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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e260091, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374650

RESUMO

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders affecting most social, economic and biological aspects of human life. Most patients with epilepsy have uncontrolled seizures and drug side effects despite the medications. Patients with epilepsy often have problems with attention, memory, and information processing speed, which may be due to seizures, underlying causes, or anticonvulsants. Therefore, improving seizure control and reducing or changing the anti-epileptic drugs can solve these problems, but these problems will not be solved in most cases. In this work, we looked at the effects of pioglitazone, a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, on pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice. The Racine scale was used to classify pilocarpine-induced convulsions. After that, all of the animals were beheaded, and the brain and hippocampus were dissected. Finally, biochemical techniques were used to determine the levels of Malondialdehyde and Catalase activity, as well as Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione Reductase in the hippocampus. The results of this investigation suggest that pioglitazone's antioxidant action may play a key role in its neuroprotective properties against pilocarpine-induced seizure neuronal damage.


A epilepsia é um dos distúrbios neurológicos mais comuns que afetam a maioria dos aspectos sociais, econômicos e biológicos da vida humana. A maioria dos pacientes com epilepsia tem convulsões não controladas e apresenta efeitos colaterais de medicamentos. Pacientes com epilepsia, geralmente, têm problemas de atenção, memória e velocidade de processamento de informações, ocasionados por convulsões, causas subjacentes ou anticonvulsivantes. Portanto, melhorar o controle das crises e reduzir ou alterar as drogas antiepilépticas pode resolver esses problemas, mas, na maioria dos casos, eles não serão resolvidos. Neste trabalho, analisamos os efeitos da pioglitazona, um agonista do receptor ativado por proliferador de peroxissoma usado para tratar diabetes tipo 2, em convulsões induzidas por pilocarpina em camundongos. A escala de Racine foi usada para classificar as convulsões induzidas pela pilocarpina. Em seguida, todos os animais foram decapitados, e o cérebro e o hipocampo foram dissecados. Finalmente, técnicas bioquímicas foram utilizadas para determinar os níveis de atividade do malondialdeído e da catalase, bem como da superóxido dismutase e glutationa redutase no hipocampo. Os resultados desta investigação sugerem que a ação antioxidante da pioglitazona pode desempenhar um papel fundamental em suas propriedades neuroprotetoras contra o dano neuronal convulsivo induzido pela pilocarpina.


Assuntos
Camundongos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Epilepsia , Pioglitazona/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes
3.
Life Sci ; 308: 120956, 2022 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103959

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important health threat that is strongly linked to components of metabolic syndrome, particularly the low-grade inflammatory changes. Significantly, several of the available anti-diabetic drug classes demonstrate a considerable anti-inflammatory effect, and hence might be of benefit for NAFLD patients. In this study, we used a rat model of diet-induced NAFLD to examine the potential effect of metformin, pioglitazone, dapagliflozin and their combinations on NAFLD manifestations. Rats were fed an atherogenic diet containing 1.25 % cholesterol, 0.5 % cholic acid and 60 % cocoa butter for 6 weeks causing a number of metabolic and hepatic alterations including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, systemic inflammation, increased hepatic oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, hepatic steatosis, lobular inflammation, as well as increased markers of liver inflammation and hepatocyte apoptosis. Drug treatment, which started at the third week of NAFLD induction and continued for three weeks, not only ameliorated the observed metabolic impairment, but also functional and structural manifestations of NAFLD. Specifically, anti-diabetic drug treatment reversed markers of systemic and hepatic inflammation, oxidative stress, hepatic fibrosis, and hepatocyte apoptosis. Our findings propose that anti-diabetic drugs with a potential anti-inflammatory effect can ameliorate the manifestations of NAFLD, and thus may provide a therapeutic option for such a condition that is closely associated with metabolic diseases. The detailed pharmacology of these classes in aspects linked to the observed impact on NAFLD requires to be further investigated and translated into clinical studies for tailored therapy specifically targeting NAFLD.

