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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251410, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355887

RESUMO

Abstract Dietary habits of bandicoot rats (bandicota bengalensis) were investigated in the agricultural crops of the Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan by analysing stomach contents. The research activities were conducted in major field crops including wheat-groundnut and in the fallow lands during non-crop season at the field boundaries. The specimens were captured from the fields using kill/snap traps, and dissected to collect their stomach samples for laboratory analysis. Light microscopic slides of the plant material were recovered from stomach samples and the reference materials were collected from the field. Results revealed that the bandicoot rat predominantly fed upon cultivated crops during cropping season but consumed wild vegetation during non-cropping season. There was no significance difference between summer and winter diets. Most frequently consumed crop food items were wheat (Triticum aestivum; 28.57%), groundnut (Arachis hypogea; 11.26%), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; 10.17%), chickpea (Cicer arietinum; 9.52%), maize (Zea mays; 6.49%), millet (Pennisetum glaucum; 5.84%), barley (Hordeum vulgare; 4.98%) and mustard (Brassica campestris; 4.98%). Among wild vegetation were consumed khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7.79%), baron dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7.36%) and Prickly flower (Achyranthes aspera; 3.03%). The study concludes that, in addition to consuming wheat and groundnut crops, the Lesser bandicoot rat also subsists on grasses, weeds, and some fodder crops, as important component of its diet in agro-ecosystem of the Pothwar Plateau.


Resumo Os hábitos alimentares de ratos bandicoot (Bandicota bengalensis) foram investigados nas plantações agrícolas do planalto de Pothwar, Paquistão, por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal. As atividades da pesquisa foram conduzidas nas principais culturas de campo, incluindo trigo e amendoim, e em terras de pousio durante a estação não agrícola nos limites do campo. Os espécimes foram capturados dos campos usando armadilhas kill/snap e dissecados para coletar suas amostras de estômago para análise laboratorial. Lâminas de microscopia de luz do material vegetal foram recuperadas de amostras de estômago; os materiais de referência foram coletados no campo. Os resultados revelaram que o rato bandicoot alimentava-se predominantemente de culturas cultivadas durante a época de cultivo, mas consumia vegetação selvagem durante a época de não colheita. Não houve diferença significativa entre as dietas de verão e inverno. Os alimentos agrícolas mais frequentemente consumidos foram trigo (Triticum aestivum; 28,57%), amendoim (Arachis hypogea; 11,26%), sorgo (Sorghum bicolor; 10,17%), grão de bico (Cicer arietinum; 9,52%), milho (Zea mays; 6,49%), milheto (Pennisetum glaucum; 5,84%), cevada (Hordeum vulgare; 4,98%) e mostarda (Brassica campestris; 4,98%). Entre a vegetação silvestre foram consumidos khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7,79%), barão dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7,36%) e flor espinhosa (Achyranthes aspera; 3,03%). O estudo conclui que, além de consumir culturas de trigo e amendoim, o rato bandicoot pequeno também subsiste de gramíneas, ervas daninhas e algumas culturas forrageiras, componentes importantes de sua dieta no agroecossistema do planalto de Pothwar.


Assuntos
Animais , Ecossistema , Murinae , Paquistão , Produtos Agrícolas , Zea mays , Comportamento Alimentar
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e258234, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1384068

