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1.
J Orthop Translat ; 38: 23-31, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36313979

RESUMO

Background: Geniposidic acid (GPA), one of the active components of Eucommia ulmoides, promote bone formation and treat osteoporosis by activating farnesoid X receptor (FXR). However, GPA has low oral availability and lack of bone targeting in the treatment of bone related diseases. With the development of modern technology, small molecules, amino acids, or aptamers are used for biological modification of drugs and target cells in bone tissue, which has become the trend of bone targeted research. Methods: In this study, SDSSD (an osteoblast-targeting peptide) were modified in GPA using Fmoc solid-phase synthesis technique to form a new SDSSD-GPA conjugate (SGPA). The bone targeting of SGPA was evaluated using in vivo imaging and cell co-culture. In vitro, the effect of SGPA on cytotoxicity, osteoblastic activity, and mineralization ability were studied in mouse primary osteoblasts (OBs). In vivo, the therapeutic effect of SGPA on osteoporosis using an ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model. The bone mass, histomorphometry, serum biochemical parameters, and the molecular mechanism were evaluated. Results: SGPA was enriched in OBs and tends to accumulate in bone tissue. In vitro, SGPA significantly enhanced the osteogenic activity and mineralization of OBs compared with GPA. In vivo, SGPA enhanced serum BALP and P1NP levels, increased the trabecular bone mass of the mice, and SGPA administration have a higher bone mineralization deposition rate than the GPA-treated mice. Moreover, SGPA significantly activated FXR and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2). Conclusions: Collectively, SGPA is enriched into OBs, and promotes bone formation by activating FXR-RUNX2 signalling, effectively treating osteoporosis at relatively low doses. The translational potential of this article: This study demonstrates a more efficient and safe application of GPA in treating osteoporosis, provide a new concept for the bone targeted application of natural compounds.

2.
Br J Haematol ; 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36354085

RESUMO

While the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment is significantly remodelled in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), molecular insight into AML-specific alterations in the microenvironment has been historically limited by the analysis of liquid marrow aspirates rather than core biopsies that contain solid-phase BM stroma. We assessed the effect of anthracycline- and cytarabine-based induction chemotherapy on both haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic cells directly in core BM biopsies using RNA-seq and histological analysis. We compared matched human core BM biopsies at diagnosis and 2 weeks after cytarabine- and anthracycline-based induction therapy in responders (<5% blasts present after treatment) and non-responders (≥5% blasts present after treatment). Our data indicated enrichment in vimentin (VIM), platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) and Snail family transcriptional repressor 2 (SNAI2) transcripts in responders, consistent with the reactivation of the mesenchymal population in the BM stroma. Enrichment of osteoblast maturation-related transcripts of biglycan (BGN), osteopontin (SPP1) and osteonectin (SPARC) was observed in non-responders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating distinct osteogenic and mesenchymal transcriptome profiles specific to AML response to induction chemotherapy assessed directly in core BM biopsies. Detailing treatment response-specific alterations in the BM stroma may inform optimised therapeutic strategies for AML.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348261

RESUMO

Blood vessel formation is the prerequisite for the survival and growth of tissue-engineered bone. Mineralized osteoblasts (MOBs) have been shown to regulate angiogenesis through the secretion of exosomes containing various pro-angiogenic factors. However, whether the mineralized osteoblast-derived exosomes (MOB-Exos) containing let-7f-5p can regulate the angiogenesis of endothelial cells (ECs) is still unknown. In this study, the angiogenic capabilities of ECs respectively treated with MOB-Exos, let-7f-5p mimicked MOB-Exos (miR mimic group), and let-7f-5p inhibited MOB-Exos (miR inhibitor group) were compared through in vitro and in vivo studies. Moreover, the potential mechanism of MOB-Exo let-7f-5p regulating angiogenesis was explored by verifying the role of the Erk1/2 signaling pathway and target gene DUSP1. The results showed that MOB-Exos could significantly promote the angiogenesis of ECs, which could be enhanced by mimicked exosomal let-7f-5p and attenuated by inhibited exosomal let-7f-5p. Let-7f-5p could suppress the luciferase activity of wide-type DUSP1, and the mutation of DUSP1 could abrogate the repressive ability of let-7f-5p. Furthermore, the expression of DUSP1 exhibited a reversed trend to that of pErk1/2. The expression of pErk1/2 was significantly higher in the miR mimic group and lower in the miR inhibitor group than that in the MOB-Exos group, while inhibition of pErk1/2 could partly impair the angiogenic capabilities of ECs. In conclusion, we concluded that exosomal let-7f-5p derived from MOBs could promote the angiogenesis of ECs via activating the DUSP1/Erk1/2 signaling pathway, which might be a promising target for promoting the angiogenesis of tissue-engineered bone.

