laboratoriais e fatores de risco associados às ceratites infecciosas. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo das amostras de cultura de córnea em pacientes com ceratites infecciosas entre Janeiro/2010 a Dezembro/2019. Os resultados foram analisados de acordo com o diagnóstico etiológico de infecção bacteriana, fúngica ou parasitária e correlacionado com os fatores de risco relacionados. Resultados: Quatro mil, oitocentas e dez amostras corneanas de 4047 pacientes (média de idade de 47,79 ± 20,68 anos; homens em sua maioria (53,7%) foram incluídas. A prevalência de infecções por bactéria, fungo e Acanthamoeba foram de 69.80%, 7,31%, and 3,51%, respectivamente. A maioria das bactérias mais frequentemente isoladas foram Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo (CoNS) (45,14%), S. aureus (10,02%), Pseudomonas spp. (8,80%), e Corynebacterium spp. (6,21%). Dentre CoNS, o principal agente foi S. epidermidis (n = 665). Nas ceratites fúngicas, Fusarium spp. (35,42%) e Candida parapsilosis (16,07%) foram os agentes mais comuns entre os filamentosos e leveduriformes, respectivamente. O uso de lentes de contato foi associado à cultura positiva para Acanthamoeba spp. (OR = 19,04; p < 0,001) e Pseudomonas spp (OR = 3,20; p < 0,001). Trauma ocular prévio foi associado a culturas positivas para fungo (OR = 1,80; p = 0,007), e idade avançada foi associada a culturas positivas para bactéria (OR = 1,76; p = 0,001). Conclusões: Nossos achados demonstraram uma maior positividade para bactérias em amostras de cultura corneana. Dentre estas, CoNS foi mais frequentemente identificado, sendo S. epidermidis o principal agente. Nas ceratites fúngicas, Fusarium spp. Foi o mais comumente isolado. O risco de positividade para Acanthamoeba spp. e Pseudomonas spp. foi maior em usuários de lentes de contato. Trauma ocular aumentou o risco de cultura positiva para fungo, ao passo que idade mais avançada aumentou o risco de infecção bacteriana.

Odontol.sanmarquina (Impr.) ; 26(4): e25498, oct.-dic. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551274


Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue detectar la incidencia de Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) en pantallas de teléfonos móviles de estudiantes de último año de odontología mediante técnicas microbiológicas. Métodos: Estudio observacional de tipo transversal descriptivo. Se tomaron 92 muestras de pantallas de teléfonos móviles, se realizó la identificación de S. aureus mediante pruebas microbiológicas: fermentación del manitol, reacciones positivas a las pruebas de desoxirribonucleasa, catalasa y coagulasa. Resultados: Se aisló 16 cepas de S. aureus 16/92 (17,4%) en pantallas de teléfonos móviles. El 100% de las cepas aisladas dieron reacciones positivas a las pruebas de desoxirribonucleasa, catalasa y coagulasa. Conclusiones: Se evidencia la presencia de S. aureus en pantallas de celulares de los teléfonos móviles de los estudiantes de último año lo que representa un riesgo para la diseminación de este patógeno.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to detect the incidence of S. aureus on mobile phone screens of last-year dental students using microbiological techniques. Methodology: Descriptive cross-sectional observational study. 92 samples were taken from mobile phone screens, S. aureus was identified by microbiological tests: mannitol fermentation, positive reactions to deoxyribonuclease, catalase and coagulase tests. Results: 16 strains of S. aureus 16/92 (17.4%) were isolated on mobile phone screens. 100% of the strains emerged positive reactions to deoxyribonuclease, catalase and coagulase tests. Conclusions: The presence of S. aureus is evidenced in cell phone screens of senior students' mobile phones, which represents a risk for the spread of this pathogen.

Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 64(2): 36-43, dic. 2023. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1537887


OBJETIVO: determinar la microbiología y la prevalencia de cultivos de bilis positivos en la Colecistitis Aguda (CA). METODOLOGÍA DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN: serie de casos consecutivos anidados en una cohorte RESULTADOS: se han incluido 196 pacientes con un promedio de edad de 46,5 años (DE± 14,735 años) distribuidos por género en 88 pacientes del género femenino (44,9%) y 108 del género masculino (55,1%). El promedio de leucocitosis fue de 10.000 x mm3 con desvío izquierdo (80% de segmentados promedio). La prevalencia de cultivos positivos durante la CA fue de 64 pacientes (32,65%). El germen más cultivado fue la E. Coli en 28 pacientes con (43,75 %). En la sensibilidad del antibiograma, amoxicilina y Acido clavulánico presenta 53,12% de resistencia cuando están asociadas y 25,56% cuando se usa amoxicilina sola. La amikacina, ceftriaxona, cefepime, imipemen, cloranfenicol, ciprofloxacina, cotrimoxazol y gentamicina tienen sensibilidad superior al 50%. En las formas edematosas el cultivo fue de 19,7%, hidrops vesicular 31,25%, en piocolecisto el porcentaje de cultivos positivos fue de 50% y en abscesos retrovesiculares fue de 79,16%. CONCLUSIONES: la prevalencia de cultivo positivo en CA es de 32,65% con la E. Coli como germen más frecuente. La elección del antibiótico debe estar basada en el conocimiento de la microbiología del Hospital y de la sensibilidad determinada por los cultivos y antibiograma

AIM: to determine the microbiology and prevalence of positive bile culture un acute Cholecystitis. RESEARCH METODOLOGY: Consecutive case series nested in a cohort RESULTS: 196 patients with a mean age of 46,5 años (DE± 14,735 años) were included, distributed by gender 88 female patients (44,9%) and 108 male patients (55,1%). The mean leukocytosis was 10.000 x mm3 with 80% of neutrophils. The prevalence of positive bile culture in AC was in 64 patients (32,65%). The most cultivated germ was E. Coli in 28 patients (43,75 %). In the sensitivity of the antibiogram amoxilin with clavulanic acid shows 53,12% of resistence and when is used amoxicillin alone is 25,56%. Amikacin, ceftriaxon, cefepim, imipemen, chloranphenicol, ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole and gentamicin have sensitivity greater to 50%. In edematous AC the positive culture was 19,7%, hydrops gallblader 31,25%, in piocolecyst 50% and in retro gallbalder abscess was 79,16%. CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence positive bile culture was 32,65% with E. Coli as the most frequent germ. The choice of antibiotic should be based on the knowledge of the hospital´s microbiology and the sensitivity determinated by cultures and antibiogram

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Colecistite Aguda/microbiologia , Abscesso
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 61(Suppl 2): S309-S317, 2023 Sep 18.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38016186


Background: Tracheotomy is a common technique; however, microbiological contamination of the surgical site can increase morbimortality. Up to 90% of patients present a positive culture of the airway. Among the most important related factors is the lack of tracheal cannula replacement and lower airway infections. It is convenient to identify microbiological contamination of surgical site in tracheal secretions samples and the specific microorganism associated. Objective: To determine the factors related to microbiological contamination of surgical site. Material and methods: A prospective cohort study which included patients undergoing tracheotomy was carried out. Tracheal secretion was sampled by direct swabbing for culture during surgery and from the surgical site 5 days after. Results: The initial report showed contamination of samples in 58.3%, and 5 days after in 80.6%, with an incidence of contamination of 22.3%. Initially the main agents identified were Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 13.9% of the cultures, Klebsiella pneumoniae in 11.1% and Enterobacter spp. in 11%. On day 5, the most common agents were Klebsiella pneumoniae in 25% of the cases, Acinetobacter baumannii in 11.1% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 11.1. Conclusions: The frequency of microbiological contamination is high. The main agents were Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No risk factors for the presence of post-tracheotomy contamination were identified.