RESUMO

The present work was showed to assess the effect of administration of rosemary extract on etoposide-induced toxicity, injury and proliferation in male rats were investigated. Forty male albino rats were arranged into four equal groups. 1st group, control; 2nd group, etoposide; 3rd group, co-treated rosemary & etoposide; 4th group, rosemary alone. In comparison to the control group, etoposide administration resulted in a significant increase in serum ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, total protein, and gamma GT. In contrast; a significant decrease in albumin level in etoposide group as compared to G1. G3 revealed a significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP, total protein and total bilirubin levels and a significant rise in albumin level when compared with G2. Serum levels of urea, creatinine, potassium ions, and chloride ions significantly increased; while sodium ions were significantly decreased in G2 when compared with G1. Also, there was an increase of MDA level for etoposide treated group with corresponding control rats. However, there was a remarkable significant decrease in SOD, GPX and CAT levels in G2 as compared to G1. There was a significant increase in serum hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and Nitric oxide (NO) levels in group treated with etoposide when compared to control group. It was noticeable that administrated by rosemary alone either with etoposide had not any effect on the levels of H2O2 and Nitric oxide. Serum level of T3 and T4 was significantly increased in etoposide-administered rats in comparison with G1. The administration of rosemary, either alone or with etoposide, increased the serum levels of T3 and T4 significantly when compared to control rats. The gene expression analysis showed significant downregulation of hepatic SOD and GPx in (G2) when compared with (G1). The treatment with rosemary extract produced significant upregulation of the antioxidant enzymes mRNA SOD and GPx. MDA gene was increased in (G2) when contrasted with (G1). Treatment of the etoposide- induced rats with rosemary extract delivered significant decrease in MDA gene expression when compared with etoposide group. Rats treated with etoposide showed significant decline in hepatic Nrf2 protein expression, when compared with G1. While, supplementation of Etoposide- administered rats with the rosemary produced a significant elevation in hepatic Nrf2 protein levels. Additionally, the liver histological structure displayed noticeable degeneration and cellular infiltration in liver cells. It is possible to infer that rosemary has a potential role and that it should be researched as a natural component for etoposide-induced toxicity protection.


O presente trabalho foi apresentado para avaliar o efeito da administração de extrato de alecrim na toxicidade, lesão e proliferação induzidas por etoposídeos em ratos machos. Quarenta ratos albinos machos foram organizados em quatro grupos iguais: 1º grupo, controle; 2º grupo, etoposídeo; 3º grupo, alecrim e etoposídeo cotratados; 4º grupo, alecrim sozinho. Em comparação com o grupo controle, a administração de etoposídeo resultou em aumento significativo da ALT, AST, ALP, bilirrubina total, proteína total e gama GT séricas. Em contraste, houve diminuição significativa do nível de albumina no grupo etoposídeo em relação ao G1. O G3 revelou diminuição significativa dos níveis de AST, ALT, ALP, proteína total e bilirrubina total e aumento significativo do nível de albumina quando comparado ao G2. Os níveis séricos de ureia, creatinina, íons potássio e íons cloreto aumentaram significativamente, enquanto os íons sódio diminuíram significativamente no G2 quando comparado ao G1. Além disso, houve um aumento do nível de MDA para o grupo tratado com etoposídeo com os ratos controle correspondentes. No entanto, houve uma notável diminuição nos níveis de SOD, GPX e CAT no G2 em relação ao G1. Houve aumento significativo dos níveis séricos de peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2) e óxido nítrico (NO) no grupo tratado com etoposídeo quando comparado ao grupo controle. Foi perceptível que a administração de alecrim isoladamente ou com etoposídeo não teve efeito sobre os níveis de H2O2 e NO. O nível sérico de T3 e T4 foi significativamente aumentado em ratos administrados com etoposídeo em comparação com o G1. A administração de alecrim, isoladamente ou com etoposídeo, aumentou significativamente os níveis séricos de T3 e T4 quando comparada aos ratos controle. A análise da expressão gênica mostrou desregulação significante da SOD e GPx hepática em G2 quando comparado com o G1. O tratamento com extrato de alecrim produziu aumento significativo das enzimas antioxidantes mRNA SOD e GPx. O gene MDA estava aumentado em G2 quando contrastado com o G1. O tratamento dos ratos induzidos por etoposídeo com extrato de alecrim proporcionou diminuição significativa na expressão do gene MDA quando comparado ao grupo etoposídeo. Ratos tratados com etoposídeo apresentaram declínio significativo na expressão da proteína Nrf2 hepática quando comparados ao G1. Enquanto isso, a suplementação de ratos administrados com etoposídeo e alecrim produziu uma elevação significativa nos níveis de proteína hepática Nrf2. Além disso, a estrutura histológica do fígado apresentou degeneração perceptível e infiltração celular nas células hepáticas. É possível inferir que o alecrim tem um papel potencial e que deve ser pesquisado como um componente natural para proteção da toxicidade induzida por etoposídeos.


