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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e260091, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374650

RESUMO

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders affecting most social, economic and biological aspects of human life. Most patients with epilepsy have uncontrolled seizures and drug side effects despite the medications. Patients with epilepsy often have problems with attention, memory, and information processing speed, which may be due to seizures, underlying causes, or anticonvulsants. Therefore, improving seizure control and reducing or changing the anti-epileptic drugs can solve these problems, but these problems will not be solved in most cases. In this work, we looked at the effects of pioglitazone, a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, on pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice. The Racine scale was used to classify pilocarpine-induced convulsions. After that, all of the animals were beheaded, and the brain and hippocampus were dissected. Finally, biochemical techniques were used to determine the levels of Malondialdehyde and Catalase activity, as well as Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione Reductase in the hippocampus. The results of this investigation suggest that pioglitazone's antioxidant action may play a key role in its neuroprotective properties against pilocarpine-induced seizure neuronal damage.


A epilepsia é um dos distúrbios neurológicos mais comuns que afetam a maioria dos aspectos sociais, econômicos e biológicos da vida humana. A maioria dos pacientes com epilepsia tem convulsões não controladas e apresenta efeitos colaterais de medicamentos. Pacientes com epilepsia, geralmente, têm problemas de atenção, memória e velocidade de processamento de informações, ocasionados por convulsões, causas subjacentes ou anticonvulsivantes. Portanto, melhorar o controle das crises e reduzir ou alterar as drogas antiepilépticas pode resolver esses problemas, mas, na maioria dos casos, eles não serão resolvidos. Neste trabalho, analisamos os efeitos da pioglitazona, um agonista do receptor ativado por proliferador de peroxissoma usado para tratar diabetes tipo 2, em convulsões induzidas por pilocarpina em camundongos. A escala de Racine foi usada para classificar as convulsões induzidas pela pilocarpina. Em seguida, todos os animais foram decapitados, e o cérebro e o hipocampo foram dissecados. Finalmente, técnicas bioquímicas foram utilizadas para determinar os níveis de atividade do malondialdeído e da catalase, bem como da superóxido dismutase e glutationa redutase no hipocampo. Os resultados desta investigação sugerem que a ação antioxidante da pioglitazona pode desempenhar um papel fundamental em suas propriedades neuroprotetoras contra o dano neuronal convulsivo induzido pela pilocarpina.


Assuntos
Camundongos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Epilepsia , Pioglitazona/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e248411, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374640

RESUMO

The dopamine content in cerebral structures has been related to neuronal excitability and several approaches have been used to study this phenomenon during seizure vulnerability period. In the present work, we describe the effects of dopamine depletion after the administration of 6-hidroxidopamine (6-OHDA) into the substantia nigra pars compacta of male rats submitted to the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Susceptibility to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), as well as spontaneous and recurrent seizures (SRSs) frequency during the chronic period of the model were determined. Since the hippocampus is one of main structures in the development of this experimental model of epilepsy, the dopamine levels in this region were also determined after drug administration. In the first experiment, 62% (15/24) of 6-OHDA pre-treated rats and 45% (11/24) of those receiving ascorbic acid as control solution progressed to motor limbic seizures evolving to SE, after the administration of pilocarpine. Severeness of seizures during the model´s the acute period, was significantly higher in epileptic experimental rats (56.52%), than in controls (4.16%). In the second experiment, the frequency of seizures in the model's chronic phase did not significantly change between groups. Our data show that dopamine may play an important role on seizure severity in the pilo's model acute period, which seems to be due to dopamine inhibitory action on motor expression of seizure.


O conteúdo de dopamina nas estruturas cerebrais tem sido relacionado à excitabilidade neuronal e várias abordagens têm sido utilizadas para estudar este fenômeno durante o período de vulnerabilidade às crises. No presente trabalho, descrevemos os efeitos da depleção de dopamina após a administração de 6-hidroxidopamina (6-OHDA) na região pars compacta da substância negra de ratos submetidos ao modelo de epilepsia com pilocarpina. A susceptibilidade ao estado de mal epiléptico induzido pela pilocarpina, bem como a frequência de crises espontâneas e recorrentes durante o período crônico do modelo foi determinada. Sendo o hipocampo uma das principais estruturas afetadas no desenvolvimento desse modelo experimental de epilepsia, os níveis de dopamina nessa região foram determinados após a administração da droga. No primeiro experimento, 62% (15/24) dos ratos pré-tratados com 6-OHDA e 45% (11/24) daqueles que receberam ácido ascórbico como solução controle evoluíram para crises límbicas motoras e para o estado de mal epiléptico, após a administração de pilocarpina. A gravidade das crises durante o período agudo do modelo foi significativamente maior nos ratos epilépticos experimentais (56,52%) do que nos ratos controle (4,16%). No segundo experimento, não houve diferença significante entre os grupos quanto à frequência de crises na fase crônica do modelo. Nossos dados mostraram que a dopamina pode desempenhar um papel importante na gravidade das crises na fase aguda da pilo, o que parece ser exercido por sua ação inibitória da dopamina sobre a expressão motora das crises.