4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36427609

RESUMO

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the expression of bone remodeling genes by enhancing the activity of Runx2 in osteoblasts. p300, a histone acetyltransferase, acetylated Runx2 to activate the expression of its target genes. PTH stimulated the expression of p300 in rat osteoblastic cells. Increasing studies suggested the potential of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs), in regulating gene expression under both physiological and pathological conditions. In this study, we hypothesized that PTH regulates Runx2 activity via ncRNAs-mediated p300 expression in rat osteoblastic cells. Bioinformatics and experimental approaches identified PTH-upregulation of miR-130b-5p and circ_CUX1 that putatively target p300 and miR-130b-5p, respectively. An antisense-mediated knockdown of circ_CUX1 was performed to determine the sponging activity of circ_CUX1. Knockdown of circ_CUX1 promoted miR-130b-5p activity and reduced p300 expression, resulting in decreased Runx2 acetylation in rat osteoblastic cells. Further, bioinformatics analysis identified the possible signaling pathways that regulate Runx2 activity and osteoblast differentiation via circ_CUX1/miR-130b-5p/p300 axis. The predicted circ_CUX1/miR-130b-5p/p300 axis might pave the way for better diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for bone-related diseases.

5.
JBMR Plus ; 6(11): e10689, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36398107

RESUMO

Bone nodule formation by differentiating osteoblasts is considered an in vitro model that mimics bone modeling. However, the details of osteoblast behavior and matrix production during bone nodule formation are poorly understood. Here, we present a spatiotemporal analysis system for evaluating osteoblast morphology and matrix production during bone modeling in vitro via two-photon microscopy. Using this system, a change in osteoblast morphology from cuboidal to flat was observed during the formation of mineralized nodules, and this change was quantified. Areas with high bone formation were densely populated with cuboidal osteoblasts, which were characterized by blebs, protruding structures on their cell membranes. Cuboidal osteoblasts with blebs were highly mobile, and osteoblast blebs exhibited a polar distribution. Furthermore, mimicking romosozumab treatment, when differentiated flattened osteoblasts were stimulated with BIO, a GSK3ß inhibitor, they were reactivated to acquire a cuboidal morphology with blebs on their membranes and produced more matrix than nonstimulated cells. Our analysis system is a powerful tool for evaluating the cell morphology and function of osteoblasts during bone modeling. © 2022 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

6.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 16: 3929-3946, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411860

RESUMO

Purpose: Long-term glucocorticoid- usage can lead to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP). The study focused on the preventative effects of a novel active vitamin D3 analog, eldecalcitol (ED-71), against GIOP and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods: Intraperitoneal injection of methylprednisolone (MPED) or dexamethasone (DEX) induced the GIOP model within C57BL/6 mice in vivo. Simultaneously, ED-71 was orally supplemented. Bone histological alterations, microstructure parameters, novel bone formation rates, and osteogenic factor changes were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, micro-computed tomography, calcein/tetracycline labeling, and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The osteogenic differentiation level and mineralization in pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells were evaluated in vitro using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, alizarin red (AR) staining, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Results: ED-71 partially prevented bone mass reduction and microstructure parameter alterations among GIOP-induced mice. Moreover, ED-71 also promoted new bone formation and osteoblast activity while inhibiting osteoclasts. In vitro, ED-71 promoted osteogenic differentiation and mineralization in DEX-treated MC3T3-E1 cells and boosted the levels of osteogenic-related factors. Additionally, GSK3-ß and ß-catenin expression levels were elevated after ED-71 was added to cells and were accompanied by reduced Notch expression. The Wnt signaling inhibitor XAV939 and Notch overexpression reversed the ED-71 promotional effects toward osteogenic differentiation and mineralization. Conclusion: ED-71 prevented GIOP by enhancing osteogenic differentiation through Notch and Wnt/GSK-3ß/ß-catenin signaling. The results provide a novel translational direction for the clinical application of ED-71 against GIOP.


