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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e258128, 2024. tab, mapas, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374657

RESUMO

In the western mountainous region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan at the Shangla district, we found Physalis ixocarpa for the first time, not yet reported from Pakistan. Physalis ixocarpa was unidentified and has no ethnobotanical record in the flora of Pakistan. It is a member of family Solanaceae and having a close relation with Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum. The stem is prostrate with a dichotomous pattern of branches having leaves flower and fruits. Leaves are smooth, ovate and the margins of leaf blade dentation are poorly developed. The average length and width of the leaves are 6.50 and 3.61 cm respectively. P. ixocarpa grows to the length of 4-5 feet and an annual herb. The flowers of the plants are yellow in color and having purple color spots on the petals which are star-shaped. The round berry fruits are surrounded by persistent calyx and purple in color. The fruits are the 3-6cm in diameter. The plants are found in the different localities of district Shangla especially in Bar and Koz Kana. The life cycle of reporting plant is started in May and completed in November.


Na região montanhosa ocidental de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão, no distrito de Shangla, encontramos Physalis ixocarpa pela primeira vez, ainda não relatada nesse país. A P. ixocarpa não foi identificada e não possui registro etnobotânico na flora do Paquistão. É membro da família Solanaceae e tem estreita relação com Solanum tuberosum e Lycopersicon esculentum. O caule é rastejante com um padrão dicotômico de ramos com folhas, flores e frutos. As folhas são lisas e ovais e as margens da dentição da lâmina foliar são pouco desenvolvidas. O comprimento e a largura médios das folhas são de 6,50 e 3,61 cm, respectivamente. A P. ixocarpa cresce aproximadamente 120-150 cm de comprimento e é uma planta anual. As flores das plantas são de cor amarela com manchas roxas nas pétalas em forma de estrela. Os frutos redondos da baga são rodeados por cálice persistente e de cor roxa. Os frutos têm 3-6 cm de diâmetro. As plantas são encontradas em diferentes localidades do distrito de Shangla, especialmente em Bar e Koz Kana. O ciclo de vida da planta reportado é iniciado em maio e concluído em novembro.


Assuntos
Registros , Flora , Physalis , Paquistão , Etnobotânica
2.
Phytomedicine ; 105: 154328, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35908519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Mast.) Makino (PAF) (Chinese name Jin-Deng-Long) from the Solanaceae family is a traditional Chinese medicine with various pharmacological effects, such as removing heat, detoxification, improving throat conditions, removing phlegm, and ameliorating diuresis. PURPOSE: This paper reviews the existing literature and patents and puts forward some suggestions for future PAF research. METHODS: Using the PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, we performed comprehensive search of literature and patents published before April 2022 on PAF and its active ingredients. RESULTS: We comprehensively reviewed the research progress of PAF from aspects of the traditional application, botany, chemical composition, pharmacological effects, and toxicology, and first discussed quality control and modern applications, which have not been explored in previous reviews. Thereafter, we reviewed the limitations of pharmacological mechanism and quality control studies and proposed appropriate solutions, which is of great practical significance to subsequent studies. CONCLUSION: In this review, we present a comprehensive overview on PAF, and put forward new insights on studies regarding quality control, material basis, and mechanisms in classical prescription, providing theoretical guidance for the clinical application and development of Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Physalis , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Farmacognosia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Controle de Qualidade
3.
Phytochemistry ; 202: 113301, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35780926

RESUMO

Eight undescribed and two known withanolides were obtained from the aerial parts of Physalis minima. The structures of these compounds were defined by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data analysis. Physminin E was elucidated to be a rare 13,14-seco-withanolide. Inhibitory effects of these compounds on nitric oxide (NO) production were evaluated by using LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages, and physminin C was shown to be the most active with an IC50 value of 3.5 µM. The further mechanistic analysis of NO inhibition was performed by molecular docking and Western blotting.