Assuntos
Ratos , Substância Negra , Dopamina , Ratos Wistar , Epilepsia
3.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-10, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765596

RESUMO

Only few studies have focus on animals that received Pilocarpine (Pilo) and did not develop behavioral status epilepticus (SE) and, whether they may become epileptic in the model's chronic phase. Previews works observed mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampus of Non-SE (NSE) rats, while others observed spontaneous and recurrent seizures (SRS) 6 - 8 months after animals received Pilo. It is known that neuronal excitability is influenced by female hormones, as well as, the occurrence of SE in castrated and non-castrated female rats. However, it is not known whether females that received Pilo and did not show SE, may have SRS. The aim of this work was to investigate whether castrated and non-castrated female rats that did not show behavioral SE after Pilo, will develop SRS in the following one-year. For that, animals received 360 mg/kg of Pilo and were video monitored for 12 months. SE females from castrated and non-castrated groups became epileptic since the first month after drug injection. Epileptic behaviors were identified watching video monitoring recordings in the fast speed. Castrated and Non castrated NSE animals showed behaviors resembling seizures described by Racine Scale stages 1 - 3. Motor alterations showed by NSE groups could be observed only when recordings were analyzed in slow speed. In addition, behavioral manifestations as, rhythmic head movements, sudden head movements, whole body movements and immobility were also observed in both, SE and NSE groups. We concluded that NSE female rats may have become epileptic. Adding to it, slow speed analysis of motor alterations was essential for the observation of NSE findings, which suggests that possibly many motor alterations have been underestimated in epilepsy experimental research.(AU)


Poucos são os estudos com foco em animais que receberam Pilocarpina (Pilo) e não desenvolveram status epilepticus (SE) comportamental e, se os mesmos se tornarão epilépticos na fase crônica do modelo. Autores observaram o brotamento das fibras musgosas no hipocampo de ratos Não-SE (NSE), enquanto outros observaram crises espontâneas e recorrentes (CER) 6 - 8 meses após receberam a droga. A excitabilidade neuronal é influenciada pelos hormônios femininos e, da mesma forma, a ocorrência de SE em ratas castradas e não-castradas. Entretanto, não é sabido se as fêmeas que não apresentam SE terão CER. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar se fêmeas castradas e não castradas que não tiveram SE comportamental após a injeção de Pilo desenvolverão CER dentro de um ano. Para isto, os animais receberam 360 mg/kg de Pilo e foram videomonitorados por 12 meses. As fêmeas SE castradas e não-castradas se tornaram epilépticas desde o primeiro mês pós Pilo. O comportamento epiléptico foi identificado assistindo as gravações na velocidade rápida. As fêmeas NSE castradas e não-castradas apresentaram comportamentos similares aos estágios 1 - 3 da Escala de Racine. As alterações motoras nestes grupos (NSE) foram observadas apenas quando as videomonitoração foi analisada na velocidade lenta. Além destas, manifestações comportamentais como movimentos rítmicos da cabeça, movimentos súbitos da cabeça, movimentos de todo o corpo e imobilidade também foram observadas em ambos grupos, SE e NSE. Concluímos que as fêmeas NE podem ter se tornado epilépticas. Adicionado a isto, a análise das alterações motoras na velocidade lenta foi essencial para a observação dos achados das fêmeas NSE, o que sugere que possivelmente muitas alterações motoras têm sido subestimados na pesquisa em epilepsia experimental.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Epilepsia/induzido quimicamente , Epilepsia/veterinária , Pilocarpina/farmacologia , Pilocarpina/administração & dosagem , Pilocarpina/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e237412, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355854

RESUMO

Abstract Only few studies have focus on animals that received Pilocarpine (Pilo) and did not develop behavioral status epilepticus (SE) and, whether they may become epileptic in the model's chronic phase. Previews works observed mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampus of Non-SE (NSE) rats, while others observed spontaneous and recurrent seizures (SRS) 6 - 8 months after animals received Pilo. It is known that neuronal excitability is influenced by female hormones, as well as, the occurrence of SE in castrated and non-castrated female rats. However, it is not known whether females that received Pilo and did not show SE, may have SRS. The aim of this work was to investigate whether castrated and non-castrated female rats that did not show behavioral SE after Pilo, will develop SRS in the following one-year. For that, animals received 360 mg/kg of Pilo and were video monitored for 12 months. SE females from castrated and non-castrated groups became epileptic since the first month after drug injection. Epileptic behaviors were identified watching video monitoring recordings in the fast speed. Castrated and Non-castrated NSE animals showed behaviors resembling seizures described by Racine Scale stages 1 - 3. Motor alterations showed by NSE groups could be observed only when recordings were analyzed in slow speed. In addition, behavioral manifestations as, rhythmic head movements, sudden head movements, whole body movements and immobility were also observed in both, SE and NSE groups. We concluded that NSE female rats may have become epileptic. Adding to it, slow speed analysis of motor alterations was essential for the observation of NSE findings, which suggests that possibly many motor alterations have been underestimated in epilepsy experimental research.