Introducción: la traqueotomía es un procedimiento común; sin embargo, la contaminación microbiológica del sitio quirúrgico puede aumentar la morbimortalidad. Hasta el 90% de los pacientes presentan un cultivo positivo de la vía respiratoria. Como factores relacionados, resaltan la falta de recambio de cánulas traqueales y las infecciones de vías aéreas bajas. Es conveniente identificar la contaminación microbiológica de secreción traqueal del sitio quirúrgico y el microorganismo asociado. Objetivo: determinar los factores relacionados con la contaminación microbiológica del sitio quirúrgico. Material y métodos: se hizo un estudio de cohorte prospectiva que incluyó a pacientes sometidos a traqueotomía. Se tomó cultivo por hisopado directo de secreción traqueal durante la cirugía y del sitio quirúrgico 5 días después. Resultados: la muestra inicial mostró contaminación en 58.3% de los pacientes y a los 5 días postquirúrgicos en 80.6%, con incidencia de contaminación de 22.3%. Inicialmente se aisló Pseudomonas aeruginosa en 13.9% de los casos, Klebsiella pneumoniae en 11.1% y Enterobacter spp. en 11%. Al quinto día se aisló Klebsiella pneumoniae en 25% de los casos, Acinetobacter baumannii en 11.1% y Pseudomonas aeruginosa en 11.1%. Conclusiones: la frecuencia de contaminación microbiológica es alta y se encontraron principalmente Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae y Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No se identificaron factores de riesgo para la contaminación postquirúrgica.

Staphylococcus aureus , Traqueotomia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Antibacterianos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37968223


INTRODUCTION: The specialty of Microbiology and Parasitology is a four-year multidisciplinary training with a central role in the diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases. The aim of this study is to analyze the degree of implementation of the official program and the degree of satisfaction of residents with their training. METHODS: We conducted an online survey distributed in eight sections to which active residents of the Specialty of Clinical Microbiology and Parasitology had access. RESULTS: A total of 69 responses were received, with a predominance of residents from the regions of Madrid (43.5%) and of FIR admission route (55%). The areas in which the residents feel best prepared correspond to systematic bacteriology, antimicrobials and clinical aspects of microbiology. The areas with the worst preparation, on the other hand, are mycology, parasitology and microbiological emergencies. There are significant differences between the clinical rotation time for residents with MIR access pathway with respect to residents with other degrees. Respondents perceive a high degree of responsibility and a medium agreement with the quality of teaching. Attendance at clinical sessions and external rotations is frequent. Research activity is perceived as complicated, both at the level of doctoral studies and with respect to entering research lines and the publication of scientific results. CONCLUSION: Some points of improvement of the training itinerary have been identified that need to be reinforced. Likewise, it would be interesting to seek a better balance between care, teaching and research activities.

Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 28(11): 3289-3300, nov. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520648


Resumo Fungos anemófilos se dispersam na natureza através do ar atmosférico. O presente estudo objetivou caracterizar a prevalência da microbiota fúngica anemófila no Brasil e correlacionar o crescimento fúngico com doenças respiratórias e quadros infecciosos. Este trabalho é uma revisão integrativa de literatura construída a partir da busca nas bases de dados PubMed, BIREME, SciELO e LILACS, com inclusão de trabalhos brasileiros publicados entre 2000 e 2022, em língua portuguesa ou inglesa com texto online integral. O universo do estudo foi constituído por 147 publicações, das quais 25 compuseram a amostra por atenderem aos critérios de inclusão. Os gêneros de fungos aerotransportados mais prevalentes no Brasil são: Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp. e Fusarium sp. Os locais de origem dos estudos incluem Maranhão, Ceará, Piauí, Sergipe, Mato Grosso, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Minas Gerais. Além disso, foi possível determinar a relação dos fungos com parâmetros meteorológicos e sazonalidade, a sensibilização de indivíduos atópicos aos fungos e as principais micoses nosocomiais relatadas na literatura. Assim, o trabalho destaca a importância da manutenção da qualidade microbiológica do ar com vistas a se prevenir possíveis doenças transmitidas pelo ar.