Assuntos
Ratos , Rosmarinus , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Toxicidade , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem
3.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 170-175, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799538

RESUMO

According to clinical statistics, the mortality of patients with early brainstem hemorrhage is high. In this study, we established rat models of brainstem hemorrhage by injecting type VII collagenase into the right basotegmental pontine and investigated the pathological changes of early brainstem hemorrhage using multi-sequence magnetic resonance imaging and histopathological methods. We found that brainstem hematoma gradually formed in the injured rats over the first 3 days and then reduced after 7 days. The edema that occurred was mainly of the vasogenic type. No complete myelin sheath structure was found around the focus of the brainstem hemorrhage. The integrity and continuity of nerve fibers gradually deteriorated over the first 7 days. Neuronal degeneration was mild in the first 3 days and then obviously aggravated on the 7th day. Inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1ß, and tumor necrosis factor α appeared on the 1st day after intracerebral hemorrhage, reached peak levels on the 3rd day, and decreased from the 7th day. Our findings show the characteristics of the progression of early brainstem hemorrhage.

4.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(2): 428-433, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35900441

RESUMO

High cervical spinal cord injuries induce permanent neuromotor and autonomic deficits. These injuries impact both central respiratory and cardiovascular functions through modulation of the sympathetic nervous system. So far, cardiovascular studies have focused on models of complete contusion or transection at the lower cervical and thoracic levels and diaphragm activity evaluations using invasive methods. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of C2 hemisection on different parameters representing vital functions (i.e., respiratory function, cardiovascular, and renal filtration parameters) at the moment of injury and 7 days post-injury in rats. No ventilatory parameters evaluated by plethysmography were impacted during quiet breathing after 7 days post-injury, whereas permanent diaphragm hemiplegia was observed by ultrasound and confirmed by diaphragmatic electromyography in anesthetized rats. Interestingly, the mean arterial pressure was reduced immediately after C2 hemisection, with complete compensation at 7 days post-injury. Renal filtration was unaffected at 7 days post-injury; however, remnant systolic dysfunction characterized by a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction persisted at 7 days post-injury. Taken together, these results demonstrated that following C2 hemisection, diaphragm activity and systolic function are impacted up to 7 days post-injury, whereas the respiratory and cardiovascular systems display vast adaptation to maintain ventilatory parameters and blood pressure homeostasis, with the latter likely sustained by the remaining descending sympathetic inputs spared by the initial injury. A better broad characterization of the physiopathology of high cervical spinal cord injuries covering a longer time period post-injury could be beneficial for understanding evaluations of putative therapeutics to further increase cardiorespiratory recovery.

5.
Dis Model Mech ; 16(5)2023 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35855640

RESUMO

When pathological hypertrophy progresses to heart failure (HF), the prognosis is often very poor. Therefore, it is crucial to find new and effective intervention targets. Here, myocardium-specific Trim44 knockout rats were generated using CRISPR-Cas9 technology. Cardiac phenotypic observations revealed that Trim44 knockout affected cardiac morphology at baseline. Rats with Trim44 deficiency exhibited resistance to cardiac pathological changes in response to stimulation via isoproterenol (ISO) treatment, including improvement of cardiac remodeling and dysfunction by morphological and functional observations, reduced myocardial fibrosis and reduced expression of molecular markers of cardiac stress. Furthermore, signal transduction validation associated with growth and hypertrophy development in vivo and in vitro demonstrated that Trim44 deficiency inhibited the activation of signaling pathways involved in myocardial hypertrophy, especially response to pathological stress. In conclusion, the present study indicates that Trim44 knockout attenuates ISO-induced pathological cardiac remodeling through blocking the AKT/mTOR/GSK3ß/P70S6K signaling pathway. This is the first study to demonstrate the function and importance of Trim44 in the heart at baseline and under pathological stress. Trim44 could be a novel therapeutic target for prevention of cardiac hypertrophy and HF.