Resumo Poucos são os estudos com foco em animais que receberam Pilocarpina (Pilo) e não desenvolveram status epilepticus (SE) comportamental e, se os mesmos se tornarão epilépticos na fase crônica do modelo. Autores observaram o brotamento das fibras musgosas no hipocampo de ratos Não-SE (NSE), enquanto outros observaram crises espontâneas e recorrentes (CER) 6 - 8 meses após receberam a droga. A excitabilidade neuronal é influenciada pelos hormônios femininos e, da mesma forma, a ocorrência de SE em ratas castradas e não-castradas. Entretanto, não é sabido se as fêmeas que não apresentam SE terão CER. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar se fêmeas castradas e não castradas que não tiveram SE comportamental após a injeção de Pilo desenvolverão CER dentro de um ano. Para isto, os animais receberam 360 mg/kg de Pilo e foram videomonitorados por 12 meses. As fêmeas SE castradas e não-castradas se tornaram epilépticas desde o primeiro mês pós Pilo. O comportamento epiléptico foi identificado assistindo as gravações na velocidade rápida. As fêmeas NSE castradas e não-castradas apresentaram comportamentos similares aos estágios 1 - 3 da Escala de Racine. As alterações motoras nestes grupos (NSE) foram observadas apenas quando as videomonitoração foi analisada na velocidade lenta. Além destas, manifestações comportamentais como movimentos rítmicos da cabeça, movimentos súbitos da cabeça, movimentos de todo o corpo e imobilidade também foram observadas em ambos grupos, SE e NSE. Concluímos que as fêmeas NE podem ter se tornado epilépticas. Adicionado a isto, a análise das alterações motoras na velocidade lenta foi essencial para a observação dos achados das fêmeas NSE, o que sugere que possivelmente muitas alterações motoras têm sido subestimados na pesquisa em epilepsia experimental.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Pilocarpina/toxicidade , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Estado Epiléptico/induzido quimicamente , Ratos Wistar , Agonistas Muscarínicos/toxicidade , Modelos Teóricos
5.
J Insect Physiol ; 142: 104438, 2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049569

RESUMO

Microinjection of genetic material into non-diapause eggs is required for genetic engineering of silkworms. Besides diapause could be useful for maintaining transgenic lines, a drawback of this technology is that most standard silkworm strains and experimental lines of interest produce diapausing eggs. Several approaches have been developed to abolish diapause but none are very efficient. Here, we investigated the ablation of the suboesophageal ganglion (SG) in female pupae, which is a source of the hormone required to trigger egg diapause, as a mean to abolish diapause. We showed that SG-ablation is a reliable method to produce nondiapause eggs. Additionally, the challenge associated with lower fecundity of females with SG ablation was resolved by injecting pilocarpine into the mated female. We also investigated the suitability of nondiapause eggs laid by SG-ablated females for transgenesis, targeted mutagenesis, and induction of parthenogenetic development. Our results demonstrated SG-ablation to be a useful and simple method for expanding the possibilities associated with genetic engineering in silkworms.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111703

RESUMO

Both in vitro and animal studies indicated that a higher dilution rate is related to a more efficient microbial synthesis and a lower methane (CH4 ) yield. The latter could be a consequence of the former, as an increase in microbial cell synthesis offers an alternative hydrogen sink competing with methanogenesis. To test this assumption in live animals, we applied a saliva stimulant, pilocarpine, to modify liquid flow rate in cattle. Four non-lactating cows (750 ± 71 kg) were fed forage only (restricted to constant intake) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with oral doses of 0, 1, 2.5 and 5mg pilocarpine/kg body weight and day. We quantified feed and water intake, ruminal and total tract mean retention time (MRT) of solute and particle markers, ruminal microbial yield (via urinary purine bases or metabolic faecal nitrogen), CH4 emission, digestibility, chewing behaviour, reticular motility and rumen fluid parameters. The effect of induced saliva flow was evident by visibly increased salivation and water intake. Increasing the pilocarpine dosages resulted in a linearly decreased MRT of fluid and small particles (p < 0.001 and p< 0.05, respectively) and methane yield as related to digested DM (p < 0.05), the latter at a magnitude of 5%. No effect of treatment was found on ruminal microbial yield estimated via purine derivates. Metabolic faecal N as an indicator of microbial growth linearly correlated with pilocarpine dosages (p < 0.05). No significant relationship was found between pilocarpine dosages and large particle MRT, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and short-chain fatty acids. In conclusion, different from some in vitro studies, there was little indication of a reciprocal effect of CH4 and microbial biomass production in cows fed a forage-only diet.