Assuntos
Physalis , Vitanolídeos , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico , Physalis/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Vitanolídeos/química , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia
4.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 888930, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35874003

RESUMO

Pivotal barrier properties of the hydrophobic plant cuticle covering aerial plant surfaces depend on its physicochemical composition. Among plant species and organs, compounds of this boundary layer between the plant interior and the environment vary considerably but cuticle-related studies comparing different organs from the same plant species are still scarce. Thus, this study focused on the cuticle profiles of Physalis peruviana, Physalis ixocarpa, Alkekengi officinarum, and Nicandra physalodes species. Inflated fruiting calyces enveloping fruits make Physalis, Alkekengi, and Nicandra highly recognizable genera among the Solanoideae subfamily. Although the inflation of fruiting calyces is well discussed in the literature still little is known about their post-floral functionalities. Cuticular composition, surface structure, and barrier function were examined and compared in fully expanded amphistomatous leaves, ripe astomatous fruits, and fully inflated hypostomatous fruiting calyces. Species- and organ-specific abundances of non-glandular and glandular trichomes revealed high structural diversity, covering not only abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces but also fruiting calyx surfaces, whereas fruits were glabrous. Cuticular waxes, which limit non-stomatal transpiration, ranged from <1 µg cm-2 on P. peruviana fruiting calyces and N. physalodes fruits to 22 µg cm-2 on P. peruviana fruits. Very-long-chain aliphatic compounds, notably n-alkanes, iso-, and anteiso-branched alkanes, alkanols, alkanoic acids, and alkyl esters, dominated the cuticular wax coverages (≥86%). Diversity of cuticular wax patterns rose from leaves to fruiting calyces and peaked in fruits. The polymeric cutin matrix providing the structural framework for cuticular waxes was determined to range from 81 µg cm-2 for N. physalodes to 571 µg cm-2 for A. officinarum fruits. Cuticular transpiration barriers were highly efficient, with water permeabilities being ≤5 × 10-5 m s-1. Only the cuticular water permeability of N. physalodes fruits was 10 × 10-5 m s-1 leading to their early desiccation and fruits that easily split, whereas P. peruviana, P. ixocarpa, and A. officinarum bore fleshy fruits for extended periods after maturation. Regarding the functional significance, fruiting calyces establish a physicochemical shield that reduces water loss and enables fruit maturation within a protective microclimate, and promotes different seed dispersal strategies among plant species investigated.

5.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-8, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796599

RESUMO

Two new withaphysalin-type withanolides (18-O-ethylwithaphysalin R and 5-O-ethylphysaminimin C, 1 and 2), along with twelve known withanolides (3-14), were purified and identified from Physalis peruviana L. The chemical structures of these new isolates were elucidated through analyzing spectroscopic and HRESIMS data. All the obtained metabolites were appraised for their potential antiproliferative activity against the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Compound 7 was discovered to exhibit potent activity with an IC50 value of 3.51 µM and compounds 2, 6 and 14 showed weak cytotoxic effect.

6.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807484

RESUMO

There is increasing interest in research of secondary metabolites from Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry) because of their potential bioactivities. In this study, the profile of compounds found in fruits and husks from Costa Rica was determined through ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry using a quadrupole time-of-flight analyzer (UPLC-ESI-QTOF MS) on extracts (n = 10) obtained through pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) conditions. In total, 66 different compounds were identified, comprising 34 withanolides, 23 sucrose ester derivatives and 9 flavonoids. UPLC-DAD analysis was performed to determine the ß-carotene in fruits and to quantify the flavonoids in all 10 samples, with the results showing higher contents in samples from the Dota region (58.6-60.1 µg/g of dry material versus 1.6-2.8 mg/g of dry material). The Folin-Ciocalteau total polyphenolic content (FC) and antioxidant activity using the DPPH method showed better results for the husk extracts, with the ones from the Dota region holding the best values (4.3-5.1 mg GAE/g of dry material versus IC50 = 1.6-2.3 mg of dry material/mL). In addition, a significant negative correlation was found between the RU, FC and DPPH values (r = -0.902, p < 0.05), aligning with previous reports on the role of polyphenols in antioxidant activity. Principal correlation analysis (PCoA) and hierarchical clustering (HC) analysis were performed on HRMS results, and they indicated that the D1 and D2 fruit samples from the Dota region were clustered with husks related to a higher presence of the analyzed metabolites. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA) performed on the flavonoid content and antioxidant activity yielded results indicating that the D1 and D2 husks and fruit samples from the Dota region stood out significantly, showing the highest antioxidant activity. In summation, our findings suggest that P. peruviana husks and fruits from Costa Rica constitute a substrate of interest for further studies on their potential health benefits.