Abstract Airborne fungi are dispersed through the air. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of airborne fungi in Brazil and understand the relationship between fungal growth and respiratory diseases and infections. We conducted an integrative literature review of studies conducted in Brazil based on searches of the PubMed, MEDLINE-BIREME, SciELO, and LILACS databases for full-text articles published between 2000 and 2022. The searches returned 147 studies, of which only 25 met the inclusion criteria. The most prevalent genera of airborne fungi in Brazil are Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, and Fusarium. The studies were conducted in the states of Maranhão, Ceará, Piauí, Sergipe, Mato Grosso, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Minas Gerais. The findings also show the relationship between fungi and meteorological factors and seasonality, the sensitivity of atopic individuals to fungi, and the main nosocomial mycoses reported in the literature. This work demonstrates the importance of maintaining good microbiological air quality to prevent potential airborne diseases.

Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(3): 201-213, sept 2023. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1516064


Introducción. Los embutidos crudos se componen de carne fragmentada y otros ingredientes no cárnicos (sal, especias, fosfatos, nitritos) pero cuya formulación varía según el país; son productos altamente perecederos y podrían representar un riesgo para el consumidor. Objetivo. Los embutidos frescos son de alto consumo en varios países de Latinoamérica, por ello, el objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica es compilar la información disponible sobre la calidad microbiológica de este tipo de productos en la región. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda de literatura (desde el 2006 a la fecha) en las principales bases de datos. Resultados. Se determinó que la calidad microbiológica de los embutidos crudos latinoamericanos no es adecuada según la reglamentación. Las bacterias más estudiadas son los microorganismos totales aerobios mesófilos (MTAM), y las bacterias ácido-lácticas (BAL); estos dos grupos son los referentes para determinar la vida útil. Los patógenos más analizados son Salmonella spp. y Listeria monocytogenes y llama la atención que Staphyloccoccus aureus no se utiliza como indicador de malas prácticas de higiene o de inocuidad. Conclusiones. En general se confirma que los embutidos frescos podrían ser un riesgo para la salud pública ya que presentan recuentos microbiológicos altos, en ocasiones no regulados. Algunos agentes antimicrobianos como los compuestos etanólicos de propóleos (EEP), compuestos fenólicos y bacteriófagos han sido estudiados. Sin embargo, no está claro si a nivel artesanal este tipo de ingredientes son utilizados del todo. Finalmente, destaca la necesidad de armonizar las metodologías de estudio y la normativa vigente en los distintos países(AU)

Introduction. Raw sausages are products composed of comminuted meat and other non- meat ingredients (salt, spices, phosphates, nitrites) but the formulation varies in each country. Given this nature, raw sausages are highly perishable and may represent an important risk for consumers. Aim. As raw sausages are highly consumed in many Latin-American countries, the objective of this literature review was to compile the available information about studies of the microbial quality of these products in the region. Materials and methods. For that purpose, a literature search was performed on main data bases to compile studies from 2006 to nowadays. Results. In general, it was found that microbiological quality of Latin-American raw sausages is not adequate according to current regulation. Total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms (TAMM) and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) were the most studied indicators; these two groups are the main reference to establish shelf life. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were the most studied pathogens, and it is noticeable that Staphyloccoccus aureus is not used as an indicator for safety or manipulation. Conclusions. It is perceived that raw sausages in the region could represent a public health risk as they frequently present high microbiological counts, not regulated in many cases. For conservation, antimicrobial agents as propolic ethanoplic extracts (PEE), phenolyc compounds, and bacteriophages have been studied. However, it is not clear if these ingredients are used at the artisanal level, even though it can be assumed that they are not given the high microbial numbers that are reported. Finally, it stands out the need of harmonization of methodologies and current regulation in the countries(AU)

Alimentos em Conserva , Alimento Processado , Carne , Produtos da Carne/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Inspeção de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(4)ago. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521840