7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 365: 110059, 2022 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931201

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate, through in vivo and in vitro methodologies, the effect of acute trans,trans-farnesol (12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg, p.o.) administration on behavioral and neurochemical parameters associated with pilocarpine-induced epileptic seizure (300 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice. The initial results showed that the compound in question presents no anxiolytic-like or myorelaxant effects, despite reducing locomotor activity in the animals at all doses tested. In addition, the lowest dose increased the latency to onset of the first epileptic seizure, and the time to death. In addition to decreasing the mortality percentage in mice submitted to the pilocarpine model. In this same model, pretreatment with the lowest dose of the compound decreased the hippocampal concentrations of thiobarbituric acid and nitrite, and partially restored striatal concentrations of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin. Taken together, the results suggest that trans,trans-farnesol presents a central depressant effect which contributes to its antiepileptic action which, in turn, seems to be mediated by the antagonism of muscarinic cholinergic receptors, reduction of oxidative stress. and modulation of noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin concentrations in the central nervous system.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Animais , Dopamina , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Farneseno Álcool/efeitos adversos , Hipocampo , Camundongos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Pilocarpina/toxicidade , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Serotonina
8.
Epilepsy Behav ; 134: 108802, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792414

RESUMO

Epilepsy is a widespread neurological disorder frequently associated with a lot of comorbidities. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of the antiseizure medication topiramate (TPM) on spontaneous motor seizures, the pathogenesis of comorbid mood and cognitive impairments, hippocampal neuronal loss, and oxidative stress and inflammation in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Vehicle/TPM treatment (80 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered 3 h after the pilocarpine (pilo)-induced status epilepticus (SE) and continued for up to 12 weeks in Wistar rats. The chronic TPM treatment caused side effects in naïve rats, including memory disturbance, anxiety, and depressive-like responses. However, the anticonvulsant effect of this drug, administered during epileptogenesis, was accompanied by beneficial activity against comorbid behavioral impairments. The drug treatment suppressed the SE-induced neuronal damage in limbic structures, including the dorsal (CA1 and CA2 subfield), the ventral (CA1, CA2 and CA3) hippocampus, the basolateral amygdala, and the piriform cortex, while was ineffective against the surge in the oxidative stress and inflammation. Our results suggest that neuroprotection is an essential mechanism of TPM against spontaneous generalized seizures and concomitant emotional and cognitive impairments.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal , Estado Epiléptico , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo , Inflamação , Neuroproteção , Pilocarpina , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Convulsões , Topiramato
9.
Neuroscience ; 499: 142-151, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35878719

RESUMO

Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) is a transmembrane protein that binds levetiracetam and is involved in neurotransmission via an unknown mechanism. SV2A-immunoreactivity is reduced in animal models of epilepsy, and in postmortem hippocampi from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. It is not known if other regions outside the hippocampus are affected in epilepsy, and whether SV2A expression is permanently reduced or regulated over time. In this study, we induced a generalized status epilepticus (SE) by systemic administration of lithium-pilocarpine to adult female rats. The brains from all animals experiencing SE were collected at different time points after the treatment. The radiotracer, [11C]-UCB-J, binds to SV2A with high affinity, and has been used for in vivo imaging as an a-proxy marker for synaptic density. Here we determined the level of tritiated UCB-J binding by semiquantitative autoradiography in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and hypothalamus, and in cortical subregions. A prominent and highly significant reduction in SV2A binding capacity was observed over the first days after SE in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, but not in the thalamus and hypothalamus. The magnitude in reduction was larger and occurred earlier in the hippocampus and the piriform cortex, than in other cortical subregions. Interestingly, in all areas examined, the binding capacity returned to control levels 12 weeks after the SE comparable to the chronic epileptic phase. These data indicate that lithium-pilocarpine-induced epileptogenesis involves both loss and gain of synapses in the in a time-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Estado Epiléptico , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Feminino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Lítio , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Pilocarpina , Ratos , Estado Epiléptico/induzido quimicamente , Estado Epiléptico/metabolismo
10.
Neurobiol Dis ; 171: 105794, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35718264