Assuntos
Physalis , Ribes , Antioxidantes/química , Costa Rica , Flavonoides/química , Frutas/química , Physalis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
7.
Am J Bot ; 109(7): 1074-1084, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686627

RESUMO

PREMISE: Plant defenses are shaped by many factors, including herbivory, lifespan, and mating system. Predictions about plant defense and resistance are often based on resource allocation trade-offs with plant growth and reproduction. Additionally, two types of plant resistance, constitutive and induced resistance, are predicted to be evolutionary alternatives or redundant strategies. Given the variety of plant trait combinations and non-mutually exclusive predictions, examining resistance strategies in related species with different combinations of growth and reproductive traits is important to tease apart roles of plant traits and evolutionary history on plant resistance. METHODS: Phylogenetic comparative methods were used to examine the potentially interacting influences of life history (annual/perennial), mating system (self-compatible/self-incompatible), and species growth rates on constitutive resistance and inducibility (additional resistance following damage) across Physalis species (Solanaceae). RESULTS: Resistance was evolutionarily labile, and there was no correlation between constitutive resistance and inducibility. Annual species with fast growth rates displayed higher constitutive resistance, but growth rate did not affect constitutive resistance in perennials. In contrast, inducibility was negatively associated with species growth rate regardless of life history or mating system. CONCLUSIONS: The different effects of plant life history and growth rate on constitutive resistance and inducibility indicate that defensive evolution is unconstrained by a trade-off between resistance types. The interactions among plant life history, growth, and herbivore resistance show that plant defense is shaped not only by herbivore environment, but also by plant traits that reflect a plant's evolutionary history and local selective pressures.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Solanaceae , Filogenia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas
8.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 100: 131-172, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659351

RESUMO

The Solanaceae family is considered one of the most important families among plant species because, on one hand encompasses many staple food crops of the human diet while, on the other hand, it includes species rich in powerful secondary metabolites that could be valorized in medicine or drug formulation as well as nutraceuticals and food supplements. The main genera are Solanum, Capsicum, Physalis, and Lycium which comprise several important cultivated crops (e.g., tomato, pepper, eggplant, tomatillo, and goji berry), as well as genera notable for species with several pharmaceutical properties (e.g., Datura, Nicotiana, Atropa, Mandragora, etc.). This chapter discusses the nutritional value of the most important Solanaceae species commonly used for their edible fruit, as well as those used in the development of functional foods, food supplements, and nutraceuticals due to their bioactive constituents. The toxic and poisonous effects are also discussed aiming to highlight possible detrimental consequences due to irrational use. Finally, considering the high amount of waste and by-products generated through the value chain of the main crops, the sustainable management practices implemented so far are presented with the aim to increase the added-value of these crops.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Solanaceae , Produtos Agrícolas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Verduras
9.
Curr Issues Mol Biol ; 44(3): 1407-1416, 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35723317