El Instituto de Higiene, fundado por el gobierno de Chile en 1892, aparte de sus funciones en el ámbito de la salud pública, participó activamente en la docencia de pregrado de Bacteriología de la Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad de Chile. La cátedra de Bacteriología fundada en 1895 fue trasladada en 1902 a la sección de seroterapia de dicho instituto (uno de los cinco edificios que formaban el instituto). La cátedra permaneció en ese lugar por tres décadas, siendo trasladada en 1930 por el Dr. Hugo Vaccaro de vuelta a la Escuela de Medicina. Por otra parte, la cátedra extraordinaria de Bacteriología siguió ligada a dicho instituto y a su inmediato sucesor el Instituto Bacteriológico de Chile. Sin embargo, luego del incendio de la Escuela de Medicina en 1948, la cátedra ordinaria tuvo que retornar a sus antiguos edificios en la ribera del Mapocho y paralelamente la cátedra extraordinaria se trasladó a una nueva ubicación en Ñuñoa.

The Institute of Hygiene, founded by the Chilean government in 1892, apart from its functions in the field of public health, actively participated in the undergraduate teaching of Bacteriology at the School of Medicine of the University of Chile. The chair of Bacteriology founded in 1895 was transferred in 1902 to the serotherapy section of the mentioned institute (one of the five buildings that made up the institute). The chair remained in that place for three decades, being transferred by Dr. Hugo Vaccaro back to the School of Medicine in 1930. On the other hand, the Extraordinary Chair of Bacteriology continued to be linked to the said institute and to its immediate successor, the Bacteriological Institute of Chile. However, after the fire at the School of Medicine in 1948, the ordinary chair had to return to its old buildings on the banks of the Mapocho and at the same time the extraordinary chair moved to a new location in Ñuñoa.

Rev. chil. nutr ; 50(3)jun. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515183


El comercio ambulante de alimentos listos para el consumo ha crecido exponencialmente a nivel mundial. Sin embargo, la falta de condiciones óptimas de preparación y expendio de estos alimentos pueden afectar su inocuidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad microbiológica de 19 tipos de alimentos (n= 417), con y sin tratamiento térmico, expendidos en espacios públicos en Cuenca, Ecuador. Según el grupo de alimentos, se analizaron aerobios mesófilos, coliformes/Escherichia coli, mohos y levaduras, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Listeria spp., Clostridium perfringes y Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Para la identificación y recuento de los microorganismos se aplicaron normativas nacionales y, en casos de ausencia, se adoptaron normas de otros países. Como resultado, el 55,4% de las muestras se consideraron no aptas para el consumo. S. aureus fue el microorganismo patógeno presuntivo de mayor prevalencia (81,7%). El incumplimiento de las normativas fue significativamente mayor entre los alimentos sin tratamiento térmico (54,1%) en comparación con aquellos térmicamente tratados (24%) y los que combinan ingredientes con y sin tratamiento (21,9%) (p<0,001). Se destaca el alto porcentaje de incumplimiento de alimentos sin tratamiento térmico que son manipulados en su preparación, como los jugos. Además, se observó que el tratamiento térmico no garantizó la inocuidad, sugiriendo una posible recontaminación del alimento luego de su preparación hasta su expendio y consumo, por medios ambientales y/o adición de otros ingredientes contaminados. Este estudio recalca la necesidad de acciones concretas con este sector, basados principalmente en capacitación, infraestructura e inclusión, para garantizar la salud de los consumidores.

Street-vending trade in ready-to-eat foods has grown exponentially, worldwide. However, the lack of optimal conditions for the preparation and sale of these foods can affect their safety. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of 19 types of foods (n= 417), with and without heat treatment, sold in public spaces in Cuenca, Ecuador. According to the food group, mesophilic aerobes, coliforms/Escherichia coli, molds and yeasts, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Listeria spp., Clostridium perfringens, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were examined. For microorganisms identification and counting, national regulations were applied and, in cases of absence, regulations from other countries were adopted. As a result, 55,4% of the samples were considered inadequate for consumption. S. aureus was the most prevalent presumptive pathogenic microorganism (81.7%). Non-compliance with regulations was significantly higher among foods without heat treatment (54.1%) compared to those heat treated (24%) and those that combine ingredients with and without treatment (21.9%) (p<0.001). The high percentage of non-compliance with foods without heat treatment that is handled for preparation, such as juices, stands out. In addition, it was observed that the heat treatment did not guarantee safety, suggesting possible food recontamination after preparation until sale and consumption, due to environmental means and/or the addition of other contaminated ingredients. This study emphasizes the need for concrete actions in this sector, mainly based on training, infrastructure, and inclusion, to guarantee consumers' health.

Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(2)abr. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441413


Introducción: Las infecciones asociadas a diálisis peritoneal constituyen una de las causas de morbimortalidad más importante en estos pacientes y la terapia antimicrobiana empírica y dirigida adecuada es fundamental para mejorar el resultado, por lo que es importante establecer la microbiología local. Objetivo: Revisar la experiencia clínica de cinco años del Hospital Carlos Van Buren de Valparaíso, Chile, describiendo las características clínicas y microbiológicas de los pacientes con episodios de peritonitis asociada a diálisis peritoneal. Metodología De forma retrospectiva se accedió a los registros clínicos de aquellos pacientes mayores de 18 años que presentaron al menos un evento de peritonitis asociada a diálisis peritoneal. Resultados: De un total de 26 episodios, 62% de los pacientes fueron de sexo femenino, con un promedio de edad de 53 años. La principal comorbilidad fue la hipertensión arterial (100%), y el dolor abdominal fue el síntoma más frecuente (85%), con una mortalidad general de 7,7%. En el laboratorio la leucocitosis, la proteína C reactiva (PCR) y la velocidad de hemosedimentación (VHS) fueron los hallazgos más importantes. Predominaron las cocáceas grampositivas (54%), seguido de bacilos gramnegativos no fermentadores y Enterobacterales en igual proporción (11,5% cada grupo). Casos aislados de Candida albicans y Pasteurella canis fueron identificados, y en 15% de los casos el cultivo resultó negativo. Conclusión: Se pudo conocer las características clínicas y microbiológicas locales de esta patología, para así redefinir las directrices de manejo en la institución.

Background: Infections associated with peritoneal dialysis are one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients, and adequate empirical and targeted antimicrobial therapy are essential to improve the outcome, so it is important to establish the local microbiology. Aim: To review the clinical experience of 5 years at the Carlos Van Buren Hospital in Valparaíso, Chile, in order to know the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with episodes of peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis. Methods: Retrospectively, the clinical records of those patients over 18 years of age who presented at least one peritonitis event associated with peritoneal dialysis were accessed. Results: Of a total of 26 episodes, 62% of the patients were female, with a mean age of 53 years. The main comorbidity was arterial hypertension (100%), and abdominal pain was the most frequent symptom (85%), with an overall mortality of 7.7%. In the laboratory parameters, leukocytosis, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were the most important findings. Gram-positive cocci (54%) predominated, followed by Gram-negative non-fermenting and enterobacterial bacilli in the same proportion (11.5% each group). Isolated cases of Candida albicans and Pasteurella canis were identified, and in 15% of the cases the culture was negative. Conclusion: It was possible to know the local clinical and microbiological characteristics of this pathology, in order to redefine management guidelines for our institution.

Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 52(1)mar. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521991


Entre las figuras cimeras de la microbiología en Cuba, se encuentra el Dr. Juan Nicolás Dávalos y Betancourt, conocido en su época como "el sabio que sueña con las bacterias", quien fue el primer médico cubano, dedicado a tiempo completo a la práctica de esta ciencia, en específico a la bacteriología. A pesar de esto, su vida y su obra no están suficientemente difundidas, por lo que este trabajo tiene como objetivo dar a conocer su legado, en un contexto histórico, social y científico, para que se conocido y valorado por las actuales y futuras generaciones de microbiólogos cubanos. Se realizó una investigación biográfica y se adicionan testimonios gráficos. La figura del Dr. Juan Nicolás Dávalos es destacada, no solo para la microbiología, como también para la ciencia en Cuba.