RESUMO

Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most common type of focal refractory epilepsy and is characterized by recurring seizures that are often refractory to medication. Since parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons were recently shown to play significant roles in ictogenesis, we established here how bilateral optogenetic stimulation of these interneurons in the hippocampus CA3 regions modulates seizures, interictal spikes and high-frequency oscillations (HFOs; ripples: 80-200 Hz, fast ripples: 250-500 Hz) in the pilocarpine model of MTLE. Bilateral optogenetic stimulation of CA3 PV-positive interneurons at 8 Hz (lasting 30 s, every 2 min) was implemented in PV-ChR2 mice for 8 consecutive days starting on day 7 (n = 8) or on day 13 (n = 6) after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Seizure occurrence was higher in both day 7 and day 13 groups of PV-ChR2 mice during periods of optogenetic stimulation ("ON"), compared to when stimulation was not performed ("OFF") (day 7 group = p < 0.01, day 13 group = p < 0.01). In the PV-ChR2 day 13 group, rates of seizures (p < 0.05), of interictal spikes associated with fast ripples (p < 0.01), and of isolated fast ripples (p < 0.01) during optogenetic stimulations were significantly higher than in the PV-ChR2 day 7 group. Our findings reveal that bilateral activation of PV-interneurons in the hippocampus (leading to a presumptive increase in GABA signaling) favors ictogenesis. These effects may also mirror the neuropathological changes that occur over time after SE in this animal model.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal , Estado Epiléptico , Animais , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/patologia , Camundongos , Optogenética , Pilocarpina/toxicidade , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 74(3): 399-411, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1383776

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyze the behavior and histopathological changes in the hippocampus of epileptic Wistar rats treated with acupuncture associated or not with phenobarbital. The experiment used 44 male rats with 90 days of birth, induced to status epileptics with pilocarpine hydrochloride in a single dose of 350mg/kg, separated into treatment groups and submitted for 5 minutes to the elevated plus-maze test. Group 1 received 0.2mL of saline solution orally; Group 2 treated with acupuncture at the yintang, baihui, shishencong, jizhong, naohu, thianzu points; Group 3 received orally phenobarbital, daily dose of 20mg/kg; Group 4 treated with an association of acupuncture and oral phenobarbital; Group 5 random needling. The results obtained showed that Groups 2 (acupuncture) and 4 (acupuncture and phenobarbital) presented decreased anxiety, epileptic seizures, and neuronal death in the CA1, CA3 areas of the hippocampus when compared to animals in groups 1, 3 and 5. It is concluded that the association of phenobarbital and acupuncture points used in the experiment allowed for the control of epileptic seizures, reduction of anxiety and reduction of lesions in the subareas of the hippocampus.


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o comportamento e as alterações histopatológicas no hipocampo de ratos Wistar epilépticos tratados com acupuntura associada ou não a fenobarbital. O experimento utilizou 44 ratos machos, com 90 dias de nascimento, induzidos ao status epileticus com cloridrato de pilocarpina, em dose única de 350mg/kg, separados em grupos de tratamento e submetidos por cinco minutos ao teste de labirinto em cruz elevado. O grupo 1 recebeu, por via oral, 0,2mL de solução salina; o grupo 2 foi tratado com acupuntura nos pontos yintang, baihui, shishencong, jizhong, naohu, thianzu; o grupo 3 recebeu, por via oral, fenobarbital, dose diária de 20mg/kg; o grupo 4 foi tratado com associação acupuntura e fenobarbital por via oral; o grupo 5 recebeu agulhamento aleatório. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que os grupos 2 (acupuntura) e 4 (acupuntura e fenobarbital) apresentaram diminuição da ansiedade, das crises epilépticas e da morte neuronal nas áreas CA1, CA3 do hipocampo quando comparados aos animais dos grupos 1, 3 e 5. Conclui-se que a associação do fenobarbital e dos pontos de acupuntura utilizados no experimento permitiu o controle das crises epilépticas, a redução da ansiedade e a diminuição das lesões nas subáreas do hipocampo.

12.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(6)2022 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35745681

RESUMO

Xerostomia is linked to an increased risk of dental caries, oral fungal infections, and speaking/swallowing difficulties, factors that may significantly degrade patients' life, socially- or emotionally-wise. Consequently, there is an increasing interest in developing management approaches for confronting this oral condition, at which pilocarpine, a parasympathomimetic agent, plays a vital role. Although the therapeutic effects of orally administrated pilocarpine on the salivary gland flow and the symptoms of xerostomia have been proved by numerous studies, the systemic administration of this drug is affiliated with various adverse effects. Some of the typical adverse effects include sweating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rhinitis, dizziness and increased urinary frequency. In this vein, new strategies to develop novel and effective dosage forms for topical (i.e., in the oral cavity) pilocarpine administration, in order for the salivary flow to be enhanced with minimal systemic manifestations, have emerged. Therefore, the purpose of the current review is to survey the literature concerning the performance of topical pilocarpine delivery systems. According to the findings, the topical delivery of pilocarpine can be regarded as the equivalent to systemic delivery of the drug, efficacy-wise, but with improved patient tolerance and less adverse effects.