RESUMO

(1) Background: Three isolated compounds from Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii (PAF) have been investigated to possess a variety of biological activities. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis (Ultraviolet (UV), High-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-Ms), and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in vitro; (2) Methods: To investigate the mechanisms of action of PAF extracts and their isolated compounds, their anti-inflammatory effects were assessed in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RAW 264.7 cells were treated with different concentrations of Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii three isolated compounds of PAF for 30 min prior to stimulation with or without LPS for the indicated times. The inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1ß and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain (RT-PCR); (3) Results Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with LPS alone resulted in significant increases in inflammatory cytokine production as compared to the control group (p < 0.001). However, with the treatment of isophysalin B 100 µg/mL, there was a significant decrease in the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α in LPS-stimulated raw 264.7 cells (p < 0.001). With treatment of physalin 1-100 µg/mL, there was a markedly decrease in the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α in LPS stimulated raw 264.7 (p < 0.05). Moreover, TNF-α mRNA (p < 0.05) and IL-1ß mRNA (p < 0.001) mRNA levels were significantly suppressed after treatment with 3',7-dimethylquercetin in LPS stimulated Raw 264.7 cells; (4) Conclusions: These findings suggest that three isolated compounds from can suppress inflammatory responses in LPS stimulated macrophage.

10.
J Exp Pharmacol ; 14: 185-193, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35698475

RESUMO

Background: Physalis peruviana L. (Solanaceae) is a plant widely used in traditional medicine systems to manage various diseases, including diabetes mellitus, which remains a global health problem in developing and developed countries. This study aimed to scientifically evaluate its antidiabetic bioactivity and short-term toxicity in rats. Methods: We prepared various doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts for the antidiabetic study, and a dose of 2000 mg/Kg was prepared for the acute toxicity test. The first group that evaluated the hypoglycemic effect consisted of forty normoglycemic Wistar rats aged 7-8 months old with a weighted average of 265.8 ± 24.6 g. The second group consisted of intraperitoneal glucose-loaded male animals to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect. The third group contained two groups of normoglycemic female rats (n = 3), aged 3 and 4 months old (weight average: 187.45 ± 14.82 g), treated for 14 days with aqueous and methanolic extracts (2 g/kg b.w) to assess mortality and toxic effects. Blood samples were taken at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min post-treatment in hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic evaluations. Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) was used as a reference drug. The control animals in each group did not receive the extracts. Results: In hypoglycemic rats, 100 mg/kg of aqueous and methanolic extracts significantly lowered the fasting blood glucose level by 13.92% (p < 0.0001) and 21.95% (p < 0.01), respectively, compared to the control group. In glucose tolerance test group, methanolic extracts significantly reduced hyperglycemia by 54.55% (p < 0.0001), 46.50% (p < 0.0001), 39.78% (p < 0.0001) at 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg b.w, respectively, compared to control; aqueous extract 400 mg/kg reduced hyperglycemia by 39.44% (p < 0.05). At the 2000 mg/kg dose, leaf aqueous and methanolic extracts did not show any signs of intoxication and mortality. Conclusion: Crude aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of P. peruviana ambrosioides appeared safe at 2000 mg/kg and have bioactivity in controlling the blood glucose levels, supporting their use in treating diabetes.

11.
Biodivers Data J ; 10: e80804, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437395

RESUMO

Background: We continue the inventory of alien vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan, with emphasis on the time and pathways of introduction of the species and their current status in the territory. Each taxon is discussed in the context of plant invasions in Central Asia. This work is a further development of the preliminary checklist of alien plants of Kyrgyzstan, which was compiled for the Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species in 2018. New information: This contribution includes all alien species of Kyrgyzstan belonging to Solanaceae and Asphodelaceae and one species of Asteraceae. Physalisphiladelphicus (syn. P.ixocarpa) is reported for the first time from Central Asia, as new to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, thus marking a recent invasion with a variety of imported grain and seed material. The old records of P.ixocarpa from Uzbekistan are based on misidentified specimens of P.angulata. Physalisangulata is an old cotton immigrant in Central Asia, whose invasion started in the 1920s; it is excluded from the alien flora of Kyrgyzstan as registered in error on the basis of cultivated plants. Alkekengiofficinarum is an archaeophyte of the Neolithic period in Central Asia, formerly used for food, now strongly declining and largely casual in Kyrgyzstan. The only historical record of Physalisviscosa from Uzbekistan was based on a technical error and belongs to A.officinarum. Daturastramonium and Hyoscyamusniger were introduced as medicinal plants during the period of the Arabic invasion of Central Asia, by the 11th century. Daturainnoxia is a newly recorded casual alien, recently escaped from ornamental cultivation. Nicandraphysalodes is a casual alien, which was cultivated by Russian colonists in the early 20th century for culinary use and is currently used in ornamental cultivation. Hemerocallisfulva was a remnant of historical cultivation in the former Khanate of Buxoro, and its formerly established colonies are presumably extinct in the wild. Bidensfrondosa was seemingly introduced with contaminated forage and seed of American origin during the late Soviet period and started to spread in the period of independence; its invasion in the former USSR is analysed.

