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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253215, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360216

RESUMO

Abstract Frequencies, magnitudes, and distributions of occurrence can affect the events. The problem can be worse or the solution better if greater frequencies and magnitudes are presented with aggregated distribution in the production system. Indices, hence, are used to assist in decision-making on certain issues. The system formed by Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae), a typical and economically important Brazilian Cerrado tree species, and its several arthropods are adequate to evaluate a new index. This study aimed to test an index to identify the loss and solution sources and their importance in the system's loss or income gain. The index is: Percentage of Importance Indice % I . I . = k s 1 × c 1 × d s 1 / Σ k s 1 × c 1 × d s 1 + k s 2 × c 2 × d s 2 + k s n × c n × d s n x 100. T h e % I . I . separated the loss sources [e.g., Edessa rufomarginata De Geer, 1773 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on fruits = 41.90%)] on the percentage of reduction of fruit production (e.g., 0.13%), calculated the attention level (e.g., 0.10/fruit), with a total lost production of 1.35% (≈ 307 total lost fruits). The % I.I. also separated the solution sources [e.g., Zelus armillatus (Lep. and Servi., 1825) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) = 55.48%), the non-attention level (e.g., Z. armillatus: 0.394 for E. rufomarginata on fruit), with total income gain of 0.56% (≈ 128 total saved fruits) on the natural system (e.g., C. brasiliense trees). This index can calculate losses or the effectiveness of the solutions monetarily. Here I test the % I.I., an index that can detect the key loss and solution sources on the system, which can be applied in some knowledge areas.


Resumo Frequências, magnitudes e distribuição de ocorrência pode afetar os eventos. O problema pode ser pior ou a solução melhor se maiores frequências e magnitudes forem apresentadas com distribuição agregada no sistema de produção. Índices, então, são usados para assistir na decisão de certas questões. O sistema formado pelo Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae), uma espécie arbórea típica e economicamente importante do Cerrado brasileiro, e seus diversos artrópodes são adequados para avaliar um novo índice. A motivação deste trabalho foi testar um índice capaz de identificar as fontes de perda e de soluções, e suas importâncias em termos de perdas ou ganhos no sistema. O índice é: percentagem de importância % I . I . = k s 1 × c 1 × d s 1 / Σ k s 1 × c 1 × d s 1 + k s 2 × c 2 × d s 2 + k s n × c n × d s n x 100. O % I . I . separou as fontes de perda [ex., Edessa rufomarginata De Geer, 1773 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) em frutos = 41,90%)] na percentagem de redução na produção de frutos (ex., 0,13%), calculando o nível de atenção (ex., 0,10/fruto), com um total de perda de produção de 1,35% (≈ 307 frutos totais perdidos). O % I.I. também separou as fontes de solução [ex., Zelus armillatus (Lep. and Servi., 1825) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) = 55,48%)], o nível de não atenção (ex., Z. armillatus: 0,394 para E. rufomarginata em fruto), com total de ganho de 0,56% (≈ 128 total de frutos salvos) no sistema natural (ex., árvores de C. brasiliense). Esse índice pode calcular essas perdas ou a eficácia das soluções monetariamente. Aqui eu testo o % I.I., um índice capaz de detectar fatores chaves de perda e de soluções no sistema, capaz de ser aplicado em algumas áreas do conhecimento.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253218, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355863

RESUMO

Abstract Indices are used to help on decision-making. This study aims to develop and test an index, which can determine the loss (e.g., herbivorous insects) and solution (e.g., natural enemies) sources. They will be classified according to their importance regarding the ability to damage or to reduce the source of damage to the system when the final production is unknown. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs, and it is adequate to evaluate a new index. The formula was: Percentage of the Importance Indice-Production Unknown (% I.I.-PU) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. The loss sources Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and Tettigoniidae, and solution sources Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae), and Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) showed the highest % I.I.-PU on leaves of A. auriculiformis saplings. The number of Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was reduced per number of Salticidae; that of A. reticulatum that of Uspachus sp.; and that of Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) that of P. termitarius on A. auriculiformis saplings. However, the number of Aleyrodidae was increased per number of Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and that of A. reticulatum that of Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on A. auriculiformis saplings. The A. reticulatum damage was reduced per number of Uspachus sp., but the Aleyrodidae damage was increased per number of Cephalotes sp., totaling 23.81% of increase by insect damages on A. auriculiformis saplings. Here I show and test the % I.I.-PU. It is an new index that can detect the loss or solution sources on a system when production is unknown. It can be applied in some knowledge areas.


