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1.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765505

RESUMO

Ninety days study was conducted in hapas installed in earthen ponds. Fish of an average initial weight (220g) were evenly distributed in triplicate groups within fifteen hapas. Five experimental diets labeled as T1 (25% CP and NRC recommended amino acid level) as control diet, T2 (with 2% low protein and 5% amino acid supplementation), T3 (with 2% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation), T4 (with 4% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation) and T5 (with 4% low protein and 20% amino acid supplementation) were prepared. Fish were fed with @3% of their body weight twice a day at 10.00 & 16:00 hour. Significantly higher percent weight gain (420.18 ± 66.84a) and specific growth rate (13499.33±1273.54a) along with improved feed conversion ratio (1.29 ± 0.09b) and hundred percent survivals were recorded during the trial. Furthermore proximate analysis of meat showed significant improvement in the crude protein level (81.77 ± 0.19a) served with diet containing 20% limiting amino acids mixture. Therefore, limiting amino acids can be a source of cost effective feed and use safely in L. rohita diet.(AU)


O estudo de 90 dias foi realizado em hapas instalados em tanques de terra. Peixes com peso inicial médio (220 g) foram distribuídos uniformemente em grupos triplicados em 15 hapas. Cinco dietas experimentais rotuladas como T1 (25% de CP e NRC recomendado nível de aminoácidos) como dieta controle, T2 (com 2% de proteína baixa e 5% de suplementação de aminoácidos), T3 (com 2% de proteína baixa e 10% de suplementação de aminoácidos), T4 (com 4% de baixa proteína e 10% de suplementação de aminoácidos) e T5 (com 4% de baixa proteína e 20% de suplementação de aminoácidos) foram preparadas. Os peixes foram alimentados com 3% do seu peso corporal duas vezes por dia às 10h00 e 16h00. Ganho de peso significativamente maior (420,18 ± 66,84a) e taxa de crescimento específico (13499,33 ± 1273,54a) juntamente com taxa de conversão alimentar melhorada (1, 29 ± 0,09b) e sobrevivência de cem por cento foram registrados durante o ensaio. Além disso, a análise aproximada da carne mostrou melhora significativa no nível de proteína bruta (81,77 ± 0,19a) servida com dieta contendo 20% de mistura de aminoácidos limitantes. Portanto, a limitação de aminoácidos pode ser uma fonte de alimentação econômica e usada com segurança na dieta de L. rohita.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Dietoterapia/veterinária , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249422, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339393

RESUMO

Abstract Ninety days study was conducted in hapas installed in earthen ponds. Fish of an average initial weight (220g) were evenly distributed in triplicate groups within fifteen hapas. Five experimental diets labeled as T1 (25% CP and NRC recommended amino acid level) as control diet, T2 (with 2% low protein and 5% amino acid supplementation), T3 (with 2% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation), T4 (with 4% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation) and T5 (with 4% low protein and 20% amino acid supplementation) were prepared. Fish were fed with @3% of their body weight twice a day at 10.00 & 16:00 hour. Significantly higher percent weight gain (420.18 ± 66.84a) and specific growth rate (13499.33±1273.54a) along with improved feed conversion ratio (1.29 ± 0.09b) and hundred percent survivals were recorded during the trial. Furthermore proximate analysis of meat showed significant improvement in the crude protein level (81.77 ± 0.19a) served with diet containing 20% limiting amino acids mixture. Therefore, limiting amino acids can be a source of cost effective feed and use safely in L. rohita diet.