Assuntos
Osteogênese , Osteoporose , Camundongos , Animais , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/farmacologia , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/uso terapêutico , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Osteoblastos
7.
J Dent Res ; : 220345221126716, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377066

RESUMO

Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein associated with mineralized tissues, particularly bone and cementum. BSP includes functional domains implicated in collagen binding, hydroxyapatite nucleation, and cell signaling, although its function(s) in osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function remain incompletely understood. Genetic ablation of BSP in Ibsp knockout (Ibsp-/-) mice results in developmental bone mineralization and remodeling defects, with alveolar bone more severely affected than the femurs and tibias of the postcranial skeleton. The role of BSP in alveolar bone healing has not been studied. We hypothesized that BSP ablation would cause defective alveolar bone healing. We employed a maxillary first molar extraction socket healing model in 42-d postnatalIbsp-/- and wild-type (WT) control mice. Tissues were collected at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 56 d postprocedure (dpp) for analysis by micro-computed tomography (microCT), histology, in situ hybridization (ISH), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) array. As expected, alveolar bone healing progressed in WT mice with increasing bone volume fraction (BV/TV), bone mineral density (BMD), and tissue mineral density (TMD), transitioning from woven to mature bone from 7 to 56 dpp. Ibsp messenger RNA (mRNA) and BSP protein were strongly expressed during alveolar bone healing in parallel with other osteogenic markers. Compared to WT, Ibsp-/- mice exhibited 50% to 70% reduced BV/TV and BMD at all time points, 7% reduced TMD at 21 dpp, abnormally increased Col1a1 and Alpl mRNA expression, and persistent presence of woven bone and increased bone marrow in healing sockets. qPCR revealed substantially dysregulated gene expression in alveolar bone of Ibsp-/- versus WT mice, with significantly disrupted expression of 45% of tested genes in functional groups, including markers for osteoblasts, osteoclasts, mineralization, ECM, cell signaling, and inflammation. We conclude that BSP is a critical and nonredundant factor for alveolar bone healing, and its absence disrupts multiple major pathways involved in appropriate healing.

8.
J Orthop Sci ; 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrawound vancomycin powder is effective in preventing surgical site infection after spine surgery. In a previous study, vancomycin-induced cytotoxicity in osteoblasts was investigated in vitro, and vitamin D3 was verified to be a candidate drug aiding recovery from vancomycin-induced cytotoxicity. The treatment practices involving osteogenesis-promoting drugs vary widely. Teriparatide, an anabolic agent, highly promotes bone formation by inducing osteoblast activation, increasing bone formation and mineral density, and preventing vertebral fractures. Hence, teriparatide may be administered in combination with vancomycin. METHODS: MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured in minimum essential medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 37 °C in a humidified incubator containing 5% CO2. The experimental concentrations of vancomycin (2500, 5000, and 7500 µg/mL) were determined based on previous reports and our preliminary experiments. Teriparatide (100 ng/mL) was administered concomitantly to prevent cytotoxicity in osteoblasts, using pulsed vancomycin for 24 h (measured at 1, 3, and 7 days). Cell numbers and morphological changes in cells treated with vancomycin or vancomycin plus 100 ng/mL teriparatide were measured. Osteoblast differentiation was assessed using alkaline phosphatase staining, alkaline phosphatase activity, and alizarin red S staining. RESULTS: Teriparatide showed a recovery effect when vancomycin (7500 µg/mL) was administered only for 24 h. Microscopic examination revealed that teriparatide had a protective effect on osteoblasts exposed to 7500 µg/mL vancomycin. Addition of teriparatide led to the recovery of alkaline phosphatase staining and alizarin red staining. CONCLUSION: Vancomycin-induced cytotoxicity in osteoblasts could be inhibited by administering teriparatide concomitantly with vancomycin.

9.
Cells ; 11(21)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36359752

RESUMO

The culture of osteoblasts (OB) of human origin is a useful experimental model in studying bone biology, osteogenic differentiation, functions of bone proteins, oncological processes in bone tissue, testing drugs against bone desires, and many other fields. The purpose of the present study is to share a workflow that has established the conditions to efficiently isolate and grow OB cells obtained from surgically removed bones from human donors. The protocol described here also shows how to determine cell phenotype. Here we provide characteristics of cells isolated by this protocol that might help researchers to decide if such OB are suitable for the purposes of their study. Osteoblasts isolated from collagenase-treated explants of adult bones are able to proliferate and keep their phenotype in culture. OB cells have high synthetic properties. They express osteomarkers, such as RUNX2, osteocalcin, BMP2, and osteopontin both in control conditions and in an osteogenic medium that could be estimated by qPCR and immunocytochemical staining and by Western blotting. Induction of osteogenic differentiation does not dramatically influence the synthetic properties of OB cells, while the cells gain the ability to extracellular mineralization only in an osteogenic medium.