Resumo Índices são usados para ajudar na tomada de decisões. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver e testar um índice capaz de determinar fontes de perda (ex.: insetos herbívoros) e de solução (ex.: inimigos naturais). Eles serão classificados de acordo com sua importância quanto a habilidade de danificar ou reduzir danos no sistema, quando a produção final é desconhecida. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), uma espécie pioneira não nativa do Brasil com rápido crescimento e rusticidade, usada em programas de restauração, é adequada para avaliar um novo índice. A fórmula foi: Porcentagem de Índice de Importância-Produção Desconhecida (% I.I.-PD) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. As fontes de perda Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) e Tettigoniidae, e as fontes de solução Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae) e Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) apresentaram maiores % I.I.-PD nas folhas das mudas de A. auriculiformis. O número de Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) foi reduzido pelo número de Salticidae; o de A. reticulatum pelo de Uspachus sp.; e o de Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) pelo de P. termitarius em mudas de A. auriculiformis. Entretanto, o número de Aleyrodidae foi aumentado pelo número de Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) e o de A. reticulatum pelo de Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em mudas de A. auriculiformis. O dano de A. reticulatum foi reduzido pelo número de Uspachus sp., mas o dano de Aleyrodidae foi aumentado pelo número de Cephalotes sp., totalizando 23,81% de aumento de danos em mudas de A. auriculiformis. Aqui eu apresento e testo o % I.I.-PD. Ele é um novo índice capaz de detectar fontes de perda e de solução no sistema quando não se conhece a produção final. Ele pode ser aplicado em algumas áreas do conhecimento.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Besouros , Acacia , Hemípteros , Insetos
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 832: 155055, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395306

RESUMO

Public concern over environmental issues such as ecosystem degradation is high. However, restoring coupled human-natural systems requires integration across many science, technology, engineering, management, and governance topics that are presently fragmented. Here, we synthesized 544 peer-reviewed articles published through September 2020 on the desiccation and nascent recovery of Lake Urmia in northwest Iran. We answered nine questions of scientific and popular interest about causes, impacts, stabilization, recovery, and next steps. We find: (1) Expansion of irrigated agriculture, dam construction, and mismanagement impacted the lake more than temperature increases and precipitation decreases. (2) Aerosols from Lake Urmia's exposed lakebed are negatively impacting human health. (3) Researchers disagree on how a new causeway breach will impact salinity, evaporation, and ecosystems in the lake's north and south arms. (4) Most researchers tried to restore to a single, uniform, government specified lake level of 1274.1 m intended to recover Artemia. (5) The Iranian government motivated and funded a large and growing body of lake research. (6) Ecological and limnological studies mostly focused on salinity, Artemia, and Flamingos. (7) Few studies shared data, and only three studies reported engagement with stakeholders or managers. (8) Researchers focused on an integration pathway of climate downscaling, reservoirs, agricultural water releases, and lake level. (9) Numerous suggestions to improve farmer livelihoods and governance require implementation. We see an overarching next step for lake recovery is to couple human and natural system components. Examples include: (a) describe and monitor the system food webs, hydrologic, and human components; (b) adapt management to monitored conditions such as lake level, lake evaporation, lake salinity, and migratory bird populations; (c) improve livelihoods for poor, chronically stressed farmers beyond agriculture; (d) manage for diverse ecosystem services and lake levels; (e) engage all segments of society; (f) integrate across restoration topics while building capacity to share data, models, and code; and (g) cultivate longer-term two-way exchanges and public support. These restoration steps apply in different degrees to other Iranian ecosystems and lakes worldwide.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Lagos , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Abastecimento de Água
4.
Water Res ; 215: 118272, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298993