13.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 16: 900925, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685989

RESUMO

Background: Status epilepticus (SE) leads to memory impairment following a seizure, attributed to long-term potentiation (LTP) reduction. Thrombin, a coagulation factor that activates protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is involved in cognitive impairment following traumatic brain injury by reducing hippocampal LTP and in seizures as seen in a SE pilocarpine-induced mice model. Thrombin pathway inhibition prevents this cognitive impairment. We evaluated the effect of thrombin pathway inhibition in the pilocarpine-induced SE mice model, on LTP, hippocampal, and serum markers for inflammation, the PAR1 pathway, and neuronal cell damage. Methods: SE was induced by injecting C57BL/6J mice with pilocarpine. Before pilocarpine injection, mice were injected with either the specific thrombin inhibitor α-NAPAP [Nα-(2-naphthalene-sulfonylglycyl)-4-amidino-DL-phenylalaninepiperidide], the PAR1 antagonist SCH79797, or vehicle-only solution. Recordings of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) were conducted from hippocampal slices 24 h following pilocarpine injection. Hippocampal real-time PCR for the quantification of the PAR1, prothrombin, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) mRNA expression levels was conducted. Serum levels of neurofilament light chain (NfL) and TNF-α were measured by a single molecule array assay. Results: The EPSP was reduced in the pilocarpine-induced SE mice (p < 0.001). This reduction was prevented by both NAPAP and SCH79797 treatments (p < 0.001 for both treatments). Hippocampal expression of TNF-α was elevated in the pilocarpine-induced SE group compared to the control (p < 0.01), however, serum levels of TNF-α were not changed. NfL levels were elevated in the pilocarpine-induced SE group (p = 0.04) but not in the treated groups. Conclusions: Pilocarpine-induced SE reduces LTP, in a thrombin PAR1-related mechanism. Elevation of serum NfL supports neuronal damage accompanying this functional abnormality which may be prevented by PAR1 pathway modulation.

14.
Neurosci Lett ; 782: 136690, 2022 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598692

RESUMO

Our study aimed to determine the effects of pilocarpine and the mechanisms involving muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) on glycine receptors (GlyRs) in neurons of the spinal cord ventral horn. An enzymatic digestion combined with acute mechanical separation was applied to isolate neurons from the spinal cord ventral horn. Patch-clamp recording was then used to investigate the outcomes of pilocarpine. Our results indicate that pilocarpine increased the glycine currents in a concentration-dependent manner, which was blocked by the M3-AChR selective antagonists 4-DAMP and J104129. Pilocarpine also enhanced the glycine currents in nominally Ca2+-free extracellular solution. Conversely, the enhancement of glycine currents by pilocarpine disappeared when intracellular Ca2+ was chelated by BAPTA. Heparin and Xe-C, which are IP3 receptor antagonists, also totally abolished the pilocarpine effect. Furthermore, Bis-IV, a PKC inhibitor, eliminated the pilocarpine effect. Additionally, PMA, a PKC activator, mimicked the pilocarpine effect. These results indicate that pilocarpine may increase the glycine currents by activating the M3-AChRs and IP3/Ca2+/PKC pathways.


Assuntos
Células do Corno Anterior , Glicina , Células do Corno Anterior/metabolismo , Glicina/metabolismo , Glicina/farmacologia , Pilocarpina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Medula Espinal/metabolismo
15.
J Food Biochem ; 46(9): e14217, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543175

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effects of ketogenic diet (KD) against the neuronal disruptions induced by SE in lithium-pilocarpine rat model of status epilepticus (SE). Four groups of female rats include; groups I and III received standard diet and groups II and IV received KD for 3 weeks. Groups I and II were left untreated, while groups III and IV were injected with LiCl (127 mg/kg, i.p.) followed by pilocarpine HCl (10 mg/kg, i.p.) 18-24 h later, repeatedly, till induction of SE. 72 h post-SE, KD effectively ameliorated the balance between excitatory (glutamate) and inhibitory (GABA) neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, increased adenine nucleotides and decreased immunoreactivity of iNOS, TNFα, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and synaptophysin. Thiswas in association with improvement in inflammatory response and neuronal tissue characteristics in hippocampus of SE rats. Histological changes showed preservation of neuronal integrity. These findings highlight the protective effects of KD in the acute phase post-SE via ameliorating biochemical and histological changes involved. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Epilepsy is the fourth most common neurological disorder that requires lifelong treatment. It stigmatizes patients and their families. The use of the ketogenic diet (KD) as a therapy for epilepsy developed from observations that fasting could reduce seizures. From 1920s, the KD was a common epilepsy treatment until it was gradually superseded by anticonvulsant drugs so that by the 1980s it was rarely used. However, there has been a resurgence of interest and usage of the KD for epilepsy since the turn of the century. Despite its long history, the mechanisms by which KD exhibits its anti-seizure action are not fully understood. Our study aims to identify the mechanism of KD which may help further studies to achieve the same benefits with a drug or supplement to overcome its unpalatability and gastrointestinal side effects.