4.
Mol Metab ; 65: 101598, 2022 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) as insulin sensitizers has been shown to have side effects including increased accumulation of bone marrow adipocytes (BMAds) associated with a higher fracture risk and bone loss. A novel TZD analog MSDC-0602K with low affinity to PPARγ has been developed to reduce adverse effects of TZD therapy. However, the effect of MSDC-0602K on bone phenotype and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in relation to obesity has not been intensively studied yet. METHODS: Here, we investigated whether 8-week treatment with MSDC-0602K has a less detrimental effect on bone loss and BM-MSC properties in obese mice in comparison to first generation of TZDs, pioglitazone. Bone parameters (bone microstructure, bone marrow adiposity, bone strength) were examined by µCT and 3-point bending test. Primary BM-MSCs were isolated and measured for osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Cellular senescence, bioenergetic profiling, nutrient consumption and insulin signaling were also determined. RESULTS: The findings demonstrate that MSDC-0602K improved bone parameters along with increased proportion of smaller BMAds in tibia of obese mice when compared to pioglitazone. Further, primary BM-MSCs isolated from treated mice and human BM-MSCs revealed decreased adipocyte and higher osteoblast differentiation accompanied with less inflammatory and senescent phenotype induced by MSDC-0602K vs. pioglitazone. These changes were further reflected by increased glycolytic activity differently affecting glutamine and glucose cellular metabolism in MSDC-0602K-treated cells compared to pioglitazone, associated with higher osteogenesis. CONCLUSION: Our study provides novel insights into the action of MSDC-0602K in obese mice, characterized by the absence of detrimental effects on bone quality and BM-MSC metabolism when compared to classical TZDs and thus suggesting a potential therapeutical use of MSDC-0602K in both metabolic and bone diseases.

5.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(9)2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145334

RESUMO

Disturbance of glucose metabolism, nerve growth factor (NGF) and m-TOR signaling have been associated with the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Pioglitazone (PGZ) is an anti-diabetic drug that shows a protective effect in neurodegenerative diseases including epilepsy; however, its exact mechanism is not fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of PGZ in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindled seizure in mice. Swiss male albino mice were randomly distributed into four groups, each having six mice. Group 1 was considered the control. Epilepsy was induced by PTZ (35 mg/kg i.p.) thrice a week for a total of 15 injections in all other groups. Group 2 was considered the untreated PTZ group while Group 3 and Group 4 were treated by PGZ prior to PTZ injection at two dose levels (5 and 10 mg/kg p.o., respectively). Seizure activity was evaluated after each PTZ injection according to the Fischer and Kittner scoring system. At the end of the experiment, animals were sacrificed under deep anesthesia and the hippocampus was isolated for analysis of glucose transporters by RT-PCR, nerve growth factor (NGF) by ELISA and mTOR by western blotting, in addition to histopathological investigation. The PTZ-treated group showed a significant rise in seizure score, NGF and m-TOR hyperactivation, along with histological abnormalities compared to the control group. Treatment with PGZ demonstrated a significant decrease in NGF, seizure score, m-TOR, GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 in comparison to the PTZ group. In addition, improvement of histological features was observed in both PGZ treated groups. These findings suggest that PGZ provides its neuroprotective effect through modulating m-TOR signaling, glucose metabolism and NGF levels.

6.
Dermatol Ther ; : e15868, 2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36169160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is a scarring alopecia for which no treatment with remarkable effect has been identified. Pioglitazone has been reported as a possible therapeutic option. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of pioglitazone with clobetasol in LPP. METHOD: This randomized, double-blind, parallel-group was conducted at Razi hospital. Patients were treated either with pioglitazone 15 mg/daily or clobetasol lotion 0.05% once at night for six months. Patients were visited every two months to assess the Lichen Planopilaris Activity Index (LPPAI) and record probable adverse events. RESULTS: Forty patients (mean age: 43.6 years; 62.5% female) were randomized 1:1. The mean of LPPAI at baseline and last session were 4.68±1.97 and 2.59±0.97 in the clobetasol group and 5.01±1.71 and 3.04±1.36 in the pioglitazone group, respectively. Both treatments significantly decreased the LPPAI over the two-month interval visits (p<0.001). No significant difference in the LPPAI reduction was detected between groups. Regarding the safety profile, three clobetasol-treated patients developed folliculitis, and two in the pioglitazone group developed mild headaches. CONCLUSIONS: Pioglitazone effectively controlled the signs and symptoms of the LPP with no serious side effects. It can be considered a treatment option for LPP, although it was not superior to clobetasol. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Endocrine ; 2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36169918