RESUMO

Water governing systems are twisted with complex interplays among levels and scales which embody their structures. Typically, the mismatch between human-generated and natural systems produces externalities and inefficiencies reflectable in spatial scales. The largely known problem of fit in water governance is investigated to detect the issues of fit between administrative/institutional scales and the hydrological one in a lake basin. To implement the idea, constraining the level of analysis interlinked to the concentrated levels of administration in spatial scales, the fit of the governing system was analyzed by means of statistical mechanics. Modeling the structure of water demand/supply governing system in a given region through the Curie-Weiss Mean Field approximation, the system cost in relation to its structure and fit was appraised and compared with two other conceptual structures in the Urmia Lake Basin in Iran. The methodology articulated an analysis framework for exploring the effectiveness of the formulated water demand/supply governing system and its fit to the relevant hydrological system. The findings of this study may help developing strategies to encourage adaptations, rescaling/reforms for effective watershed management.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Água , Água , Humanos , Hidrologia , Irã (Geográfico) , Lagos
5.
J Theor Biol ; 542: 111088, 2022 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35339514

RESUMO

Stochasticity is often associated with negative consequences for population dynamics since a population may die out due to random chance during periods when population size is very low (stochastic fade-out). Here we develop a coupled social-ecological model based on stochastic differential equations that includes natural expansion and harvesting of a forest ecosystem, and dynamics of conservation opinions, social norms and social learning in a human population. Our objective was to identify mechanisms that influence long-term persistence of the forest ecosystem in the presence of noise. We found that most of the model parameters had a significant influence on the time to extinction of the forest ecosystem. Increasing the social learning rate and the net benefits of conservation significantly increased the time to extinction, for instance. Most interestingly, we found a parameter regime where an increase in the amount of system stochasticity caused an increase in the mean time to extinction, instead of causing stochastic fade-out. This effect occurs for a subset of realizations, but the effect is large enough to increase the mean time to extinction across all realizations. Such "stochasticity-induced persistence" occurs when stochastic dynamics in the social system generates benefits in the forest system at crucial points in its temporal dynamics. We conclude that studying relatively simple social-ecological models has the benefit of facilitating characterization of dynamical states and thereby enabling us to formulate new hypothesis about mechanisms that could be operating in empirical social-ecological systems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Florestas , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Dinâmica Populacional , Processos Estocásticos
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(12): 4475-4487, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951289

RESUMO

Understanding the process of nitrogen flow, emission, and utilization in rural systems is of great importance to reduce pollutant emissions caused by agricultural activities and to promote the sustainable utilization of nutrient resources. Based on the NUFER (nutrient flow in food chain, environment and resources use) model and nitrogen footprint approach, we proposed a nitrogen accounting framework for municipal-scale rural systems, and conducted a quantitative and time series-based comparative study on nitrogen flow, recycling, and footprint from the perspective of three subsystems, namely planting, animal husbandry, and rural human settlement in Shenyang from 1998 to 2018. The results showed that: 1) nitrogen utilization rates of the planting subsystem, animal husbandry subsystem, and rural human settlement subsystem were 36.1%, 59.7%, and 70.1%, respectively in 2018, with a growth rate of 15.9%, 9.1%, and 0.7% respectively compared to 1998; 2) The total polluted nitrogen footprint in Shenyang grew rapidly from 1998 to 2014, but declined from 2014 to 2018. In 2018, the total footprint of nitrogen pollution was 123.5 Gg, increasing by 21.6% compared with 1998; 3) In 2018, the unused nitrogen in the planting subsystem, animal husbandry subsystem, and rural human settlement subsystem were 129.5, 62.2, and 8.7 Gg, respectively, which were equivalent to 420.4, 202.1, and 8.7 Gg of nutrient resources from nitrogen fertilizer, respectively. In general, the nitrogen use efficiency of rural system increased gradually from the production end to the consumption end, but the temporal and spatial variation of nitrogen in rural systems need further studies.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Nitrogênio , Animais , China , Fertilizantes , Humanos , População Rural
7.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112387, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770723