Assuntos
Dieta Cetogênica , Epilepsia , Estado Epiléptico , Animais , Epilepsia/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Hipocampo , Pilocarpina/efeitos adversos , Ratos , Estado Epiléptico/induzido quimicamente , Estado Epiléptico/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 85(3): 269-276, May-June 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383807

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of oral pilocarpine (20 mg daily) for the treatment of dry eye in patients with Sjogren's Syndrome. The frequency of side effects reported during the treatment was also investigated. Methods: In this placebo-controlled crossover study, 32 patients with Sjögren's syndrome were enrolled to receive either oral pilocarpine or placebo for 10 weeks. Following a 2-week washout period, the treatment was inverted for each patient for the same duration. Assessments included the quality of life National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25), dry eye specific questionnaire Ocular Surface Disease Index, non-invasive breakup time, invasive breakup time with fluorescein, corneal and conjunctival staining patterns with the use of fluorescein and rose bengal staining, Schirmer's test, and tear ferning test. Results: According to the NEI-VFQ-25, there was statistically significant improvement in the quality of life following oral pilocarpine. Similar results were observed for ocular discomfort, as determined by the Ocular Surface Disease Index. All clinical tests showed favorable and statistically significant results following the use of oral pilocarpine. Regarding the analysis of tear samples, there was an improvement in the quality of tear film. This was evidenced by the modification of the patterns observed in the tear ferning test. Side effects were reported by 96.8% and 56.2% of the patients who received pilocarpine and placebo, respectively. Sweating was the most frequently reported side effect (67.74% versus 11.11%, respectively). Conclusions: Although the treatment was associated with a high frequency of side effects, oral pilocarpine (20 mg daily) was able to relieve discomfort related to dry eyes in patients with Sjögren's syndrome and induce favorable structural changes in the tear film.


RESUMO Objetivos: Avaliar o alívio de sintomas e sinais relacionados à secura ocular e na qualidade de vida de pacientes com síndrome de Sjögren tratados com o uso oral de pilocarpina na dose diária de 20mg. A frequência dos efeitos colaterais relatados com o tratamento também foi estudada. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo cruzado e placebo-controlado, que envolveu 32 pacientes com síndrome de Sjögren em uso de pilocarpina oral ou placebo, por dez semanas. Após duas semanas sem medicações, houve a inversão dos tratamentos para cada paciente, por mais dez semanas. As avaliações foram feitas por meio do questionário de qualidade de vida NEI-VFQ-25, questionário olho seco específico Ocular Surface Disease Index, tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal não invasivo, tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal com fluoresceína, avaliação da superfície ocular com os corantes fluoresceína e rosa Bengala, teste de Schirmer e teste de cristalização do filme lacrimal. Resultados: Houve melhora estatisticamente significante na qualidade de vida medida pelo questionário NEI-VFQ-25 e no desconforto ocular avaliado pelo Ocular Surface Disease Index, após o tratamento. Todos os testes clínicos sofreram influência favorável e estatisticamente significante durante a fase de tratamento com pilocarpina oral. Em relação à análise de amostras de lágrimas, ocorreram alterações estruturais indicando melhora no padrão de cristalização do filme lacrimal. Os efeitos colaterais com o uso de pilocarpina foram relatados por 96,8% dos pacientes com a pilocarpina e 56,2% com placebo. Sudorese foi o efeito colateral mais frequentemente relatado (pilocarpina = 67,74%; placebo = 11,11%). Conclusões: O uso oral de pilocarpina na dose diária de 20mg foi capaz de aliviar as queixas de desconforto relacionadas ao ressecamento ocular em pacientes com síndrome de Sjögren, produzir impacto positivo na qualidade de vida dos pacientes e induzir mudanças estruturais favoráveis no filme lacrimal, embora os efeitos colaterais relatados tenham ocorrido com alta frequência.

17.
J Cyst Fibros ; 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577746

RESUMO

Objectives Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a debilitating genetic disorder that benefits from early detection. CF diagnosis relies on measuring elevated sweat chloride that is difficult in neonates with low sweat rates. We introduce a new method for sweat chloride determination from volume-limited specimens, and explore the potential utility of sweat bicarbonate in neonatal CF screening. Methods A rapid assay (< 5 min) was developed to analyze chloride and bicarbonate using capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection (CE-iUV). Pilocarpine-stimulated sweat samples from screen-positive CF infants were collected at two hospital sites, including confirmed CF (n = 12), CF screen-positive inconclusive diagnosis (n = 4), and unaffected non-CF cases (n = 37). All sweat chloride samples were analyzed by a coulometric titrator and CE-iUV, and the viability to measure acid-labile bicarbonate was also evaluated. Results Stability studies revealed that bicarbonate can be reliably assessed in sweat if acidification and heating were avoided. Method validation demonstrated that sweat chloride and bicarbonate were quantified with acceptable accuracy (recovery of 102%), precision (CV = 3.7%) and detection limits (∼ 0.1 mM). An inter-laboratory comparison confirmed a mean bias of 6.5% (n = 53) for sweat chloride determination by CE-iUV relative to a commercial chloridometer. However, sweat bicarbonate did not discriminate between CF and non-CF infants (AUC = 0.623, p = 0.215) unlike chloride (AUC = 1.00, p = 3.00 × 10-7). Conclusions CE-iUV offers a robust method for sweat chloride testing from presumptive CF infants that may reduce testing failure rates. However, sweat bicarbonate does not have clinical value in newborn CF diagnosis.