12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(18): 5595-5609, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476903

RESUMO

Physalis minima is a medicinal and edible plant in China. In this study, 22 new withaphysalins, including a novel 1(10 → 6)abeo-14ß-hydroxy one (1) and other 15 unusual 14ß-hydroxy ones (3-4, 6-17, 19), were isolated from the whole herbs of P. minima together with two known analogues (23-24). Their structures were established by extensive analysis of high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, IR, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. Their absolute configurations were determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra and single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analyses, together with DFT NMR calculations. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity via measuring the colorimetric reporter of the secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase gene driven by an IFN-ß minimal promoter fused to five copies of the NF-κB consensus transcriptional response element and three copies of the c-Rel binding site in LPS-stimulated human THP1-Dual cells. Compounds 2, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, and 20 showed significant anti-inflammatory effects with IC50 values in the range of 3.01-13.39 µM. Among them, compounds 2 and 10 showed better anti-inflammatory effects to inhibit the secretion of IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated THP1-Dual cells.


Assuntos
Physalis , Vitanolídeos , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , NF-kappa B , Physalis/química , Vitanolídeos/química , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia
13.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 864714, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35450054

RESUMO

Physalins, or 16,24-cyclo-13,14-seco steroids, are compounds belonging to the class of withanolides that can be found in plants of Solanaceae family, mainly in species belonging to the genus Physalis spp., which are annual herbaceous plants widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Physalins are versatile molecules that act in several cell signaling pathways and activate different mechanisms of cell death or immunomodulation. A number of studies have shown a variety of actions of these compounds, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiparasitic, antimicrobial, antinociceptive, and antiviral activities. Here we reviewed the main findings related to the anticancer, immunomodulatory, and antiparasitic activities of physalins and its mechanisms of action, highlighting the \challenges and future directions in the pharmacological application of physalins.

14.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 27(3): 98, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35345330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many drugs for anti-tumour have been developed, nevertheless, seeking new anticancer drug is the focus of ongoing investigation. Withanolides have been reported to possess potent antiproliferative activity. Literature findings revealed that a diversity of withanolides were obtained from Physalis peruviana, however, the antitumor activity of these bioactive compounds is still unclear. METHODS: The EtOAc fraction of P. peruviana were decolorized on Middle Chromatogram Isolated (MCI) Gel column, repeatedly subjected to column chromatography (CC) over sephadex LH-20, preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and silica gel to afford compounds. Their chemical structures of the new isolates were elucidated through analyzing spectroscopic and HRESIMS data. All these obtained metabolites were appraised for their potential antiproliferative activity against the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 by MTT assay, and in vitro antibacterial activity of the isolated compounds (1-7) were evaluated against E. coli, B. cereus and S. aureus. Results: Four new withanolides, including one withaphysalin-type withanolide (peruranolide A, 1), two 13,14-seco-withaphysalins (peruranolides B-C, 2-3), as well as one normal withanolide (peruranolide D, 4), were purified and separated from P. peruviana L.. Compound 5 was discovered to exhibit potent cytotoxic effect with an IC50 value of 3.51 µM. In vitro antibacterial activities, compounds 1-7 had no obvious inhibitory activity against E. coli, but had moderate inhibitory activities against B. cereus and S. aureus. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings might offer valuable clues for the utilization of withanolides as lead compounds for antineoplastic or antibacterial drug development.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Physalis , Vitanolídeos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Physalis/química , Staphylococcus aureus , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia
15.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35268579