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study aimed to assess whether treatment with combined resveratrol and myoinositol is more effective in ameliorating the altered parameters associated with PCOS when compared to the combined metformin and pioglitazone therapy. METHOD: One hundred and ten obese, oligo-anovulatory PCOS women, aged 20-35 years were randomly assigned into two treatment arms. Participants in arm-1 (n = 55), received combination of metformin and pioglitazone (500 mg and 15 mg, respectively), twice daily, while those in arm-2 (n = 55) received combination of resveratrol and myoinositol (1000 mg and 1000 mg, respectively) twice daily for 12 weeks. Evaluations performed at baseline were repeated after 3 months of therapy. The endocrine and metabolic derangements were assessed by measuring serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), adiponectin and insulin using ELISA. Cohen's perceived stress scale (PSS) was employed as a subjective measure of stress. RESULTS: Pre-treatment PCOS women in both the arms (arm-1 and arm-2) had remarkably elevated serum testosterone and insulin concentrations, low serum adiponectin and high perceived stress response scores. The treatment reduced the altered endocrine indices in arm-2 (resveratrol and myoinositol) participants, manifested by statistically significant reduction in serum testosterone level (p = 0.001) and notably increased serum adiponectin level (p = 0.001). Interestingly, the hormonal profile, including serum LH and FSH levels also decreased (p < 0.001) along with a marked reduction in the ovarian volume (p = 0.001) in arm-2 participants. There was a significant reduction in weight (<0.001), BMI (p < 0.001) and an improvement in waist-hip ratio (p < 0.001) in arm-2 participants compared to arm-1 group. The PSS scores of the arm-2 subjects improved significantly (p < 0.001) whereas, the Ferrimen-Gallwey score was improved in both the arms (arm-1 and arm-2; p = 0.010 and 0.008 respectively) however, the change was highly significant in arm-2. Interestingly, the menstrual regularity was 81.4% in arm-2 while 18.2% in arm-1. We conclude that the therapeutic intervention with combined resveratrol and myoinositol is more effective in ameliorating altered endocrine, metabolic indices and stress burden and could be of clinical importance in high risk group of obese, oligo-anovulatory married PCOS affected women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTials.gov Trial No: NCT04867252. Registered 24 April, 2021, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04867252.

8.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 22 Suppl 2: S292, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36163919

RESUMO

CONTEXT: In CML, BCR-ABL1 oncoprotein induces overexpression of STAT5 and its target genes for example CITED2 gene. This gene is involved in regulating the proliferation and quiescence states of leukemic stem cells (LSCs). Recently, studies reported that adding pioglitazone (PPARγ agonist approved for T2DM treatment) to imatinib may decrease the transcription of both STAT5 and CITED2 gene, eliminate the quiescent LSCs (resist TKIs), and ameliorate the patients' response. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective is to clarify the value of combining pioglitazone with imatinib to downregulate the CITED2 gene aiming to eradicate the LSCs in CML treatment. DESIGN: In the context of a clinical trial (approved by the Ethical Committee of the Faculty of Medicine Mansoura University), the study group patients (N=26) were treated with combination therapy after having their consent. The planned follow-up time is 2 years. SETTING: Hematology unit, Oncology Center, Mansoura University. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: The eligibility criteria for study group patients were de novo, Philadelphia+ve CML (chronic phase) aged 18-60 years old. INTERVENTIONS: Those patients were treated with imatinib 400 mg and pioglitazone 15 mg once daily for 6 months. Pre- and post-treatment samples (after 6 months) were collected to assess the expression levels of the CITED2 gene. Responders continued on the same TKI and their sequential BCR/ABL Q-PCR was monitored. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The study proposed that this combination therapy can put more patients into deeper and faster molecular response via eliminating the LSCs. RESULTS: The study group included 15 males (57.7%) and 11 females (42.3%) with a mean age of 43.2 years. The BCR-ABL and CITED2 genes' pretreatment expression levels decreased significantly after 6 months of combined treatment (p<0.001 and p=0.005, respectively). Moreover, at 6 months 65.4% and 23% of the patients had response ≥ CCyR and ≥ MMR respectively. The most frequent complaints among patients were increased body weight and edema (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Adding pioglitazone to imatinib improved the patients' response and downregulate the overexpressed CITED2 gene. A longer follow-up is planned and needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of the combination.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/efeitos adversos , Cinética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , PPAR gama/uso terapêutico , Pioglitazona/farmacologia , Pioglitazona/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/uso terapêutico , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo , Transativadores/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
9.
Arch Med Sci Atheroscler Dis ; 7: e78-e93, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36158067

RESUMO

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is described in approximately 20-40% of all diabetic patients and is associated with significant cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. The involvement of multiple metabolic, haemodynamic, inflammatory, and tubular pathways in the pathophysiology of DKD generates the need for multitargeted treatment approaches to improve its development at all levels and delay or even reverse its progression. Thiazolidinediones are potent exogenous agonists of PPAR-γ, which augment the effects of insulin on its cellular targets, mainly at the level of adipose tissue. Pioglitazone, currently the main thiazolidinedione in clinical practice, has achieved significant improvements of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. It can also interfere with most cellular pathways involved in the development and evolution of DKD. This paper explores the pathophysiological mechanisms governing its possible nephroprotective activity during a diabetic state. It also discusses its future role to ameliorate the global burden of DKD.

10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 955593, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120427

RESUMO

Pioglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, is used to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D). PPARγ is highly expressed in adipose tissue (AT), however the effects of pioglitazone to improve insulin sensitivity are also evident in other tissues and PPARγ agonism has been shown to alter cancer derived extracellular vesicle (EV)-miRNAs. We hypothesized that pioglitazone modifies the cargo of circulating AT-derived EVs to alter interorgan crosstalk in people with diabetes. We tested our hypothesis in a 3-month trial in which 24 subjects with T2D were randomized to treatment with either pioglitazone 45 mg/day or placebo (NCT00656864). Levels of 42 adipocyte-derived EV-miRNAs were measured in plasma EVs using low density TaqMan arrays. Levels of differentially expressed EV-miRNAs and their most relevant target genes were also measure in adipose tissue from the same participants, using individual TaqMan assays. Levels of 5 miRNAs (i.e., miR-7-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-92a-3p, miR-195-5p, and miR-374b-5p) were significantly downregulated in EVs in response to pioglitazone treatment relative to placebo. The opposite occurred for miR-195-5p in subcutaneous AT. Changes in miRNA expression in EVs and AT correlated with changes in suppression of lipolysis and improved insulin sensitivity, among others. DICER was downregulated and exosomal miRNA sorting-related genes YBX1 and hnRNPA2B1 displayed a downregulation trend in AT. Furthermore, analysis of EV-miRNA targeted genes identified a network of transcripts that changed in a coordinated manner in AT. Collectively, our results suggest that some beneficial pharmacologic effects of pioglitazone are mediated by adipose-specific miRNA regulation and exosomal/EV trafficking. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT00656864.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Vesículas Extracelulares , Resistência à Insulina , MicroRNAs , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Pioglitazona/metabolismo
11.
Endocr J ; 2022 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36171144

RESUMO

Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD) 3 is a rare genetic disorder caused by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ gene (PPARG) mutations. Most cases have been reported in Western patients. Here, we describe a first pedigree of FPLD 3 in Japanese. The proband was a 51-year-old woman. She was diagnosed with fatty liver at age 32 years, dyslipidemia at age 37 years, and diabetes mellitus at age 41 years. Her body mass index was 18.5 kg/m2, and body fat percentage was 19.2%. On physical examination, she had less subcutaneous fat in the upper limbs than in other sites. On magnetic resonance imaging, atrophy of subcutaneous adipose tissue was seen in the upper limbs and lower legs. Fasting serum C-peptide immunoreactivity was high (3.4 ng/mL), and the plasma glucose disappearance rate was low (2.07%/min) on an insulin tolerance test, both suggesting apparent insulin resistance. The serum total adiponectin level was low (2.3 µg/mL). Mild fatty liver was seen on abdominal computed tomography. On genetic analysis, a P495L mutation in PPARG was identified. The same mutation was also seen in her father, who had non-obese diabetes mellitus, and FPLD 3 was diagnosed. Modest increases in body fat and serum total adiponectin were seen with pioglitazone treatment. Attention should be paid to avoid overlooking lipodystrophy syndromes even in non-obese diabetic patients if they show features of insulin resistance.

12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 884237, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909958

RESUMO

Patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to Leishmania braziliensis infection have an exacerbated inflammatory response associated with tissue damage and ulcer development. An increase in the rate of patients who fail therapy with pentavalent antimony has been documented. An adjuvant therapy with an anti-inflammatory drug with the potential of Leishmania killing would benefit CL patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) activation by pioglitazone in the regulation of the inflammatory response and L. braziliensis killing by monocytes. Pioglitazone is an oral drug used in the treatment of diabetes, and its main mechanism of action is through the activation of PPAR-γ, which is expressed in many cell types of the immune response. We found that activation of PPAR-γ by pioglitazone decreases the inflammatory response in CL patients without affecting L. braziliensis killing by monocytes. Our data suggest that pioglitazone may serve as an adjunctive treatment for CL caused by L. braziliensis.


Assuntos
Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Monócitos , PPAR gama/uso terapêutico , Pioglitazona/farmacologia , Pioglitazona/uso terapêutico
13.
Metab Brain Dis ; 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943675

RESUMO

Regarding the low quality of life due to the cognitive complications in the patients with hepatic cirrhosis (HC), the goal of this study was to examine the possible neuroprotective effect of pioglitazone (PIO) on the electrophysiological alterations of hippocampus, a major area of cognition, in the experimental model of bile duct ligation (BDL). We used adult male Wistar rats in the present study to perform BDL or sham surgery. Pioglitazone was administered in BDL rats two weeks after the surgery for the next continuous four weeks. The effects of pioglitazone on BDL-induced electrophysiological alterations of the CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus were evaluated by whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Our findings demonstrated that chronic administration of PIO could not reverse the electrophysiological changes in the CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus in BDL rats but could improve the hepatic dysfunction.Together, the results of this study suggest that PIO administration cannot counteract altered intrinsic properties of the hippocampal neurons which has been shown recently as an involved mechanism of the cognitive impairments in hepatic encephalopathy (HE).

14.
J Drug Target ; : 1-10, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35938912

RESUMO

Peri-stent restenosis following stent implantation is a major clinical problem. We have previously demonstrated that ultrasound-facilitated liposomal delivery of pioglitazone (PGN) to the arterial wall attenuated in-stent restenosis. To evaluate ultrasound mediated arterial delivery, in Yucatan miniswine, balloon inflations were performed in the carotid and subclavian arteries to simulate stent implantation and induce fibrin formation. The fibrin-binding peptide, GPRPPGGGC, was conjugated to echogenic liposomes (ELIP) containing dinitrophenyl-L-alanine-labelled pioglitazone (DNP-PGN) for targeting purposes. After pre-treating the arteries with nitroglycerine, fibrin-binding peptide-conjugated PGN-loaded ELIP (PAFb-DNP-PGN-ELIP also termed atheroglitatide) were delivered to the injured arteries via an endovascular catheter with an ultrasound core, either with or without ultrasound application (EKOSTM Endovascular System, Boston Scientific). In arteries treated with atheroglitatide, there was substantial delivery of PGN into the superficial layers (5 µm from the lumen) of the arteries with and without ultrasound, [(1951.17 relative fluorescence units (RFU) vs. 1901.17 RFU; P-value = 0.939)]. With ultrasound activation there was increased penetration of PGN into the deeper arterial layers (up to 35 µm from the lumen) [(13195.25 RFU vs. 7681.00 RFU; P-value = 0.005)]. These pre-clinical data demonstrate ultrasound mediated therapeutic vascular delivery to deeper layers of the injured arterial wall. This model has the potential to reduce peri- stent restenosis.