RESUMO

Forest ecosystem conservation practice frequently sacrifices human livelihood, since there exists a structural conflict between both aspects in the degraded forest ecosystem. To reconcile the conflict has been widely viewed as a core issue, in which the payment of ecosystem service (PES) may play a critical role in solving this issue. In order to better understand the practical effectiveness of PES and explore the solution to reconcile the contradiction between conservation and livelihood, we investigated the decadal changes in the Sloping Land Conversion Program as a PES strategy in the Qilian Mountains, a degraded forest ecosystem of northwest China, and its effects on natural and social systems across the 10-year implementation period (2001-2011). The regional NDVI of study site was promoted from 46.24% to 61.28%, showing that vegetation cover had a massive increase during the whole implementation period. Also, the PES strategy had impelled more labor forces as migrant workers into the non-agricultural industries or urban areas. The migration dynamics in three industries demonstrated that the population of primary industry followed a gradually declining trend, and its percentage in total population was lowered from 33.44% to 19.82%. According to our household survey, local farmers reduced the economic investment in agriculture, and this enabled more labor forces to be released from agricultural industry. Interestingly, the attitudes towards the PES program for local inhabitants were gradually shifted from negative at initial stage to acceptable at middle stage, and finally to positive at late stage, as a consequence of PES application. In such case, the PES-led vegetation restoration strategy has been effectively implemented, which can reconcile the contradiction between conservation and livelihood, and ultimately achieve a win-win consequence. Our study provided a successful practical paradigm of coupled human and natural system (CHANS) in forest ecosystem restoration.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Agricultura , China , Emprego , Florestas , Humanos
8.
J Hist Biol ; 54(4): 639-687, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066724

RESUMO

The two great modern naturalists, Linnaeus and Darwin, expressed their intuition about how best to visualize patterns of affinities, that is, morphological similarities and divergences between taxa. Linnaeus suggested that "all plants show affinities on all sides, like a territory on a geographical map," while Darwin thought that it was virtually impossible to understand the affinities between living and extinct species without a genealogical tree. Genealogical trees follow the diachronic, evolving logic of a timeline, whereas maps depict a synchronous pattern of extant taxa. Although the two seem unrelated, various naturalists made attempts to combine them. Surprisingly, these resulted in three-dimensional images that, in order to be observed, had to be projected on paper. The naturalists Max Fürbringer and Richard Bowdler Sharpe were aware of this fact, but even Darwin himself twice combined the basic intuitions underlying the two modes of representation to produce three-dimensional images. This article is a brief history of the efforts to merge genealogical trees and map-like cross sections of affinities into one three-dimensional image.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Filogenia
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(52): 33170-33176, 2020 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376216

RESUMO

Sustainable development (SD) policies targeting marine economic sectors, designed to alleviate poverty and conserve marine ecosystems, have proliferated in recent years. Many developing countries are providing poor fishing households with new fishing boats (fishing capital) that can be used further offshore as a means to improve incomes and relieve fishing pressure on nearshore fish stocks. These kinds of policies are a marine variant of traditional SD policies focused on agriculture. Here, we evaluate ex ante economic and environmental impacts of provisions of fishing and agricultural capital, with and without enforcement of fishing regulations that prohibit the use of larger vessels in nearshore habitats. Combining methods from development economics, natural resource economics, and marine ecology, we use a unique dataset and modeling framework to account for linkages between households, business sectors, markets, and local fish stocks. We show that the policies investing capital in local marine fisheries or agricultural sectors achieve income gains for targeted households, but knock-on effects lead to increased harvest of nearshore fish, making them unlikely to achieve conservation objectives in rural coastal economies. However, pairing an agriculture stimulus with increasing enforcement of existing fisheries' regulations may lead to a win-win situation. While marine-based policies could be an important tool to achieve two of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (alleviate poverty and protect vulnerable marine resources), their success is by no means assured and requires consideration of land and marine socioeconomic linkages inherent in rural economies.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 727: 138364, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334205