Resumo O estudo de 90 dias foi realizado em hapas instalados em tanques de terra. Peixes com peso inicial médio (220 g) foram distribuídos uniformemente em grupos triplicados em 15 hapas. Cinco dietas experimentais rotuladas como T1 (25% de CP e NRC recomendado nível de aminoácidos) como dieta controle, T2 (com 2% de proteína baixa e 5% de suplementação de aminoácidos), T3 (com 2% de proteína baixa e 10% de suplementação de aminoácidos), T4 (com 4% de baixa proteína e 10% de suplementação de aminoácidos) e T5 (com 4% de baixa proteína e 20% de suplementação de aminoácidos) foram preparadas. Os peixes foram alimentados com 3% do seu peso corporal duas vezes por dia às 10h00 e 16h00. Ganho de peso significativamente maior (420,18 ± 66,84a) e taxa de crescimento específico (13499,33 ± 1273,54a) juntamente com taxa de conversão alimentar melhorada (1, 29 ± 0,09b) e sobrevivência de cem por cento foram registrados durante o ensaio. Além disso, a análise aproximada da carne mostrou melhora significativa no nível de proteína bruta (81,77 ± 0,19a) servida com dieta contendo 20% de mistura de aminoácidos limitantes. Portanto, a limitação de aminoácidos pode ser uma fonte de alimentação econômica e usada com segurança na dieta de L. rohita.


Assuntos
Animais , Cyprinidae , Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Aminoácidos
3.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35566250

RESUMO

The underutilized Amaranthus leafy vegetables are a unique basis of pigments such as ß-cyanins, ß-xanthins, and betalains with radical scavenging capacity (RSC). They have abundant phytonutrients and antioxidant components, such as pigments, vitamins, phenolics, and flavonoids. Eight selected genotypes (four genotypes from each species) of underutilized Amaranthus leafy vegetables were evaluated for phytonutrients, pigments, vitamins, phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidants in a randomized complete block design under ambient field conditions with three replicates. The studied traits showed a wide range of variations across eight genotypes of two species of Amaranthus leafy vegetables. The highest fat, ß-xanthins, K, dietary fiber, Mg, ß-cyanins, Mn, chlorophyll ab, Zn, TP, TF, betalains, chlorophyll a content, and (RSC) (DPPH) and RSC (ABTS+) were obtained from A. tricolor accessions. Conversely, the highest protein, Cu, carbohydrates, Ca, and chlorophyll b content were obtained from A. lividus accessions. The highest dry matter, carotenoids, Fe, energy, and ash were obtained from A. tricolor and A. lividus. The accession AT2 confirmed the highest vit. C and RSC (DPPH) and RSC (ABTS+); AT5 had the highest TP content; and AT12 had the highest TF content. A. tricolor accessions had high phytochemicals across the two species, such as phytopigments, vitamins, phenolics, antioxidants, and flavonoids, with considerable nutrients and protein. Hence, A. tricolor accessions can be used as high-yielding cultivars comprising ample antioxidants. The correlation study revealed that vitamin C, pigments, flavonoids, ß-carotene, and phenolics demonstrated a strong RSC, and showed a substantial contribution to the antioxidant potential (AP) of A. tricolor. The investigation exposed that the accessions displayed a plentiful origin of nutritional values, phytochemicals, and AP with good quenching ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that provide enormous prospects for nourishing the mineral-, antioxidant-, and vitamin-threatened community.

4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35562846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of hot smoking and liquid smoke on process yield, physicochemical properties, microbiological parameters, fatty acid profile, benzo(a)pyrene levels, and sensory profile of Pantanal yacare tail fillets. The fillets were subjected to two types of smoking processes: hot smoking and liquid smoke flavoring. RESULTS: The process yield of liquid-smoked fillets was higher (69.8%) when compared with hot-smoked fillets (58.0%). All fillets were with good microbiological quality and low benzo(a)pyrene levels and were well accepted by consumers. The hot-smoked fillets and the liquid-smoked fillets presented 456.2 and 589.7 g kg-1 of moisture, 262.3 and 263.7 g kg-1 of crude protein, 218 and 85 g kg-1 of total lipids, and 26.0 and 20.9 g kg-1 of ash, respectively. The major fatty acids identified in the smoked tail fillets were palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. CONCLUSION: The liquid-smoked fillets had lower lipid content, and higher process yield due to lower losses, thus they proved to be more advantageous and practical to obtain than the hot-smoked fillets. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Dose Response ; 20(2): 15593258221097665, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35529303