18.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 45(4): 403-408, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35370264

RESUMO

Sjogren's syndrome and radiation therapy for head and neck cancers are often accompanied by xerostomia. Oral pilocarpine (PCP) to treat xerostomia produces systemic side effects, such as runny nose and lacrimation. To improve the therapeutic efficacy of PCP and reduce the aforementioned side effects, we developed a topical delivery system for PCP using freeze-dried sheets of hyaluronic acid (HA). The advantages of HA sheets over conventional oral formulations were examined through in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies after their application to oral tissues and salivary glands. The concentration of PCP in the submucosal tissue of the oral cavity was determined using the microdialysis (MD) method after buccal application of HA sheets containing PCP to hamsters. The concentration of PCP in the MD outflow was quite low after gastric administration, whereas the PCP concentration in plasma was high. In contrast, after buccal application of HA sheets containing PCP, the concentration of the drug in the MD outflow increased, despite the negligible concentration in plasma. These findings indicated that both enhancement of saliva secretion and the avoidance of systemic side effects could be achieved through buccal administration of PCP-loaded HA sheets. In addition, the pharmacodynamic study showed that when compared with intravenous and gastric administration, salivary application of HA sheets containing PCP resulted in similar volumes of saliva secretion and reduced lacrimal secretions. In conclusion, freeze-dried HA sheets allow for the development of a novel buccal delivery system with enhanced therapeutic efficacy and safety to treat xerostomia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Xerostomia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pilocarpina/farmacologia , Pilocarpina/uso terapêutico , Glândulas Salivares/efeitos da radiação , Salivação/efeitos da radiação , Xerostomia/induzido quimicamente , Xerostomia/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Front Neurol ; 13: 802587, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449517

RESUMO

Epidemiological evidence shows that clinical features and comorbidities in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) may have different manifestations depending on the sex of patients. However, little is known about how sex-related mechanisms can interfere with the processes underlying the epileptic phenomenon. The findings of this study show that male rats with epilepsy in the pilocarpine model have longer-lasting and more severe epileptic seizures, while female rats have a higher frequency of epileptic seizures and a greater number of seizure clusters. Significant sex-linked pathological changes were also observed: epileptic brains of male and female rats showed differences in mass reduction of 41.8% in the amygdala and 18.2% in the olfactory bulb, while loss of neuronal cells was present in the hippocampus (12.3%), amygdala (18.1%), and olfactory bulb (7.5%). Another important sex-related finding was the changes in non-neuronal cells with increments for the hippocampus (36.1%), amygdala (14.7%), and olfactory bulb (37%). Taken together, our study suggests that these neuropathological changes may underlie the differences in the clinical features of epileptic seizures observed in male and female rats.

20.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 757729, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35431921

RESUMO

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common kind of refractory epilepsy. More than 30% TLE patients were multi-drug resistant. Some patients may even develop into status epilepticus (SE) because of failing to control seizures. Thus, one of the avid goals for anti-epileptic drug development is to discover novel potential compounds to treat TLE or even SE. Crocin, an effective component of Crocus sativus L., has been applied in several epileptogenic models to test its anti-epileptic effect. However, it is still controversial and its effect on TLE remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of crocin on epileptogenesis, generalized seizures (GS) in hippocampal rapid electrical kindling model as well as SE and spotaneous recurrent seizure (SRS) in pilocarpine-induced TLE model in ICR mice in this study. The results showed that seizure stages and cumulative afterdischarge duration were significantly depressed by crocin (20 and 50 mg/kg) during hippocampal rapid kindling acquisition. And crocin (100 mg/kg) significantly reduced the incidence of GS and average seizure stages in fully kindled animals. In pilocarpine-induced TLE model, the latency of SE was significantly prolonged and the mortality of SE was significantly decreased by crocin (100 mg/kg), which can also significantly suppress the number of SRS. The underlying mechanism of crocin may be involved in the protection of neurons, the decrease of tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampus and the increase of brain derived neurotrophic factor in the cortex. In conclusion, crocin may be a potential and promising anti-epileptic compound for treatment of TLE.

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