RESUMO

Resettlement of local people from protected areas (PAs) has been regarded as a preferred method to alleviate human disturbance and environmental pressure. Lack of knowledge about local communities' perceptions of resettlement, however, can lead to failed relocation projects and negative impacts on environmental sustainability and livelihoods. To better understand local communities' perception of relocation in PAs, we examine factors that affect local communities' willingness to relocate in Dashanbao Protected Area (DPA), an important location for conservation of the rare Black-necked Crane and the subject of a large-scale relocation policy in China. We surveyed 512 households in DPA and used multiple logistic regression to identify which factors predict local communities' willingness to relocate. Then, we examined how local communities' opinions of different payment for environmental services programs (PES) impacted their willingness to relocate. The results indicated that participation in a PES program for wetland conservation significantly decreases willingness, while distance from scenic spots and roads increases willingness. Furthermore, participants in the PES program for wetlands had a greater positive perception of the benefits from the DPA. Concern about a sustainable livelihood and loss of a sense of belonging represent the two main categories or 'clusters' of reasons explaining unwillingness to relocate. Our results suggest that prior experience with PES programs influences attitudes about relocation, and that integrating the perception of local communities into policy is important to the success of conservation programs relying on relocation. Managers and decision-makers could usefully consider the coupled relationships between sustainable livelihood strategies such as PES, attitudes toward relocation, and conservation benefits when working with communities in PAs toward enhanced livelihoods and conservation.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Áreas Alagadas , Atitude , China , Humanos , Políticas
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 419, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177337

RESUMO

Certain five heavy metals viz. arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr)(VI), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) are non-threshold toxins and can exert toxic effects at very low concentrations. These heavy metals are known as most problematic heavy metals and as toxic heavy metals (THMs). Several industrial activities and some natural processes are responsible for their high contamination in the environment. In recent years, high concentrations of heavy metals in different natural systems including atmosphere, pedosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere have become a global issue. These THMs have severe deteriorating effects on various microorganisms, plants, and animals. Human exposure to the THMs may evoke serious health injuries and impairments in the body, and even certain extremities can cause death. In all these perspectives, this review provides a comprehensive account of the relative impact of the THMs As, Cd, Cr(VI), Hg, and Pb on our total environment.


Assuntos
Arsênio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Cromo/análise , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Mercúrio/análise
12.
Ecology ; 100(6): e02711, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927267

RESUMO

Understanding how metapopulations persist in dynamic working landscapes requires assessing the behaviors of key actors that change patches as well as intrinsic factors driving turnover. Coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) research uses a multidisciplinary approach to identify the key actors, processes, and feedbacks that drive metapopulation and landscape dynamics. We describe a framework for modeling metapopulations in CHANS that integrates ecological and social data by coupling stochastic patch occupancy models of metapopulation dynamics with agent-based models of land-use change. We then apply this framework to metapopulations of the threatened black rail (Laterallus jamaicensis) and widespread Virginia rail (Rallus limicola) that inhabit patchy, irrigation-fed wetlands in the rangelands of the California Sierra Nevada foothills. We collected data from five diverse sources (rail occupancy surveys, land-use change mapping, a survey of landowner decision making, climate and reservoir databases, and mosquito trapping and West Nile virus testing) and integrated them into an agent-based stochastic patch occupancy model. We used the model to (1) quantify the drivers of metapopulation dynamics, and the potential interactions and feedbacks among them; (2) test predictions of the behavior of metapopulations in dynamic working landscapes; and (3) evaluate the impact of three policy options on metapopulation persistence (irrigation district water cutbacks during drought, incentives for landowners to create wetlands, and incentives for landowners to protect wetlands). Complex metapopulation dynamics emerged when landscapes functioned as CHANS, highlighting the importance of integrating human activities and other ecological processes into metapopulation models. Rail metapopulations were strongly top-down regulated by precipitation, and the black rail's decade-long decline was caused by the combination of West Nile virus and drought. Theoretical predictions of the two metapopulations' responses to dynamic landscapes and incentive programs were complicated by heterogeneity in patch quality and CHANS couplings, respectively. Irrigation cutbacks during drought posed a serious extinction risk that neither incentive policy effectively ameliorated.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Aves , California , Ecossistema , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 656: 458-467, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522028

RESUMO

Considering the growing recognition that human activity and climate variability are critical stressors influencing river regimes, there is an urgent need to identify the contribution of these fundamental factors. Here we examine the runoff changes of a wastewater-effluent dominated river flowing in a heavily modified urban environment. The study concerns the Utrata River basin (727 km2), central Poland, a challenging human-natural system for investigating changes in hydrological processes. The new insights into the present-day functioning of a system are provided through the quantification of runoff changes resulting from the following factors operating simultaneously: climate, wastewater, and urbanization. We adopted and applied the water balance and elasticity-based methods to assess the contribution of particular factors. Climatic data were provided by the gridded observational dataset, while runoff comes from observed daily streamflow values at the stream gauging station. Satellite-derived estimates of evapotranspiration acquired from Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) were assimilated into the conceptual framework to provide a robust representation of the system. To determine the changes in urban water budget components, two distinct periods were determined: the baseline period (1951-1960), with a relatively low level of urbanization (9.8%), and the change period (2007-2016), with controlled wastewater inflow and urbanization reaching almost 20%. The results show that in the change period, the mean annual runoff increment attributed to climate variability amounted to 68 mm; the contribution of wastewater inflow - 36 mm; and the contribution attributed to urban-induced changes - -43 mm. Thus, the relative contributions of human activity and climate were estimated as 54% and 46%, respectively. The results demonstrate that in a heavily modified environment, the hydrological effects of human activity can exceed those caused by climate variability. Moreover, wastewater inflow and climate impact can mask decreases in the streamflow induced by urban land fragmentation and land management practices.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(45): 11884-11889, 2017 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29078299

RESUMO

Water scarcity afflicts societies worldwide. Anticipating water shortages is vital because of water's indispensable role in social-ecological systems. But the challenge is daunting due to heterogeneity, feedbacks, and water's spatial-temporal sequencing throughout such systems. Regional system models with sufficient detail can help address this challenge. In our study, a detailed coupled human-natural system model of one such region identifies how climate change and socioeconomic growth will alter the availability and use of water in coming decades. Results demonstrate how water scarcity varies greatly across small distances and brief time periods, even in basins where water may be relatively abundant overall. Some of these results were unexpected and may appear counterintuitive to some observers. Key determinants of water scarcity are found to be the cost of transporting and storing water, society's institutions that circumscribe human choices, and the opportunity cost of water when alternative uses compete.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribuição , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Florestas , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Água
15.
Semina Ci. agr. ; 35(1): 541-554, Jan.-Feb.2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-26098

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity and the paternity of Brycon orbignyanus offsprings obtained with the extrusion and semi-natural reproductive systems, by microsatellites markers. The four loci used produced 11 alleles, being observed three alleles (BoM1, BoM5 and BoM7) and two alleles (BoM2) for locus present in the parental and in the offspring of both reproductive systems. In the offspring of the extrusion system low frequency alleles was observed for the locus BoM5 (allele B = 0.095) and BoM7 (allele C = 0.059) and there was a decrease of genetic variability (observe heterozygosity-Ho = 0.900 and 0.823; Shannon index-IS = 0.937 and 0.886; Nei genetic diversity-DGN = 0.604 and 0.566, respectively). For the offspring of the semi-natural system the allele frequencies stayed stable being verified an unequal frequency for each locus. The genetic variability in the offspring was preserved, being corroborated by the Ho values (0.975 and 0.945), IS (0.927 and 0.924) and DGN (0.593 and 0.581) for parental and offspring, respectively. Deviations were observed (P 0.01) in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium for the two reproductive systems. The inbreeding coefficient (Fis) it showed deficit of heterozygote in the offspring of the extrusion system. Multiple paternity and differed reproductive contributions in the composition of the families in the offspring in the two reproductive systems was observed, with the presence of reproductive dominance in the semi-natural system.(AU)