RESUMO

Physalis angulata L. belongs to the family Solanaceae and is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions. Physalis angulata leaf and fruit extracts were assessed for in vitro anticancer, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic and flavonoid content. The GC-MS technique investigated the chemical composition and structure of bioactive chemicals reported in extracts. The anticancer activity results revealed a decrease in the percentage of anticancer cells' viability in a concentration- and time-dependent way. We also noticed morphological alterations in the cells, which we believe are related to Physalis angulata extracts. Under light microscopy, we observed that as the concentration of ethanolic extract (fruit and leaves) treated HeLa cells increased, the number of cells began to decrease.


Assuntos
Physalis
16.
J Helminthol ; 96: e16, 2022 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35238288

RESUMO

Praziquantel (PZQ) remains the only drug of choice for the treatment of schistosomiasis, caused by parasitic flatworms. The widespread use of PZQ in schistosomiasis endemic areas for about four decades raises concerns about the emergence of resistance of Schistosoma spp. to PZQ under drug selection pressure. This reinforces the urgency in finding alternative therapeutic options that could replace or complement PZQ. We explored the potential of medicinal plants commonly used by indigenes in Kenya for the treatment of various ailments including malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhoea for their antischistosomal properties. Employing the Soxhlet extraction method with different solvents, seven medicinal plants Artemisia annua, Ajuga remota, Bredilia micranta, Cordia africana, Physalis peruviana, Prunus africana and Senna didymobotrya were extracted. Qualitative phytochemical screening was performed to determine the presence of various phytochemicals in the plant extracts. Extracts were tested against Schistosoma mansoni newly transformed schistosomula (NTS) and adult worms and the schistosomicidal activity was determined by using the adenosine triphosphate quantitation assay. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed different classes of compounds such as alkaloids, tannins, terpenes, etc., in plant extracts active against S. mansoni worms. Seven extracts out of 22 resulted in <20% viability against NTS in 24 h at 100 µg/ml. Five of the extracts with inhibitory activity against NTS showed >69.7% and ≥72.4% reduction in viability against adult worms after exposure for 24 and 48 h, respectively. This study provides encouraging preliminary evidence that extracts of Kenyan medicinal plants deserve further study as potential alternative therapeutics that may form the basis for the development of the new treatments for schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Plantas Medicinais , Esquistossomose mansoni , Esquistossomose , Animais , Medicina Herbária , Quênia , Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 850711, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35310660

RESUMO

Physalis angulata is a renowned traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of various conditions. Physalin is the major type of bioactive constituents conferring medicinal properties of P. angulata. Despite the medicinal importance, the pathways leading to physalin are largely unknown. In this study, we employed a transcriptomic approach to identify a Pa24ISO gene from P. angulata. Through heterologous expression in yeast, Pa24ISO was revealed to catalyze an isomerization reaction in converting 24-methylenecholesterol to 24-methyldesmosterol. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the abundance of Pa24ISO transcripts correlated with the accumulation pattern of physalin B in different tissues of P. angulata. A direct role of Pa24ISO in channeling of 24-methylenecholesterol for physalin B biosynthesis was illustrated by suppressing the gene in P. angulata via the VIGS approach. Down-regulation of Pa24ISO led to reduced levels of 24-methyldesmosterol and physalin B, accompanied with an increase of campesterol content in P. angulata. The results supported that 24ISO is involved in physalin biosynthesis in plants.