RESUMO

Worldwide, Verbascum thapsus is used for the treatment of various ailments owing to the presence of bioactives of therapeutic potential. Current study was planned to extract bioactives from V thapsus roots using methanol and water as solvents under stimulated effect of ultrasonic waves and characterize them to evaluate their potential benefits. Proximate analysis explored the presence of significant contents of protein, fats, fiber, organic and inorganic minerals. Fourier transform infrared spectra and high-performance liquid chromatography chromatogram indicated the presence of different phytochemicals having antioxidant potential as evidenced by total phenolic contents, total flavonoids content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl activity of both extracts. Both extracts displayed excellent antimicrobial potential against Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus) and Fusarium Solani (F solani). Aqueous and methanolic extracts exhibited higher inhibition of biofilm made by Bacillus subtilis (B subtilis) as 55.09 and 61.58%, respectively in comparison to biofilm of Escherichia coli (E coli) as 48.11 and 36.51%, respectively. Methanol extract exhibited anti-amylase activity (IC50 5.26 ± .31 µg/mL) with an inhibition rate of 68.11% whereas IC50 of aqueous extract was 6.59 ± .53 µg/mL with an inhibition rate of 63.53%. Inhibitory potential against α-glucosidase (IC50 3.70 ± .94 ppm) was demonstrated by methanol extract in comparison to aqueous extract (IC50 7.58 ± .15). The study concluded that V thapsus roots have significant medicinal potential due to the presence of variety of bioactive molecules and can be used in pharmaceutical preparations.

6.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 29(4): 3075-3081, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531238

RESUMO

Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss has a great nutritional value and delicious taste. A 90-days experimental trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary leaf extract of neem tree Azadirachta indica as a feeding supplement on the growth performance and proximate composition of O. mykiss. Four experimental diets were designed as T1 (with 5% A. indica leaf extract), T2 (with 7% of A. indica leaf extract), T3 (with 10% A. indica leaf extract), and T4 (control group feed with a regular diet with 0% A. indica leaf extract). The average initial weight of fry 0.4 ± 0.14 g was stocked at 25 fish/tank with two replicates per treatment (4 × 2 = 8). After 90 days of the experimental trial, One-way ANOVA showed significant differences in final body weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate among the treatment groups (p < 0.05). The highest final body weight (48.10 g) and weight gain (47.70 g) was observed in T2 with 7% A. indica leaf extract, which was significantly different from the other treatments (p < 0.05). The lowest FCR was recorded in T2 (1.90), which was significantly different compared to other treatment groups (p < 0.05). Inclusion of A. indica leaf extract in formulated feed for rainbow trout had significant effects in the hepatosomatic index, viscerosomatic index and Fulton's condition factor (p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in the survival rate of rainbow trout fry treated with different experimental diets (p > 0.05). The phenomenal regression indicates that 7.5% A. indica inclusion is optimum for best growth performance for rainbow trout under a controlled environment. Thus, the present study suggests that the dietary leaf extract has performed an excellent nutritional supplement by enhancing growth performance and health conditions of rainbow trout in the hatchery conditions.

7.
Foods ; 11(9)2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563992

RESUMO

Finger millet (FM) is a nutritious and gluten-free cereal grain which is rich in dietary fibre, minerals and antioxidant properties, thereby making it an ideal raw material for preparing gluten-free foods for people suffering from celiac disease. Spontaneous fermentation of FM grains has shown improved nutritional and functional properties of its flour and can be used as a functional ingredient for gluten free biscuits. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of spontaneous fermentation (SF) on the nutritional quality, antioxidant, microstructural, and sensory characteristics of gluten-free FM biscuits obtained from light and dark brown FM flours. Results showed that SF decreased ash, crude fibre, and crude fat contents as well as total phenolic and flavonoids contents. Protein content, carbohydrates content, energy values, antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP), and mineral content of FM biscuits increased due to SF. The colour properties such as lightness (L*), showed a significant increase as SF period increased in light brown FM biscuits, however dark brown FM biscuits showed no significant difference. The hue angle and colour differences (ΔE) of FM biscuits increased with the increasing period of SF, ranging from 43.20 to 53.76° and from 0.67 to 7.96, respectively. Spontaneous fermentation also decreased physical properties of biscuits such as diameter (4.76 to 4.54 cm), weight (12.77 to 11.99 g), and spread ratio (7.25 to 6.05), while an increase in thickness and hardness was noted. Spontaneous fermentation also induced changes on the microstructure of FM biscuits. Among the fermented biscuits, panelists preferred 24 h gluten-free fermented FM biscuits since they had better sensory properties. Overall, SF enhanced the nutritional value and health promoting compounds of gluten-free FM biscuits.

8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 214, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468717

RESUMO

Duckweed (Lemna minor L.) is an aquatic macrophyte and grows profoundly on the surface of polluted water reservoirs of Pakistan. The plant can be used as a potential alternative for the fish and poultry industry to meet the promptly growing demand for feed. Our study investigates the effect of varying concentrations (ppm) of nutrients like N, P, and their combination, NP on biomass production, carbohydrate, lipid, protein, and mineral (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn & Zn) contents of L. minor. The varying concentrations of N and P substantially affected the above-stated parameters. The highest biomass yield was recorded in the 30 ppm NP tank as 172 g/m2 day in comparison with the control tank. Higher protein, lipid, and carbohydrate contents were recorded for 30 ppm NP, 20 ppm NP, and 10 ppm NP respectively. Minerals like Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn & Zn increased in 20 ppm P and all N concentrations. The combined application of NP was more effective in boosting the protein, carbohydrate, and lipid content whereas less effective in increasing the mineral contents. A rise in the concentration of N and P showed a positive correlation with the nutritional composition of L. minor.


Assuntos
Araceae , Fósforo , Animais , Biomassa , Carboidratos , Lipídeos , Minerais/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas/metabolismo
9.
Front Nutr ; 9: 812599, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35479746

RESUMO

Native germplasm resources are adapted to specific ecological niches. They have sustained over generations owing to the preference of local communities for their unique taste, the utility to particular dishes, and the low cost of cultivation. They may help eradicate malnutrition and act as a source for trait-linked genes. The present dataset comprises thirty-three native germplasm of maize collected from Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, and Andhra Pradesh states of India with an altitudinal variation of 386-2,028 m. They were evaluated for proximate composition, minerals, nutritional attributes, and antioxidant activity and compared with the standard values reported in the Indian Food Composition Table 2017 (IFCT2017). The nutritional profile showed moisture content in the range of 7.16-10.9%, ash 0.73-1.93%, crude protein 8.68-12.0%, crude fat 3.72-8.03%, dietary fiber 5.21-11.2%, and available carbohydrates 60.6-69.8%. Three accessions, namely, Malan 11 (7.06%), Malan 24 (7.20%), and Yellow Chamba Local 02 (8.03%) exhibited almost double the crude fat content as compared with the values notified in IFCT2017 (3.77). Total sugar content obtained was in the range of 5.00-11.3%, whereas the starch content was found between 50.9 and 64.9%. All the germplasm except Yellow Chamba Local reflected a higher protein content than reported values in IFCT2017 (8.80). Sathi, Safed Chamba Local, and Ragal Makka had nearly 12% protein content. Mineral malnutrition, mainly due to iron (Fe) deficiency, is a worldwide issue to science, humanity, and society. The mineral profile revealed that most germplasm had a higher iron content. Accessions with the iron content of nearly three times of IFCT2017 reported value were identified in germplasm belonging to three states. A negative relationship was observed between the altitude of the sample collection site and available carbohydrate content. In contrast, available carbohydrate showed inverse correlations with dietary fiber, protein, and fat content. The information generated in this study can be utilized to promote these germplasm as nutrifood, nutritional surveillance, labeling, and crop improvement programs.

10.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 106(3): 690-719, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395107

RESUMO

Today, there is a growing awareness about the importance of eating nutritious foods and fish is gaining momentum as a result of its unique nutritional benefits. Fish are considered as nutritionally valuable part of the human diet because of the presence of both macronutrients (proteins, lipids and ash) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals). These nutrients are indispensable in human nutrition and have proven to be involved in several metabolic functions. The nutritional content can be used to rank different fish species based on their nutritional and functional benefits, allowing consumers to make better decisions according to their requirements. Proximate composition of fish includes determination of moisture, protein, fat and ash contents, which constitutes about 96%-98% of the total constituents of the fish body. The study of these components gives us a clear understanding in assessing the energy value of the fishes. In the present study, an attempt has been made to provide a concise review about the proximate composition of various fish species from different parts of the world in order to evaluate the high-protein, low-fat food with excellent nutritional values and to enlighten the different exogenous and endogenous factors that are actually responsible for their variation. The review also provides an insight into the characteristics of the chemical composition of various fish species, which are gaining importance for the sector involving fish and fishery products for domestic and foreign trade and for appreciating as animal feed all over the world.


Assuntos
Peixes , Estado Nutricional , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Músculos , Valor Nutritivo
11.
Front Nutr ; 9: 847877, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35464029

RESUMO

High pressure processing is a non-thermal method for preservation of various foods while retaining nutritional value and can be utilized for the development of ready-to-eat products. This original research investigated the effects of high pressure processing for development of a ready-to eat chickpea product using Australian kabuli chickpeas. Three pressure levels (200, 400, and 600 MPA) and two treatment times (1 and 5 min) were selected to provide six distinct samples. When compared to the conventionally cooked chickpeas, high pressure processed chickpeas had a more desirable texture due to decrease in firmness, chewiness, and gumminess. The general nutrient composition and individual mineral content were not affected by high pressure processing, however, a significant increase in the slowly digestible starch from 50.53 to 60.92 g/100 g starch and a concomitant decrease in rapidly digestible starch (11.10-8.73 g/100 g starch) as well as resistant starch (50.53-30.35 g/100 g starch) content was observed. Increased starch digestibility due to high pressure processing was recorded, whereas in vitro protein digestibility was unaffected. Significant effects of high pressure processing on the polyphenol content and antioxidant activities (DPPH, ABTS and ORAC) were observed, with the sample treated at the highest pressure for the longest duration (600 MPa, 5 min) showing the lowest values. These findings suggest that high pressure processing could be utilized to produce a functional, ready to eat kabuli chickpea product with increased levels of beneficial slowly digestible starch.

12.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 29(6): 103277, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35401021

RESUMO

The primary goal of this study was to conduct a preliminary assessment of maggot meal protein supplements in broiler production. Maggot meal comprises 55 percent crude protein (CP), 27.65% ether extract, 8.33% Ash, 3.37 crude fiber (CF), 2.14 NFE, 94.7 percent Dry Matter, 5702 kcal/kg gross energy, and 3955 kcal/kg metabolizing energy, according to proximate analysis. Maggot meal supplementation affected broiler meat feed intake, body weight gain, FCR, dressing %, mortality, antibody titer against ND, and organoleptic features. The cost-effectiveness of maggot supplementation was also evaluated. Birds were put into four experimental groups after a week of adaptation:Control group (M0), the first experimental group (M1), the second experimental group (M2), and the third experimental group (M3), which received supplements of 0, 2, 3, and 4 g/kg, respectively. A plane ratio was given to the control group as well. The overall feed intake findings were inversely proportional to the supplementation rate. Thus, the highly supplemented group (M3) showed the lowest feed intake than the control group (M0). Bodyweight gain was directly proportional to the supplementation rate, as evident by a considerable increase in the highly supplemented group (M3) compared to the control group.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 834: 155120, 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398424

RESUMO

The environment has been continuously changed, and it's a bitter truth that we can't minimize anthropogenic activities to mitigate harmful impacts on the environment. The changing environment is a great threat to food security by affecting crop yields. However, there is no comprehensive study to assess the environmental impact on the nutritional quality of the crops. In this study, we have investigated the nutritional profile and yield of maize crops around the globe and synchronized the findings with physiological reasoning. The study enlightens the time-scale activities of maize plant enzymes and describes their response to changing environments. The study also explained time-scale-based changes in the physiological conditions of maize crops against environmental dynamics around the globe. It also detected the impact of climate change on the deterioration of the nutritional quality of maize. The current study reports the activities of three different enzyme classes. It was noted that the photosynthesis-related enzyme activities were boosted after a sudden increase in carbon dioxide concentration. However, the drought years (2005-2010) decreased photosynthesis and increased oxidative enzyme activities. Overall, the glycemic index of the maize crop has been increased during the last four decades. However, the crop production threshold levels have been raised more quickly. The nutritional index values are alarming and have frequently been recorded under the threshold levels in recent years. The study paves a path for maize toward nutritional contents richness, ensuring food security and nutritional security in the future.

14.
Asian Popul Stud ; 18(1): 87-107, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35432573

RESUMO

Theory suggests that relationships between intergenerational coresidence and married women's subjective well-being may be either positive or negative. We extend previous research on this question in two ways: by focusing also on geographical proximity to parents(-in-law) and by examining differences in married women's well-being both between and within different types of living arrangements. Using data from a nationally representative survey of adults in Japan, we found no differences in married women's subjective well-being between living arrangements, but observed significant differences within living arrangements depending on married women's position in the household and the direction of intergenerational support transfers. Our results suggest that comparisons across living arrangements may be complicated by within-group associations with well-being and that attention to married women's position in the household and the direction of intergenerational transfers is essential for understanding how married women in Japan experience different living arrangements.

15.
J Theor Biol ; 542: 111106, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35346666

RESUMO

Most animals move intermittently, pausing or slowing down for short moments and short moves, and darting away towards a new location where to hover again. This pattern occurs at a range of spatial and temporal scales (thence, resembling 'scale-free'), from the quick inspection of local areas to the sum of all movements performed from birth to death. While this pattern has been extensively described, its proximate drivers remain open to debate. A current hypothesis states that underlying proximate generative mechanisms of intermittent movement of animals are linked to external stimuli, e.g., interactions with the abiotic environment, resources, and other individuals. Here we investigated a prediction from this hypothesis, using termites as a biological model. We verified whether the social background in which a termite is inserted will modify the parameters of its intermittent scale-free spatial displacement. This relates to the hypothesis because it inspects how do external stimuli coming from intraspecifics can affect this type of movement. We tracked the trajectories of a focal termite confined along its nestmates in experimental clueless arenas, every 0.5 s along about six hours. Arenas varied in group size and comprised 22 distinct caste compositions, yielding 75 trackings (> 400 h) and more than two million Cartesian coordinates. Most of these trajectories (96% or 72/75) were classified as intermittent scale free (Lévy-like), indicating prevalence of this type of movement over non-Lévy-like ones (P=1.62×10-15). Moreover, intermittent scale-free movements performed by the focal termite (i) did arise outside the foraging-searching framework, and (ii) were modified by the social context while remaining within the limits of Lévy-walk realms. That is, some limits seem to exist along with the necessary plasticity to provide room for natural selection. Moreover, by arising outside the foraging framework, Lévy-like movements are shown to have broader relevance. Studies on processes that depend on social context and movement (e.g., collective behaviour, the spread of diseases) may, hence, profit from such concepts.


Assuntos
Isópteros , Movimento , Animais , Modelos Biológicos , Seleção Genética , Meio Social
16.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(3)2022 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35326227

RESUMO

Leafy vegetables are susceptible to drought stress. Amaranthus tricolor vegetables are resistant to abiotic stress, including drought, and are a source of ample natural phytochemicals of interest to the food industry due to their benefits to consumers' health. Hence, the selected drought-resistant amaranth genotypes were evaluated for phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in an RCBD study with three replicates. The selected drought-resistant amaranth accessions contained ample carbohydrates, protein, moisture, and dietary fiber. We noticed many macroelements and microelements including iron, copper, manganese, zinc, sodium, molybdenum, boron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and sulfur; adequate phytopigments, including betacyanins, betalains, betaxanthins, carotenoids, and chlorophylls; plentiful bioactive phytochemicals, including ascorbic acid, flavonoids, polyphenols, and beta-carotene; and antioxidant potential in the selected drought-resistant amaranth accessions. The drought-resistant amaranth accessions VA14 and VA16 were proven to have high ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, and polyphenol levels. The drought-resistant accessions VA12 and VA14 had high flavonoid levels. The drought-resistant accessions VA3, VA14, and VA16 had high AC both in regard to both DPPH and ABTS+. These drought-resistant accessions, VA3, VA14, and VA16, can be utilized as high-yielding varieties with antioxidant profiles for purposes of drinks. The correlation study revealed that bioactive phytopigments and phytochemicals of amaranth accessions had good free radical quenching capacity against 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazo-6-sulfonic acid) and diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, equivalent to Trolox. It was revealed in the present study that these drought-resistant accessions contain plentiful proximate, nutraceuticals, phytopigments, bioactive phytochemicals, and antioxidant potentiality. Their drought resistance and quenching of ROS offer huge prospects for the promotion of health benefits and the feeding of communities in drought-prone semiarid and arid areas of the globe, especially those deficient in nutraceuticals, phytopigments, and antioxidants.

17.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(6)2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35327167

RESUMO

Understanding changes in biometric indices and metabolism in fish exposed to feed deprivation may be useful in aquaculture. The present study elucidates the effect of feed deprivation on physio-biochemical responses, such as changes in biometric indices, nutrient mobilization patterns, and enzyme activities in rohu (Labeo rohita). Experimental fish (av. wt. 3.41 ± 0.07 g) were deprived of feed and sampled at intervals of 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days to measure weight, length, body composition, and the activities of enzymes involved in digestion, metabolism, and antioxidation. A decrease in body weight, condition factor (CF), hepatosomatic index (HSI), and gastrosomatic index (GSI) was observed during the initial stage of feed deprivation (15 to 30 days) but remained unchanged thereafter. The total carbohydrate and lipid content also decreased rapidly up until 30 days, then stabilized. However, the reduction in tissue protein content (% wet weight) continued gradually with the duration of feed deprivation from 12.85 ± 0.36 at 0 days to 10.04 ± 0.67 at 15 days, 8.79 ± 0.59 at 30 days, 6.95 ± 0.69 at 45 days, and 6.16 ± 0.8 at 60 days, which was lower, compared to the other two body constituents. Amylase, protease. and lipase activities significantly reduced up until 30 days, but then stabilized. Although G6PDH enzyme activity decreased, gluconeogenic (LDH, AST, and ALT) and antioxidative (SOD and catalase) enzyme activities increased during initial feed deprivation (up to 30 days). A tissue-specific difference in amino acid metabolism with a major role of ALT in liver and AST in muscle was observed. This study revealed that rohu fingerlings adapted well to feed deprivation up until 30 days, beyond which there was an overall deterioration in the metabolic functions.

18.
Foods ; 11(6)2022 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35327209

RESUMO

The buritirana is a little-explored species of the Arecaceae family. The biometric and physicochemical characteristics, nutritional and chemical composition and antioxidant and antibacterial potential of the buritirana fruit fractions were evaluated here for the first time. The fruits presented an oblong shape. The pulp represented 16.58% of the whole-fruit weight (10.07 g). The moisture, ash and soluble fiber contents were similar for the whole fraction without seed (WS) and pulp. Although the total carbohydrate content was the same for seed and peel (23.24 g·100 g-1), the seed showed higher protein and insoluble fiber contents. Except for glucose (1256.63 mg·100 g-1), the seed showed the highest concentrations of mono-, di- and oligosaccharides. Mineral content ranged from 0.43 to 800 mg·100 g-1 in all fractions. The peel fraction showed the highest content of vitamin C. The physicochemical results indicate the pulp and WS fraction have potential for the production of fruit-derived food products. Protocatechuic and quinic acids and epicatechin/catechin were found in all fractions. The assay antioxidant capacity DPPH, phenolic content and total flavonoids were higher in the pulp; TEAC and ORACHF values were lower in the seed. Volatile organic compounds were not identified, and the fractions did not show antibacterial activity.

19.
Foods ; 11(3)2022 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35159586

RESUMO

Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a gluten-free cereal grown around the world and is a food staple in semi-arid and subtropical regions. Sorghum is a diverse crop with a range of pericarp colour including white, various shades of red, and black, all of which show health-promoting properties as they are rich sources of antioxidants such as polyphenols, carotenoids, as well as micro- and macro-nutrients. This work examined the grain composition of three sorghum varieties possessing a range of pericarp colours (white, red, and black) grown in the Mediterranean region. To determine the nutritional quality independent of the contributions of phenolics, mineral and fatty acid content and composition were measured. Minor differences in both protein and carbohydrate were observed among varieties, and a higher fibre content was found in both the red and black varieties. A higher amount of total saturated fats was found in the white variety, while the black variety had a lower amount of total unsaturated and polyunsaturated fats than either the white or red varieties. Oleic, linoleic, and palmitic were the primary fatty acids in all three analysed sorghum varieties. Significant differences in mineral content were found among the samples with a greater amount of Mg, K, Al, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Pb and U in both red and black than the white sorghum variety. The results show that sorghum whole grain flour made from grain with varying pericarp colours contains unique nutritional properties.

20.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164297

RESUMO

Pecan nut (Carya illinoensis) pericarp is usually considered as a waste, with no or low value applications. Its potential as a densified solid biofuel has been evaluated, searching for alternatives to generating quality renewable energy and reducing polluting emissions in the atmosphere, based on particle size, that is an important feedstock property. Therefore, agro-industrial residues from the pecan nut harvest were collected, milled and sieved to four different granulometry: 1.6 mm (N° 12), 0.84 mm (N° 20), 0.42 mm (N° 40), and 0.25 mm (N° 60), used as raw material for biofuel briquette production. The carbon and oxygen functional groups in the base material were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analyses were performed following international standards, for determining the moisture content, volatile materials, fixed carbon, ash content, and calorific value. For the biofuel briquettes made from base material of different particle sizes, the physical characteristics (density, hardness, swelling, and impact resistance index) and energy potential (calorific value) were determined to define their quality as a biofuel. The physical transformation of the pecan pericarp wastes into briquettes improved its quality as a solid biofuel, with calorific values from around 17.00 MJ/kg for the base material to around 18.00 MJ/kg for briquettes, regardless of particle size. Briquettes from sieve number 40 had the highest density (1.25 g/cm3). Briquettes from sieve number 60 (finest particles) presented the greater hardness (99.85). The greatest susceptibility to swelling (0.31) was registered for briquettes with the largest particle size (sieve number 20). The IRI was 200 for all treatments.

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