Assuntos
Osteoblastos , Osteogênese , Humanos , Osteogênese/genética , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362346

RESUMO

Suffruticosol B (Suf-B) is a stilbene found in Paeonia suffruticosa ANDR., which has been traditionally used in medicine. Stilbenes and their derivatives possess various pharmacological effects, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-osteoporotic activities. This study aimed to explore the bone-forming activities and mechanisms of Suf-B in pre-osteoblasts. Herein, >99.9% pure Suf-B was isolated from P. suffruticosa methanolic extracts. High concentrations of Suf-B were cytotoxic, whereas low concentrations did not affect cytotoxicity in pre-osteoblasts. Under zero levels of cytotoxicity, Suf-B exhibited bone-forming abilities by enhancing alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities, bone matrix calcification, and expression levels with non-collagenous proteins. Suf-B induces intracellular signal transduction, leading to nuclear RUNX2 expression. Suf-B-stimulated differentiation showed increases in autophagy proteins and autophagosomes, as well as enhancement of osteoblast adhesion and transmigration on the ECM. These results indicate that Suf-B has osteogenic qualities related to differentiation, autophagy, adhesion, and migration. This also suggests that Suf-B could have a therapeutic effect as a phytomedicine in skeletal disorders.


Assuntos
Paeonia , Estilbenos , Osteogênese , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Autofagia , Paeonia/metabolismo , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular
11.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(21)2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36363140

RESUMO

The current study aimed to assess the topographical and physical properties of a minimally invasive implant (MagiCore®: MC®, InnosBioSurg, IBS) and to evaluate its biological behavior compared to a gold standard implant (NobelParallel™: NB™, Nobel Biocare™). After surface characterization, the biological behavior assessment was conducted regarding human gingival fibroblasts (hGF) and osteoblast-like cells (MG63). Roughness values for NBTM were Ra = 1.28 µm and for MC® they were Ra = 2.02 µm. Alamar BlueTM assay LIVE/DEADTM staining results indicated equivalent biological development regarding both cell types for the two implants. Significant enhancement was found for hGF ALP activity in the presence of the two tested implants in a time-dependent manner from day 7 to day 14 (** p < 0.01). Alizarin red staining demonstrated significant calcium deposition enhancement when cells were interfaced with the NB™ compared to the MC® implant (** p < 0.05). Moreover, SEM and confocal imaging revealed good cell adhesion with a denser cellular layer on the MC® than the NB™ surface. The MC® cytocompatibility was ranked as equivalent to the gold standard implant despite the surface properties differences. These findings provide new insights about the minimally invasive implant's biological behavior and its potential clinical implication in different implantology situations.

12.
Nutrients ; 14(22)2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is caused by the deterioration of bone density and microstructure, resulting in increased fracture risk. It transpires due to an imbalanced skeletal remodelling process favouring bone resorption. Various natural compounds can positively influence the skeletal remodelling process, of which naringenin is a candidate. Naringenin is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound found in citrus fruits and grapefruit. This systematic review aims to present an overview of the available evidence on the skeletal protective effects of naringenin. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed and Scopus databases in August 2022. Original research articles using cells, animals, or humans to investigate the bone protective effects of naringenin were included. RESULTS: Sixteen eligible articles were included in this review. The existing evidence suggested that naringenin enhanced osteoblastogenesis and bone formation through BMP-2/p38MAPK/Runx2/Osx, SDF-1/CXCR4, and PI3K/Akt/c-Fos/c-Jun/AP-1 signalling pathways. Naringenin also inhibited osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption by inhibiting inflammation and the RANKL pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Naringenin enhances bone formation while suppressing bone resorption, thus achieving its skeletal protective effects. It could be incorporated into the diet through fruit intake or supplements to prevent bone loss.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Flavanonas , Humanos , Animais , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Osteogênese
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430775