Among the leading figures of microbiology in Cuba, is Dr. Juan Nicolás Dávalos y Betancourt, known in his time as "the wise man who dreams of bacteria", who was the first Cuban doctor dedicated full-time to the practice of this science, specifically bacteriology. Despite this, his life and his work are not sufficiently disseminated, so this work aims to make his legacy known, in a historical, social and scientific context, so that it is known and valued by current and future generations. of Cuban microbiologists. A biographical investigation was carried out and graphic testimonies are added. Dr. Juan Nicolás Dávalos is outstanding, not only for microbiology, but also for science in Cuba.

Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin (Engl Ed) ; 41(9): 549-558, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464618


INTRODUCTION: Paediatric infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious condition associated with significant mortality. Information in Spain is limited and comes from case series from single centres. The aim was to describe the epidemiology, clinical features, microbiology and outcome of paediatric IE in Andalusia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Multi-centre descriptive observational retrospective study of patients <18 years old with a diagnosis of IE who were admitted to six Andalusian hospitals during 2008-2020. RESULTS: 44 episodes of IE (41 patients) with a median age of 103 months (IQR 37-150 months) were identified. Congenital heart disease (CHD) was the main predisposing factor, identified in 34 cases (77%). A total of 21 (48%) episodes of IE occurred in patients with prosthetic material. These had higher rate of CHD (p = 0.002) and increased end organ dysfunction (p = 0.04) compared to those with native valve. Fever was an almost universal symptom, associated in 23% of the episodes with heart failure. Staphylococcus aureus (25%) followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci (18%) and Streptococcus viridans (14%) were the most frequently isolated microorganisms, and three (7%) patients with central venous catheters had a fungal infection. Thromboembolic events were observed in 30% of the episodes, surgical intervention was required in 48% of cases. Mortality rate was 9%. Prosthetic material and CRP > 140 mg/L were independent predictors of complicated IE. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings emphasize the high morbidity of paediatric IE. The information provided could be useful for the identification of epidemiological and clinical profiles of children with IE and complicated forms.

Endocardite Bacteriana , Endocardite , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Endocardite/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/complicações
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468936


Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting 16S rRNA genes followed by DNA sequencing are still important tools to characterize microbial communities present in environmental samples. However, despite the crescent number of deposited archaeal DNA sequences in databases, until now we do not have a clear picture of the effectiveness and specificity of the universal primers widely used to describe archaeal communities from different natural habitats. Therefore, in this study, we compared the phylogenetic profile obtained when Cerrado lake sediment DNA samples were submitted to 16S rDNA PCR employing three Archaea-specific primer sets commonly used. Our findings reveal that specificity of primers differed depending on the source of the analyzed DNA. Furthermore, archaeal communities revealed by each primer pair varied greatly, indicating that 16S rRNA gene primer choice affects the community profile obtained, with differences in both taxon detection and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) estimates.

A amplificação de genes que codificam o rRNA 16S por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) e o seu sub sequentesequenciamento consistem em uma ferramenta importante na caracterização de comunidades microbianas presentes em amostras ambientais. No entanto, apesar do crescente número de sequências de DNA de Archaea depositadas em bancos de dados, a especificidade e efetividade dos iniciadores de PCR descritos como universais e amplamente utilizados na descrição desse grupo ainda não está clara. Neste estudo foram comparados os perfis filogenéticos de comunidades de arqueias obtidos a partir amostras de DNA de sedimentos lacustres do Cerrado submetidas a ensaios de PCR empregando três pares de iniciadores específicos para Archaea, comumente utilizados neste tipo de estudo. Nossos resultados indicam que as comunidades de arqueias detectadas com cada par de iniciadores apresentaram grande variação filogenética, sugerindo que a escolha de iniciadores dirigidos ao gene de rRNA 16S tem efeito significativo no perfil da comunidade descrita, com diferenças tanto em relação aos táxons detectados, como nas estimativas de unidades taxonômicas operacionais (OTU).

DNA Arqueal/genética , Filogenia , /análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase