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1.
Vet Sci ; 11(4)2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38668447

RESUMO

The spread of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus in the poultry industry poses significant public health challenges due to multidrug resistance and biofilm formation. We investigated the antibiotic resistance profiles and biofilm characteristics of E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates from chicken meat in poultry slaughterhouses in South Korea. Ninety-six isolates (forty-eight each of E. faecalis and E. faecium) were collected between March and September 2022. Both species were analyzed using MALDI-TOF, PCR, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and biofilm assays. A high level of multidrug resistance was observed in E. faecalis (95.8%) and E. faecium (93.8%), with E. faecium exhibiting a broader range of resistance, particularly to linezolid (52.1%) and rifampicin (47.9%). All E. faecalis isolates formed biofilm in vitro, showing stronger biofilm formation than E. faecium with a significant difference (p < 0.001) in biofilm strength. Specific genes (cob, ccf, and sprE) were found to be correlated with biofilm strength. In E. faecium isolates, biofilm strength was correlated with resistance to linezolid and rifampicin, while a general correlation between antibiotic resistance and biofilm strength was not established. Through analysis, correlations were noted between antibiotics within the same class, while no general trends were evident in other analyzed factors. This study highlights the public health risks posed by multidrug-resistant enterococci collected from poultry slaughterhouses, emphasizing the complexity of the biofilm-resistance relationship and the need for enhanced control measures.

2.
Pathogens ; 13(3)2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38535603

RESUMO

Essential oils are liquids containing non-toxic compounds that are unfavorable to the growth of microorganisms. They are sold globally at affordable or very high prices, depending on the availability and type of plant, the scale of production, the extraction method, costs associated with logistics and electricity consumption, among other variables. Each year, the quantity of research dedicated to the antimicrobial potential of essential oils in poultry farming is expanding. Researchers consensually relay that this increase is due to the growing resistance of microorganisms to traditional antimicrobials and concerns about the toxicity of these products. This review proposes an analysis of the antimicrobial feasibility of using essential oils to address microbial challenges in poultry farms, aiming to ensure the production and supply of microbiologically safe hatching eggs. Based on the findings in the literature, in addition to following other necessary precautions in the daily routines of poultry farming practices, developing an antimicrobial control program with essential oils that integrates poultry facilities, poultry and hatching eggs, adapted to the particularities of each context seems to be extremely effective.

3.
Microorganisms ; 12(1)2024 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38258018

RESUMO

Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia gallinacea, and Chlamydia abortus are the most common Chlamydia spp. in chickens and have a confirmed or suggested zoonotic potential. No recent data are available on their prevalence and impact in the Belgian chicken industry or in the recreational chicken branch. Therefore, a cross-sectional epidemiological study was executed where samples were collected from both factory-farmed and backyard chickens. More specifically, pharyngeal chicken swabs were obtained from 20 chicken farms, 5 chicken abattoirs, and 38 different backyard locations and were analyzed using species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCRs) for the presence of the three avian Chlamydia spp. To investigate their zoonotic potential, samples were simultaneously collected from 54 backyard chicken caretakes and 37 professional chicken caretakers or abattoir employees and analyzed using species-specific PCRs as well. This study confirmed the presence of DNA of all three Chlamydia species in both the chicken industry and backyard settings. Chlamydia psittaci was the most prevalent in the industry chickens (11.0%), whereas Chlamydia gallinacea was the dominant species in the backyard chickens (14.5%). Chlamydia abortus infections were more common in the commercial chickens (9.0%) compared to the backyard chickens (2.6%). The DNA of all three species was also detected in humans (3.9% Chlamydia psittaci, 2.9% Chlamydia gallinacea, and 1.0% Chlamydia abortus).

4.
Poult Sci ; 102(11): 103002, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37713802

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial composition, and the profiles of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs, resistome) and mobile genetic elements (mobilome) of retail chicken carcasses originated from conventional intensive production systems (CO), certified antimicrobial-free intensive production systems (AF), and certified organic production systems with restricted antimicrobial use (OR). DNA samples were collected from 72 chicken carcasses according to a cross-sectional study design. Shot-gun metagenomics was performed by means of Illumina high throughput DNA sequencing followed by downstream bioinformatic analyses. Gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant bacterial class in all groups. Although CO, AF, and OR did not differ in terms of alpha- and beta-microbial diversity, the abundance of some taxa differed significantly across the groups, including spoilage-associated organisms such as Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. The co-resistome comprised 29 ARGs shared by CO, AF and OR, including genes conferring resistance to beta-lactams (blaACT-8, 10, 13, 29; blaOXA-212;blaOXA-275 and ompA), aminoglycosides (aph(3')-IIIa, VI, VIa and spd), tetracyclines (tet KL (W/N/W and M), lincosamides (inu A,C) and fosfomycin (fosA). ARGs were significantly less abundant (P < 0.05) in chicken carcasses from AF and OR compared with CO. Regarding mobile genetic elements (MGEs), transposases accounted for 97.2% of the mapped genes. A higher abundance (P = 0.037) of MGEs was found in CO compared to OR. There were no significant differences in ARGs or MGEs diversity among groups according to the Simpson´s index. In summary, retail frozen chicken carcasses from AF and OR systems show similar ARGs, MGEs and microbiota profiles compared with CO, even though the abundance of ARGs and MGEs was higher in chicken carcasses from CO, probably due to a higher selective pressure.

5.
Poult Sci ; 102(10): 102952, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37634266

RESUMO

Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are respiratory illness syndromes that have recently been detected in vaccinated flocks and are causing major financial losses in the chicken farming industry. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of Valley Vac H5Plus NDVg7 vaccine in protecting chickens against the H5N8 and NDV strains that have recently been circulating in comparison with the efficacy of the commercially available bivalent H5+ND7 vaccine. In contrast to the H5+ND7 vaccine, which was made of genetically distinct H5N8/2018 clade 2.3.4.4b genotype group (G5), H9N2/2016, H5N1/2017, and genetically comparable NDV genotype VII 1.1/2019 of the recently circulating challenge viruses, the Valley Vac H5Plus NDVg7 vaccine consisted of the recently isolated (RG HPAI H5N1 AIV/2015 Clade 2.2.1.2, RG HPAIV H5N8/2020 Clade 2.3.4.4b genotype group 6 (G6), and NDV genotype VII 1.1/2012) which were genetically similar to challenged strains. To determine the effectiveness of the Valley Vac H5Plus NDVg7 vaccine, a total of 70-day-old commercial chicks were divided into 7 groups of 10 birds each. Groups (G1 and G4) received Valley Vac H5Plus NDVg7 vaccine. Groups (G2 and G5) groups received commercial H5+ND7 vaccine. While groups (G3 and G6) were kept nonvaccinated, and group (G7) was kept as a nonchallenged and nonvaccinated. After 3-wk post vaccination (WPV), groups G1, G2, and G3 were challenged with A/Duck/ Egypt/SMG4/2019(H5N8) genotype G6. On the other hand, groups G4, G5, G6 were challenged with NDV/EGYPT/18629F/2018 genotype VII 1.1 with an intranasal injection of 0.1 mL. Antibody titer was calculated at the first 3 wk after vaccination, and the viral shedding titer was calculated at 3-, 5-, and 7-days post challenge. Mortality and morbidity rates were monitored daily during the experiment, and for the first 10 d after the challenge, to provide an estimate of the protection rate. The results showed that a single dosage of 0.5 mL per bird of Valley Vac H5Plus NDVg7 vaccine provides 80% protection against both H5N8 and NDV, compared to the bivalent H5+ND7 vaccine, which provided 20 and 80% protection against H5N8 and NDV, respectively. In addition, 0.5 mL per bird of Valley Vac H5Plus NDVg7 vaccine produced a greater immune response against both viruses than commercial vaccination at 1 to 3 WPV with a significant difference at 1 WPV for H5N8 and a comparatively higher immune response for NDV. Furthermore, it reduced virus shedding of H5N8 on the third, fifth, seventh, and tenth days lower than H5+ND7 vaccine with a significant difference on the third day for H5N8 and relatively lower than bivalent H5+ND7 vaccine for NDV with a significant difference on the fifth day. The Valley vaccinated group demonstrated more tissue intactness compared to the commercially vaccinated group against the H5N8 challenge, however the bivalent commercially vaccinated group showed the similar level of tissue integrity against NDV. In conclusion, Valley Vac H5Plus NDVg7  that contains the  genetically similar strain to recently circulating challenged virus (H5N8 genotype G6) provided better protection with greater immune response and decreased the amount of virus shed against H5N8 genotype G6 and showed less histopathological alteration than the commercial bivalent H5+ND7 vaccine that contain genetically distinct (H5N8 genotype G5). However the Valley Vac H5Plus NDVg7 provided the same protection with relatively high immune response and  relatively decreased the amount of virus shed and showed equal tissue integrity than the commercial bivalent H5+ND7 vaccine against NDV genotype VII 1.1 that contain the same genotype of NDV genotype VII 1.1.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Aviária , Doença de Newcastle , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Galinhas , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Combinadas , Doença de Newcastle/prevenção & controle
6.
J Environ Manage ; 341: 118021, 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37141719

RESUMO

Chicken meat has achieved significant index rates worldwide, with Brazil leading production and exports. The agribusiness significance has led to strengthening attention to the environmental burdens produced by the poultry industry. This research considered reducing the environmental impacts in the life cycle of Brazilian chicken meat regarding strategies for recycling waste from the production process. An attributional cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment was performed, with the functional unit of 1 kg of slaughtered and unpacked chicken meat. The two suggested scenarios used: i) chicken bedding for biogas production and ii) chicken carcass waste as meat meals in feed production. Handling poultry litter for biogas production avoided methane and ammonia emissions, reducing over 50% of the environmental indicators of Climate Change, Terrestrial Acidification, and Freshwater Eutrophication. Reuse poultry waste to produce meat meals reduced from 12% to 55% in all impact categories, decreasing emissions from carcasses destined for decomposition in landfills and using less raw materials from bovine sources. Investigating the environmental performance of the chicken meat production chain encouraged the circularity of natural resources and waste recovery strategies in the system boundary, thus helping to accomplish Sustainable Development Goals 7, 9, 12, and 13 of the UN Agenda 2030.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Aves Domésticas , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Animais , Bovinos , Biocombustíveis , Brasil , Galinhas , Meio Ambiente , Carne
7.
Biology (Basel) ; 12(2)2023 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36829580

RESUMO

Naturally occurring antibodies (NAbs), which are major components of innate immunity, exist in circulation under healthy conditions without prior antigenic stimulation and are able to recognize both self- and non-self-constituents. The present study aimed at identifying potential immunological differences between commercial fast- and slow-growth broilers (n = 555) raised in conventional and free-range systems, respectively, through the use of the specificity, isotypes and levels of circulating NAbs. The possible beneficial effect of oregano-based dietary supplementation was also evaluated. To this end, serum IgM and IgY NAbs against self- (actin and DNA) and non-self- antigens (trinitrophenol and lipopolysaccharide) were measured by ELISA and further correlated with genotype, season and performance. Significantly higher levels of IgM NAbs against all antigens were found in slow-growth compared to fast-growth broilers. IgM NAb levels were also significantly increased in dietarily supplemented slow-growth broilers versus those consuming standard feed. Moreover, significantly elevated levels of anti-DNA IgY NAbs were found in fast-growth compared to slow-growth broilers, whereas the opposite was observed for anti-LPS IgY NAbs. Multivariate linear regression analysis confirmed multiple interactions between NAb levels, genotype, season and performance. Overall, serum NAbs have proven to be valuable innovative immunotools in the poultry industry, efficiently differentiating fast-growing versus slow-growing broilers, and dietary supplementation of plant extracts can enhance natural immunity.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36767437

RESUMO

The self-assessed threshold temperature for cold in the workplace is not well known. We asked 392 chicken industry workers in Thailand what they regard as the cold threshold (CT) and compared subgroups of workers using linear and quantile regressions by CT sextiles (percentiles P17, P33, P50, P67, and P83, from warmest to coldest). The variables of interest were sex, office work, and sedentary work, with age, clothing thermal insulation, and alcohol consumption as adjustment factors. The mean CT was 14.6 °C. Office workers had a 6.8 °C higher mean CT than other workers, but the difference ranged from 3.8 °C to 10.0 °C from P17 to P83. Sedentary workers had a 2.0 °C higher mean CT than others, but the difference increased from 0.5 °C to 3.0 °C through P17-P83. The mean CT did not differ between sexes, but men had a 1.6-5.0 °C higher CT at P17-P50 (>20 °C) and a 5.0 °C lower CT at P83 (<10 °C). The CT was relatively high at warm (≥10 °C), dry (relative humidity <41%), and drafty (air velocity > 0.35 m/s) worksites. We conclude that office, sedentary, and female workers and those working at warm, dry, and draughty sites are sensitive to the coldest temperatures, whereas male workers are sensitive even to moderate temperatures.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Temperatura , Tailândia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(12): 34890-34903, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36520287

RESUMO

Lead is one of the major pollutants that is harmful to both animals and humans. It is found in every aspect of the environment such as the air, water, and soil. This pollutant affects both wild and domestic birds. Naringin has an active principle called flavonoid that has been found to have medicinal properties, mostly because of its antioxidant and metal chelating properties. This study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of naringin as an antioxidant against lead-induced anemia, cardio and nephrotoxicity, and hypertension. This study also aimed at elucidating the use of naringin as a heavy metal binder in poultry feed. Thirty-six cockerel chicks were used for this study, and randomly grouped into six groups per group; group A served as the control, group B received Pb-only (300 ppm), group C (Pb and naringin; 80 mg/kg), group D (Pb and naringin; 160 mg/kg), group E (naringin 80 mg/kg), and group F (naringin 160 mg/kg), respectively, for 8 weeks. Lead (Pb) was administered via drinking water, while naringin was administered via oral gavage. Lead acetate intoxication precipitated anemia as indicated by significant reductions in the values of PCV, RBC, and Hb concentration in lead-treated chicks when compared with the controls. Also, lead administration induced hypertension together with increased oxidative stress, depletion of the antioxidant defense system, reduced nitric oxide production, and an increase in high blood pressure. Immunohistochemistry indicated high expressions of cardiac troponin, renal angiotensin-converting enzymes, and renal neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. Treatment with naringin corrected anemia, reduced oxidative stress, improved antioxidant system, reduced high blood pressure, and offered protection against lead acetate-induced cardio-renal dysfunction in cockerel chicks. We recommend that naringin should be incorporated poultry feeds as a metal binder.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Nefropatias , Humanos , Masculino , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Chumbo/farmacologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468842

RESUMO

Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.


Assuntos
Aspergillus flavus/isolamento & purificação , Biotransformação , Queratinas/análise , Queratinas/toxicidade
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246389, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285638

RESUMO

Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Resumo A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas , Plumas , Fermentação , Fungos , Resíduos Industriais , Queratinas/metabolismo
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469058

RESUMO

Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Resumo A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.

13.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1283361, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38163084

RESUMO

Avian influenza causes substantial economic loss in the poultry industry and potentially threatens human health. Over recent years, the highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 virus has led to devastating losses in poultry flocks and wild birds. At the same time, the number of mammalian species identified to be infected with A/H5N1 is increasing, with recent outbreaks in domestic cats, including household individuals, evidenced in July 2023 in Poland, ultimately creating opportunities for the virus to adapt better to mammalian hosts, including humans. Overall, between 2003 and 2023, over 10 outbreaks in felids have been documented globally, and in six of them, feed based on raw chicken was suspected as a potential source of A/H5N1, fuelling a debate on threats posed by A/H5N1 and methods to decrease the associated risks. This article debates that technology allowing the production of slaughter-free meat, including poultry, from cell and tissue cultures could be considered as a part of a mitigation strategy to decrease the overall burden and threat of adaptation of avian influenza viruses to human hosts. By shifting poultry production to the cultured meat industry, the frequency of A/H5N1 outbreaks in farmed birds may be decreased, leading to a reduced risk of virus acquisition by wild and domesticated mammals that have direct contact with birds or eat raw poultry and have close contact with human (including domestic cats), ultimately minimizing the potential of A/H5N1 to adapt better to mammalian host, including humans. This adds to the list of other benefits of cultured meat that are also reviewed in this paper, including decreased antibiotic use, risk of microbial contamination and parasite transmission, and environmental and ethical advantages over conventional slaughtered meat. In conclusion, further development and implementation of this technology, also in the context of poultry production, is strongly advocated. Although cultured poultry is unlikely to replace the conventional process in the near future due to challenges with scaling up the production and meeting the continuously increased demand for poultry meat, it may still decrease the pressures and threats related to the transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza in selected world regions.

14.
J Mater Cycles Waste Manag ; 24(2): 811-823, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35497572

RESUMO

Poultry meat production and consumption face several challenges under economic, social and environmental perspectives, and increasing concerns are associated with food loss and waste minimization. One of the main issues is related to the absence of a homogeneous and standardized separate collection of bio-waste at country level, which makes chicken bones, skin and food waste valorization a challenging goal. The present research, implementing the material flow analysis to the Italian poultry sector, aims at measuring poultry-related co-products and by-products, exploring food waste, chicken bones and skin and the current trends in the Italian bio-waste separate collection. Then, it discusses alternative separate collection strategies and sustainable consumption habits. Data have been collected according to a research triangulation approach, whereas system boundaries consider slaughterhouse, distribution and final consumption stage. It emerges that more than 1.50 Mt of live animals have been processed to obtain 0.46 Mt of fresh meat and 0.76 Mt of co-products and by-products, of which more than 0.32 Mt are represented by chicken bones and skin. In addition, more than 0.15 Mt of food waste have been recorded. The research adds an extra step towards the identification of awareness campaigns and separate collection strategies at national level.

15.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458406

RESUMO

Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen for both humans and animals, causing human foodborne disease and necrotic enteritis in poultry. In the present study, a C. perfringens-specific phage, vB_CpeS_BG3P (designated as BG3P hereafter), was isolated from chicken farm sewage. Both electron microscopy and phylogenetic analysis suggested that phage BG3P is a novel phage belonging to Siphoviridae family. Phage BG3P exhibited a broad host range against different C. perfringens isolates (90.63% of strains were infected). Sequencing of the complete genome revealed a linear double-stranded DNA (43,528 bp) with 28.65% GC content. After sequence analysis, 73 open reading frames (orfs) were predicted, of which only 13 were annotated with known functions. No tRNA and virulence encoding genes were detected. It should be noted that the protein of orf 15 has 97.92% homology to C. perfringens-specific chloramphenicol resistance protein, which has not been reported for any C. perfringens phage. Phylogenetic analysis of the ssDNA binding protein demonstrated that this phage is closely related to C. perfringens phages phiSM101 and phi3626. In considering future use as an antimicrobial agent, some biological characteristics were observed, such as a good pH (3−11) stability and moderate temperature tolerance (<60 °C). Moreover, bacteriophage BG3P showed a good antimicrobial effect against C. perfringens liquid cultures. Thus, phage treatment with MOI ≥ 100 completely inhibited bacterial growth compared to untreated cultures. Although phage BG3P shows good lytic efficiency and broad host range in vitro, future development and application may need to consider removal of the chloramphenicol-like resistance gene or exploring its lysin for future antibacterial applications.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Siphoviridae , Animais , Clostridium perfringens/genética , Genoma Viral , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Filogenia , Siphoviridae/genética
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(34): 51674-51685, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35249193

RESUMO

Evaluation was made of the use of organic substrates obtained from the composting of poultry industry wastes, together with crude glycerin, for the production of arugula seedlings (Eruca sativa Miller). The raw materials included hatchery waste, chicken litter, and flotation tank sludge, in combination with other materials such as tree pruning, sugarcane bagasse, crude glycerin (at 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0%), and boiler charcoal. Analysis of the organic substrates included determination of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK), pH, electrical conductivity, functional groups, and carboxylic acids. Physical parameters determined were water retention capacity, solids volume, porosity, density, and granulometry. For the arugula seedlings, determinations were made of the ease of removal of the root ball from the tray, the effect of free drop on the root ball, phytometric parameters, and total phenolic compounds. Decreased concentrations of carboxylic acids, together with the presence of aromatic functional groups, indicated maturation/stabilization of the organic substrates. The phytometric measurements indicated that the use of the organic substrates with addition of 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0% of crude glycerin favored arugula production and led to higher contents of total phenolic compounds in the seedlings, with values of 3657.54, 3602.13, and 3232.92 mg GAE g-1, respectively. The results demonstrated that the use of these organic substrates with the addition of crude glycerin provided satisfactory development of arugula seedlings.


Assuntos
Saccharum , Plântula , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Celulose , Glicerol , Nitrogênio/análise , Plântula/química , Solo/química
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162652

RESUMO

This paper uses the Heckprobit two-stage econometric model to explore the influence mechanism of poultry farmers' willingness and behavior regarding scale based on 269 household survey data in the hinterland of Jianghan Plain, China. The results show that (1) family endowments, social capital, economic capital, product market prediction, and major public emergencies are the main influencing factors for farmers to engage in poultry farming; (2) economic capital, policy guarantees, product market prediction, and major public emergencies are the main factors that influence the changes in farmers' poultry breeding scale; and (3) sampled poultry farmers are inconsistent between their breeding willingness and breeding behavior in poultry decision-making and the factors that affect the willingness and behavior are varied. Based on these findings, this paper suggests that the government should pay attention to inducing corresponding assistance and subsidy policies, formulating financial support countermeasures, organizing training and exchange meetings of the breeding industry, and promoting poultry market informatization to help the poultry industry prosper.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Aves Domésticas , Agricultura , Animais , Cruzamento , China , Humanos
18.
Environ Technol ; 43(14): 2177-2189, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357113

RESUMO

During the poultry industrialization process the so-called sludge oil, a residual chicken fat, is recovered in the wastewater treatment plant and its use presents potential as raw material for biodiesel production. Thus, the aim of the study was to prepare blends of sludge oil with soybean oil to obtain fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) through the homogeneous alkaline transesterification reaction. To perform this study, a simple pre-treatment process - heating and subsequent filtration - was used, allowing sludge oil to be mixed with soybean oil to compose blends, without the need to use more sophisticated pre-treatment processes. After this step, blends ranging from 5% to 90% (m/m) of sludge oil mixed with soybean oil were prepared. The results showed that the molar ratio (1:6 oil blend:methanol), catalyst concentration 0.5% NaOH (mcat/moil), at 65 °C for 60 min yielded FAME above 99.0 and 90.0% (m/m) for blends with up to 5 and 15% sludge oil, respectively. By increasing the temperature to 70 °C, under the same selected parameters, the blend with 10% sludge oil provided yield above 99.0% (m/m), presenting appropriate physicochemical properties, within the parameters required by National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP). These findings show the great potential sludge oil provides to reduce Brazil's dependency on soybean oil for biodiesel production.Highlights Sludge oil, a waste raw material for biodiesel production, is not yet explored in Brazil.A procedure for biodiesel production using soybean oil and sludge oil blends was proposed.The best reaction condition was 1:6 oil blend:MeOH molar ratio; 0.5% NaOH (mcat/moil), at 70 °C for 60 min.Biodiesel yield was higher than 99% (m/m) under optimal reaction conditions.Sludge oil represents a promising waste raw material for biodiesel production.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Óleo de Soja , Matadouros , Animais , Biocombustíveis/análise , Brasil , Catálise , Esterificação , Ácidos Graxos/química , Óleos de Plantas , Aves Domésticas , Esgotos , Hidróxido de Sódio , Óleo de Soja/química , Resíduos
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 762533, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34926385

RESUMO

The association between worksite temperature and perceived work ability (WA) in various educational classes remains unknown. Therefore, we interviewed 286 poultry industry workers in Thailand about their WA and linked their responses to worksite temperature. WA was based on the self-assessment of current work ability compared with their lifetime best ability (scores 0-10). Education was classified as high (university or vocational school) or low (less education). Temperature was classified as cold (-22-10°C) or warm (10-23°C). WA and the occurrence of a low WA were regressed on worksite temperature, education, and their interaction with the adjustment for sex, age, job category, physical work strain, moving between cold and warm sites, thermal insulation of clothing, relative humidity, and air velocity. The average worksite temperature was 10°C for high- and 1°C for low-educated workers. The average WA score was 8.32 (SD, 1.33; range, 4-10) and classified as low (<8) in 23% of the workers. In highly-educated workers, the adjusted mean WA decreased from 9.11 in the warm areas to 8.02 in the cold areas and the prevalence of a low WA increased from 11 to 30%, while no significant change was observed in less-educated workers. The WA score was estimated to decline by 10% more (95% CI, 4-16%) in the cold areas for the more vs. less-educated workers and the prevalence of a poor WA was estimated to increase 3.09 times (95% CI, 1.43-5.45) more. Highly-educated workers in this industry are a risk group that should be given customized advice.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Local de Trabalho , Animais , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Aves Domésticas , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho
20.
Transp Res E Logist Transp Rev ; 154: 102463, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512109

RESUMO

The poultry industry is one of the most important agricultural sectors, which constitutes a significant part of the per capita consumption of protein and meat. Integrating operations of poultry industry sections including production, distribution and consumption becomes vital. Although the proper poultry supply chain has been established and made plenty of benefits for a long time, the global outbreak of COVID-19 shows that operations under pandemic are still challenge for the poultry industry. In this paper, the impacts of pandemic on poultry industry is investigated by developing a multi-period multi-modal stochastic poultry supply chain. Two models are developed aiming to mitigate the negative effects of pandemic occurrence through product stocking policy. In the first model, distribution system is in accordance with a multi-component structure, while the second model allows direct connections between suppliers (farmers) and demanders (customers). In both models, poultry productions are negatively affected by COVID 19. Due to the complexity of the model, a hybrid solution approach based on Branch and Cut and Dynamic Programming is developed. To validate the performance of the proposed model and solution procedure, a case study on the broiler industry in the state of Mississippi is performed. The results show that storing poultry products in the pre-pandemic along with direct logistics during pandemic period can save the broiler supply chain cost up to 30%.

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