15.
Eur J Neurosci ; 56(6): 4948-4961, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945686

RESUMO

Diabetes can cause vascular remodelling and is associated with worse outcome after ischaemic stroke. Pioglitazone is a commonly used anti-diabetic agent. However, it is not known whether pioglitazone use before ischaemia could reduce brain ischaemic injury. Pioglitazone was administered to 5-week-old db+ or db/db mice. Cerebral vascular remodelling was examined at the age of 9 weeks. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), p-PPARγ (S112 and S273), nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (Nlrp3), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was evaluated in the somatosensory cortex of mice. Neurological outcome was evaluated 24 h after brain ischaemia. Results showed that early pioglitazone treatment provided a long-lasting effect of euglycaemia but enhanced hyperlipidaemia in the db/db mice. Diabetic mice exhibited increased vascular tortuosity, narrower middle cerebral artery (MCA) width and IgG leakage in the brain. These changes were blocked by early pioglitazone treatment. In diabetic animals, PPARγ expression was reduced, and p-PPARγ at S273 but not S112, Nlrp3, IL-1ß and TNF-α were increased in the somatosensory cortex. PPARγ decrease and Nlrp3 increase were mainly in the neurons of the diabetic brain, which was reversed by early pioglitazone treatment. Pioglitazone attenuated the aggravated neurological outcome after stroke in diabetic mice. But this protective effect was abolished through restoring cerebral inflammation by intracerebroventricular administration of IL-1ß and TNF-α in pioglitazone-treated diabetic mice before MCAO. In summary, early pioglitazone treatment attenuates cerebral vascular remodelling and ischaemic brain injury possibly via blocking chronic neuroinflammation in the db/db mice.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Pioglitazona/farmacologia , Pioglitazona/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Remodelação Vascular
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 219: 779-787, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940433

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) as regulatory molecules play important roles in early treatment and diagnosis of cancers. Considering the role of PPARγ in colorectal cancer (CRC) as a tumor suppressor, the GEO database was used to identify candidate genes that affect the activation of PPARγ protein in CRC cell lines. Then were selected 5 genes containing PPARγ response element (PPRE) in up to 4000 bp upstream and were affected by PPARγ protein activation in HT-29 colon cancer cell line using UCSC database. Expression meta-analysis was applied to map the expression network between candidate genes and all known lncRNAs through expression correlation and lncRNAs that correlated with a greater number of candidate genes (R > 0.5, P.value < 0.001). Moreover, were selected 3 lncRNAs as lncRNAs affected by PPARγ protein activation. Next, the expression levels of candidate genes and lncRNAs were evaluated using RT-qPCR in HT-29 cell line. Results showed a significant increase (FDR <0.05) in the expression level of 5 candidate genes and lncRNAs LINC01133, MBNL1-AS, LOC100288911 after treatment with pioglitazone as PPARγ ligand compared to the untreated group in HT-29 cells. Although additional tests are needed to confirm bioinformatics predictions, it can be concluded that increased expression of PPARγ may increase genes and lncRNAs expression. In summary, this study could be suggested identifying lncRNAs affected by PPARγ activation could be a new strategy in understanding the function and activity of PPARγ in colon cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , RNA Longo não Codificante , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Ligantes , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Pioglitazona , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo
17.
Front Oncol ; 12: 900985, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35814409

RESUMO

The combinatory use of drugs for systemic cancer therapy commonly aims at the direct elimination of tumor cells through induction of apoptosis. An alternative approach becomes the focus of attention if biological changes in tumor tissues following combinatory administration of regulatorily active drugs are considered as a therapeutic aim, e.g., differentiation, transdifferentiation induction, reconstitution of immunosurveillance, the use of alternative cell death mechanisms. Editing of the tumor tissue establishes new biological 'hallmarks' as a 'pressure point' to attenuate tumor growth. This may be achieved with repurposed, regulatorily active drug combinations, often simultaneously targeting different cell compartments of the tumor tissue. Moreover, tissue editing is paralleled by decisive functional changes in tumor tissues providing novel patterns of target sites for approved drugs. Thus, agents with poor activity in non-edited tissue may reveal new clinically meaningful outcomes. For tissue editing and targeting edited tissue novel requirements concerning drug selection and administration can be summarized according to available clinical and pre-clinical data. Monoactivity is no pre-requisite, but combinatory bio-regulatory activity. The regulatorily active dose may be far below the maximum tolerable dose, and besides inhibitory active drugs stimulatory drug activities may be integrated. Metronomic scheduling often seems to be of advantage. Novel preclinical approaches like functional assays testing drug combinations in tumor tissue are needed to select potential drugs for repurposing. The two-step drug repurposing procedure, namely establishing novel functional systems states in tumor tissues and consecutively providing novel target sites for approved drugs, facilitates the systematic identification of drug activities outside the scope of any original clinical drug approvals.