RESUMO

Bone responses to pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have been extensively studied by using devices that expose bone cells to PEMFs to stimulate extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis for bone and cartilage repair. The aim of this work was to highlight in which bone healing phase PEMFs exert their action. Specifically, we evaluated the effects of PEMFs both on human adipose mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) and on primary human osteoblasts (hOBs) by testing gene and protein expression of early bone markers (on hASCs) and the synthesis of late bone-specific proteins (on hOBs) as markers of bone remodeling. Our results indicate that PEMFs seem to exert their action on bone formation, acting on osteogenic precursors (hASCs) and inducing the commitment towards the differentiation pathways, unlike mature and terminally differentiated cells (hOBs), which are known to resist homeostasis perturbation more and seem to be much less responsive than mesenchymal stem cells. Understanding the role of PEMFs on bone regenerative processes provides important details for their clinical application.


Assuntos
Campos Eletromagnéticos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Humanos , Osteogênese/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Osteoblastos/metabolismo
14.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(22)2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36433040

RESUMO

Grafting polyethylene glycol (PEG) onto a polymer's surface is widely used to improve biocompatibility by reducing protein and cell adhesion. Although PEG is considered to be bioinert, its incorporation onto biomaterials has shown to improve cell viability depending on the amount and molecular weight (MW) used. This phenomenon was studied here by grafting PEG of three MW onto polyurethane (PU) substrata at three molar concentrations to assess their effect on PU surface properties and on the viability of osteoblasts and fibroblasts. PEG formed a covering on the substrata which increased the hydrophilicity and surface energy of PUs. Among the results, it was observed that osteoblast viability increased for all MW and grafting densities of PEG employed compared with unmodified PU. However, fibroblast viability only increased at certain combinations of MW and grafting densities of PEG, suggesting an optimal level of these parameters. PEG grafting also promoted a more spread cell morphology than that exhibited by unmodified PU; nevertheless, cells became apoptotic-like as PEG MW and grafting density were increased. These effects on cells could be due to PEG affecting culture medium pH, which became more alkaline at higher MW and concentrations of PEG. Results support the hypothesis that surface energy of PU substrates can be tuned by controlling the MW and grafting density of PEG, but these parameters should be optimized to promote cell viability without inducing apoptotic-like behavior.

15.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371651

RESUMO

We previously showed that the NO/cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway positively regulates osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and survival in vitro, and that cGMP-elevating agents have bone-anabolic effects in mice. Here, we generated mice with an osteoblast-specific (OB) knockout (KO) of type 2 PKG (gene name Prkg2) using a Col1a1(2.3 kb)-Cre driver. Compared to wild type (WT) littermates, 8-week-old male OB Prkg2-KO mice had fewer osteoblasts, reduced bone formation rates, and lower trabecular and cortical bone volumes. Female OB Prkg2-KO littermates showed no bone abnormalities, despite the same degree of PKG2 deficiency in bone. Expression of osteoblast differentiation- and Wnt/ß-catenin-related genes was lower in primary osteoblasts and bones of male KO but not female KO mice compared to WT littermates. Osteoclast parameters were unaffected in both sexes. Since PKG2 is part of a mechano-sensitive complex in osteoblast membranes, we examined its role during mechanical loading. Cyclical compression of the tibia increased cortical thickness and induced mechanosensitive and Wnt/ß-catenin-related genes to a similar extent in male and female WT mice and female OB Prkg2-KO mice, but loading had a minimal effect in male KO mice. We conclude that PKG2 drives bone acquisition and adaptation to mechanical loading via the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway in male mice. The striking sexual dimorphism of OB Prkg2-KO mice suggests that current U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved cGMP-elevating agents may represent novel effective treatment options for male osteoporosis. © 2022 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

16.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 193(Pt 2): 595-609, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372285

RESUMO

NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is the main source of reactive oxygen species, which promote osteoclast formation and lead to bone loss, thereby causing osteoporosis. However, the role of Nox4 in osteoblasts during early development remains unclear. We used zebrafish to study the effect of Nox4 deletion on bone mineralization in early development. nox4-/- zebrafish showed decreased bone mineralization during early development and significantly reduced numbers of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and chondrocytes. Transcriptome sequencing showed that the TGF-ß signaling pathway was significantly disrupted in nox4-/- zebrafish. Inhibiting TGF-ß signaling rescued the abnormal bone development caused by nox4 deletion and increased the number of osteoblasts. We used Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells to confirm our results, which clarified the role of Nox4 in human osteoblasts. Our results demonstrate the mechanism of reduced bone mineralization in early development and provide a basis for the clinical treatment of osteoporosis.