18.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164184

RESUMO

Withanolides constitute one of the most interesting classes of natural products due to their diversity of structures and biological activities. Our recent studies on withanolides obtained from plants of Solanaceae including Withania somnifera and a number of Physalis species grown under environmentally controlled aeroponic conditions suggested that this technique is a convenient, reproducible, and superior method for their production and structural diversification. Investigation of aeroponically grown Physalis coztomatl afforded 29 withanolides compared to a total of 13 obtained previously from the wild-crafted plant and included 12 new withanolides, physacoztolides I-M (9-13), 15α-acetoxy-28-hydroxyphysachenolide C (14), 28-oxophysachenolide C (15), and 28-hydroxyphysachenolide C (16), 5α-chloro-6ß-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrophysachenolide D (17), 15α-acetoxy-5α-chloro-6ß-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrophysachenolide D (18), 28-hydroxy-5α-chloro-6ß-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrophysachenolide D (19), physachenolide A-5-methyl ether (20), and 17 known withanolides 3-5, 8, and 21-33. The structures of 9-20 were elucidated by the analysis of their spectroscopic data and the known withanolides 3-5, 8, and 21-33 were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported. Evaluation against a panel of prostate cancer (LNCaP, VCaP, DU-145, and PC-3) and renal carcinoma (ACHN) cell lines, and normal human foreskin fibroblast (WI-38) cells revealed that 8, 13, 15, and 17-19 had potent and selective activity for prostate cancer cell lines. Facile conversion of the 5,6-chlorohydrin 17 to its 5,6-epoxide 8 in cell culture medium used for the bioassay suggested that the cytotoxic activities observed for 17-19 may be due to in situ formation of their corresponding 5ß,6ß-epoxides, 8, 27, and 28.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Physalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitanolídeos/metabolismo , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Vias Biossintéticas , Biotecnologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Masculino , Physalis/química , Physalis/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Vitanolídeos/química
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 204: 204-214, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35108598

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are commonly found in thermally processed foods, and long-term high AGE feeding has been reported to have negative effects on body health. In the current study, the effect of Physalis alkekengi L. fruit polysaccharide (PFP) on preventing dietary AGE-induced insulin resistance (IR) in mice was investigated. The results showed that PFP administration can significantly ameliorate hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance induced by dietary AGEs in mice. Compared to AGE-treated mice, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) index of PFP-treated mice were improved significantly (p < 0.05). The levels of endotoxin and inflammatory cytokines in the liver decreased, while the levels of insulin receptor substrate-1 and insulin receptor substrate-2 in the liver increased (p < 0.05). The 16S rRNA analysis showed that PFP administration reversed the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and reduced lipopolysaccharide generation and inflammation-related bacteria, including Desulfovibrio and Acetatifactor. In addition, PFP administration also increased short-chain fatty acid levels in feces compared to dietary AGE-treated mice. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that certain specific genera, including Alistipes and Caproiciproducens, are closely related to IR-related parameters. These findings suggest that PFP can prevent dietary AGE-induced IR by modulating the gut microbiota and increasing microbial metabolites.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Resistência à Insulina , Physalis , Animais , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
20.
Insects ; 13(1)2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35055935

RESUMO

Lema bilineata Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was recently reported to damage Physalis peruviana crops in Brazil. Given the potential for inflicting damage on other Solanaceae species and the lack of alternatives for controlling this pest, we assessed the pathogenicity of 15 Beauveria isolates against L. bilineata adults in vitro. In addition, three of these isolates were tested for their ovicidal effect against L. bilineata eggs. Fungal strains were isolated from mummified corpses of L. bilineata collected in a non-commercial field in Paraná, Brazil. The isolates were identified as Beauveria bassiana using molecular markers. Lema bilineata adults were susceptible to conidial suspensions of all these isolates at a concentration of 108 conidia mL-1. Deaths caused by fungal extrusion were confirmed. Three strains were found to be more virulent against L. bilineata adults and showed ovicidal effects. This is the first study on entomopathogenic fungi isolated from dead insects collected from P. peruviana crops and tested against L. bilineata carried out in Brazil. The results obtained in the laboratory indicate the high potential of the use of three B. bassiana strains against L. bilineata as a biocontrol agent.

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