18.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2022 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35848464

RESUMO

AIMS: We clarified the importance of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reduction and antidiabetic drug use in preventing major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an updated systematic review of contemporary large randomized controlled trials assessing the relative efficacy and safety of antidiabetic drugs with less hypoglycemia risk in adult T2D patients. Mixed-effects meta-regression was performed to examine the associations of HbA1c reduction with subsequent risk of macrovascular and microvascular events. We evaluated the potential mediating role of HbA1c reduction in the relationship between antidiabetic drugs and MACE. RESULTS: Eighteen placebo-controlled trials comprising 155,610 participants were included. The effects of treatment differed among antidiabetic drug classes for most adverse outcomes with high heterogeneity (I2 : 63.7-95.8%). Mean HbA1c reduction was the lowest with DPP-4 inhibitors (0.30%), followed by SGLT2 inhibitors (0.46%), and the highest with GLP-1 receptor agonists (0.58%) and thiazolidinediones (0.60%). Lower relative risks of MACE were significantly associated with larger reductions in achieved HbA1c (ß -0.3182; 95% CI -0.5366 to -0.0998; p=0.0043) even after adjusting for drug classes. When considering HbA1c lowering as a mediator to be controlled, beneficial effects owing to specific antidiabetic treatment for MACE were not observed (χ2 =1.4494; p=0.6940). The proportion mediated by HbA1c reduction was 50.0%-63.5% for these antidiabetic agents. CONCLUSIONS: The main benefits of antidiabetic agents might result from the reduction in blood sugar levels and are generally independent of drugs used. Risk reduction in MACE was proportional to the magnitude of HbA1c decrease conferred by antidiabetic agents with less hypoglycemic hazard. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

19.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-13, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852140

RESUMO

This study was to investigate three agents possible protective effect against DM-induced cardiovascular dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Control group was fed normal diet, DM group was injected with STZ/NA and fed high fat diet (HFD), and treatment groups were given STZ/NA, fed HFD, and then oral gavaged with eugenosedin-A (Eu-A), glibenclamide (Gli), or pioglitazone (Pio) 5 mg/kg/per day for 4-week, respectively. Eu-A, Gli, and Pio clearly ameliorated the changes of body weight, cardiac weight, and the biochemical parameters, cardiovascular disorders and inflammation. Like Gli and Pio, Eu-A may be effectively to control DM and the cardiovascular dysfunction.

20.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(15)2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35893989

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder associated with an increased blood glucose level. The world health burden of DM has increased as a result of numerous causes that necessitates suitable treatment. Pioglitazone (PGZ) is a generally prescribed medication for managing type II diabetes. However, its low solubility creates complications for its formulation. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to incorporate PGZ into a nanoemulsion (NE) formulation prepared with Nigella sativa oil (NSO) to boost the action of PGZ. To our knowledge, no previous study has addressed the combination and synergistic effect of PGZ and NSO as a hypoglycemic NE formulation intended for oral administration. An experiment was designed to test several PGZ-loaded NE formulations, varying factors such as NSO, surfactant and co-surfactant concentrations. These factors were investigated for their influence on responses including particle size and in vitro release. An optimized PGZ-loaded NE was selected and examined for its morphology, kinetic activity and stability. Further, the anti-diabetic effect of the optimized formulation was evaluated using diabetically induced rats. The optimized formula exhibited a good particle size of 167.1 nm and in vitro release of 89.5%. A kinetic study revealed that the drug release followed the Korsmeyer-Peppas mechanism. Additionally, the PGZ-loaded NE formulation was found to be stable, showing non-significant variation in the evaluated parameters when stored at 4 and 25 °C for a period of 3 months. In vivo investigation of the PGZ-loaded NE formulation showed a significant reduction in blood glucose level, which appeared to be enhanced by the presence of NSO. In conclusion, NS-NE could be a promising nanocarrier for enhancing the hypoglycemic effect of PGZ.

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