17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(45): e2212178119, 2022 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322718

RESUMO

Citrate is a critical metabolic substrate and key regulator of energy metabolism in mammalian cells. It has been known for decades that the skeleton contains most (>85%) of the body's citrate, but the question of why and how this metabolite should be partitioned in bone has received singularly little attention. Here, we show that osteoblasts use a specialized metabolic pathway to regulate uptake, endogenous production, and the deposition of citrate into bone. Osteoblasts express high levels of the membranous Na+-dependent citrate transporter solute carrier family 13 member 5 (Slc13a5) gene. Inhibition or genetic disruption of Slc13a5 reduced osteogenic citrate uptake and disrupted mineral nodule formation. Bones from mice lacking Slc13a5 globally, or selectively in osteoblasts, showed equivalent reductions in cortical thickness, with similarly compromised mechanical strength. Surprisingly, citrate content in mineral from Slc13a5-/- osteoblasts was increased fourfold relative to controls, suggesting the engagement of compensatory mechanisms to augment endogenous citrate production. Indeed, through the coordinated functioning of the apical membrane citrate transporter SLC13A5 and a mitochondrial zinc transporter protein (ZIP1; encoded by Slc39a1), a mediator of citrate efflux from the tricarboxylic acid cycle, SLC13A5 mediates citrate entry from blood and its activity exerts homeostatic control of cytoplasmic citrate. Intriguingly, Slc13a5-deficient mice also exhibited defective tooth enamel and dentin formation, a clinical feature, which we show is recapitulated in primary teeth from children with SLC13A5 mutations. Together, our results reveal the components of an osteoblast metabolic pathway, which affects bone strength by regulating citrate deposition into mineral hydroxyapatite.


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico , Simportadores , Animais , Camundongos , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo , Durapatita/metabolismo , Citratos , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/metabolismo
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 1032614, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339402

RESUMO

Multiple causes may contribute to osteoporosis, characterized by a loss in bone mass and density as a consequence of the degradation of bone microstructure and a resultant rise in bone fragility. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the role of necroptosis in the development of osteoporosis. Necroptosis is orchestrated by a set of proteins known as receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK)1, RIPK3, and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL). A necrosome is formed by MLKL, RIPK1, RIPK3, and RIPK3-RIPK3. A dissociated MLKL forms pores in the plasma membrane and eventually leads to necroptosis after translocating from the necrosome. In this review, we discuss a detailed understanding of necroptosis and its associated processes, a better understanding of its interactions with osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, and the associations between necroptosis and diabetic osteoporosis, steroid-induced osteoporosis, and postmenopausal osteoporosis. In addition, a variety of experimental medicines capable of modulating crucial necroptosis processes are highlighted. It's important to note that this is the first review paper to consolidate current data on the role of necroptosis in osteoporosis, and it offers fresh hope for the future treatment of this disease.


Assuntos
Necroptose , Osteoporose , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases , Osteoporose/etiologia , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle
20.
J Clin Biochem Nutr ; 71(3): 191-197, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36447486

RESUMO

Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species regulate bone remodeling, which occurs via bone formation and resorption by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Recently, we found that 8-nitro-cGMP, a second messenger of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, promotes osteoclastogenesis. Here, we investigated the formation and function of 8-nitro-cGMP in osteoblasts. Mouse calvarial osteoblasts were found to produce 8-nitro-cGMP, which was augmented by tumor necrosis factor-α (10 ng/ml) and interleukin-1ß (1 ng/ml). These cytokines suppressed osteoblastic differentiation in a NO synthase activity-dependent manner. Exogenous 8-nitro-cGMP (30 µmol/L) suppressed expression of osteoblastic phenotypes, including mineralization, in clear contrast to the enhancement of mineralization by osteoblasts induced by 8-bromo-cGMP, a cell membrane-permeable analog of cGMP. It is known that reactive sulfur species denitrates and degrades 8-nitro-cGMP. Mitochondrial cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase plays a crucial role in the endogenous production of RSS. The expression of osteoblastic phenotypes was suppressed by not only exogenous 8-nitro-cGMP but also by silencing of the Cars2 gene, indicating a role of endogenous 8-nitro-cGMP in suppressing the expression of osteoblastic phenotypes. These results suggest that 8-nitro-cGMP is a negative regulator of osteoblastic differentiation.

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