O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a diversidade genética e a paternidade de progênies de Brycon orbignyanus obtidas pelos sistemas reprodutivos por extrusão e seminatural, através do marcador microssatélite. Os quatro loci utilizados produziram 11 alelos, sendo observados três alelos (BoM1, BoM5 e BoM7) e dois alelos (BoM2) por locus presentes nos parentais e na progênie de ambos sistemas reprodutivos. Na progênie do sistema por extrusão foram observados alelos de baixa frequência para os locus BoM5 (alelo B = 0,095) e BoM7 (alelo C = 0,059) e houve uma diminuição da variabilidade genética (Heterozigosidade observada-Ho = 0,900 e 0,823; Índice de Shannon-IS = 0,937 e 0,886; diversidade genética de Nei-DGN = 0,604 e 0,566, respectivamente). Na progênie do sistema seminatural as frequências dos alelos se mantiveram estáveis, sendo verificada uma frequência desigual para cada locus. A variabilidade genética foi preservada, sendo corroborado pelos valores de Ho (0,975 e 0,945), IS (0,927 e 0,924) e DGN (0,593 e 0,581) para parentais e progênie, respectivamente. Observaram-se desvios (P 0.01) no equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg e desequilíbrio de ligação nos dois sistemas reprodutivos. O coeficiente de endogamia (Fis) mostrou déficit de heterozigotos na progênie do sistema por extrusão. Observou-se paternidade múltipla e contribuição reprodutiva diferenciada na composição das famílias na progênie nos dois sistemas reprodutivos, com a presença de dominância reprodutiva no sistema seminatural.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Characidae , Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Técnicas Reprodutivas
16.
Neotrop. entomol ; 38(6): 834-841, Nov.-Dec. 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-537408

RESUMO

The population of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha was studied in sweet citrus groves (Citrus sinensis), coffee plantations (Coffea arabica) and a semi-deciduous seasonal forest with shrub physiognomy in Bebedouro, SP, to evaluate the influence of the natural ecosystem on the species composition of the agroecosystems. Monitoring was carried out by using yellow stick cards, which were replaced every 15 days and all Auchenorrhyncha collected were counted and identified. Seven families, 11 subfamilies and 98 species were collected, with Cicadellidae being the most abundant. The native forest presented larger wealth, diversity and equitability of Auchenorrhyncha species, demonstrating to be more stable than the other habitats. The high values of similarities obtained between the agroecosystems and the forest demonstrated that great part of Auchenorrhyncha species occurring in the agricultural habitats was also occurring at the forest, indicating that the last may serve as reservoir of species. The abundance of the taxonomic groups of Auchenorrhyncha collected varied with the evaluated habitats, with Proconiini being the most abundant in the coffee plantation next to the forest, Athysanini, Scaphytopiini, Neocoelidiinae and Coelidiinae in the orange orchard and coffee plantation distant from the forest; Cicadellinae and Agalliinae were not related to any of the habitats. The presence of vector insects and possible vectors of plant diseases in the appraised habitats indicate the need of the implementation of strategies for landscape management.


A população de Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha foi estudada em pomares de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis), cafezais (Coffea arabica) e floresta estacional semidecidual com fisionomia arbustiva, em Bebedouro (SP), com o objetivo de avaliar a influencia do ecossistema natural na composição de espécies do agroecossistemas. O monitoramento foi feito com cartões adesivos amarelos, os quais foram trocados a cada 15 dias, efetuando-se a contagem e identificação dos Auchenorrhyncha coletados. Capturou-se o total de sete famílias, 11 subfamílias e 98 espécies, sendo Cicadellidae o grupo mais abundante. A floresta nativa apresentou a maior riqueza, diversidade e equitabilidade de espécies de Auchenorrhyncha, demonstrando ser mais estável que os demais habitats. Os altos valores de similaridades obtidos entre os agroecossistemas e a floresta demonstram que grande parte das espécies de cigarrinhas que está ocorrendo nos habitats agrícolas também está ocorrendo na floresta, indicando que esta pode estar funcionando como reservatório de espécies. A abundância de grupos taxonômicos de Auchenorrhyncha coletados variou nos habitats avaliados, sendo Proconiini o mais abundante no cafezal próximo à floresta, Athysanini, Scaphytopiini, Neocoelidiinae e Coelidiinae no pomar de laranja e cafezal distante da floresta; Cicadellinae e Agalliinae não se relacionaram a nenhum dos habitats. A presença de insetos vetores e possíveis vetores de doenças de plantas cultivadas nos habitats avaliados indicam a necessidade da implantação do manejo de pragas nessa área.


Assuntos
Animais , Citrus/parasitologia , Coffea/parasitologia , Hemípteros/classificação , Árvores/parasitologia , Brasil
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