Assuntos
Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Remodelação Ventricular , Animais , Cardiomegalia/genética , Isoproterenol/metabolismo , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Isoproterenol/uso terapêutico , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2565: 3-15, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205883

RESUMO

PC12 cells serve as a secretory cell model, especially suitable for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying fusion pore kinetics in regulated exocytosis of dense-core vesicles (DCVs). In this chapter, we describe a series of PC12 cell culture procedures optimized for real-time functional assays such as single-vesicle amperometry. In addition, these conditions have been widely used for single-cell biochemical assays such as the proximity ligation assay with immunostaining.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais , Feocromocitoma , Animais , Exocitose , Cinética , Células PC12 , Ratos , Vesículas Secretórias
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2565: 113-127, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205891

RESUMO

Because catecholamines secretion mainly relies on the excitable nature of adrenal chromaffin cells, monitoring their electrical activity is an essential step in assessing the adrenal medullary tissue function. The difficult access to the gland in vivo allows only population activity to be recorded in this condition. In vitro preparations allow recordings of spontaneous or evoked activity from single or multiple cells, depending on the biological samples used (dissociated chromaffin cells versus adrenal tissue preparations). In this chapter, I provide a detailed description of the techniques used for electrophysiological recordings in rodent chromaffin cells in acute adrenal slices, using the patch-clamp technique. This methodology allows preservation of the tissue integrity and detection of action potentials, synaptic activity, and secretory events; it is thus suitable for the study of adrenomedullary activity-secretion coupling.


Assuntos
Medula Suprarrenal , Células Cromafins , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Glândulas Suprarrenais , Catecolaminas , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115727, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116611

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cousinia thomsonii is traditionally known for treating various diseases including joint pain, swelling, body ache, asthma, dermatitis, cough and arthritis. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study employs lipopolysaccharide induced inflammatory wistar-rat model to evaluate efficacy of Cousinia thomsonii active-extracts on the expression of crucial inflammatory markers viz. iNOS, PPAR-γ, Rel-A, COX-2 and serum analysis of CRP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methanol and aqueous extracts were administered orally at 25, 50, 100 mg/kg doses for 21 days. Serum was collected on 22nd day and rats were sacrificed to extract paw tissues. Dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg) served as positive control. Immunoblotting and qPCR was used for expression analysis of iNOS, PPAR-γ, Rel-A, COX-2 respectively. ELISA was employed for evaluating CRP levels. Discovery-studio and Auto-Dock-Vina were used to check docking interactions of various identified compounds. RESULTS: Both extracts caused dose-dependent decline in iNOS, Rel-A, COX-2 and CRP levels, while there was a dose-dependent increase in PPAR-γ expression. Methanol extract dominated immunomodulatory potential as compared with the aqueous extract. The results of the GCMS revealed the presence of ten compounds. Some of these compounds include 1-Octacosanol, Ethyl Linoleate, 1-Heptacosanol, 1-Hexadecanol, 1-Dodecanol and Behenic alcohol having strong anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-acne and anti-viral activities. Molecular Docking scores were calculated between each target protein and selected compounds. The best affinity/interactions were observed between 1-Octacosanol towards iNOS, PPAR-γ, Rel-A, COX-2 and CRP with binding energy of -10.4, -11.1, -8.6, -9.9 and -7.9 (kcal/mol) respectively. These compounds may act as strong inhibitors for iNOS, Rel-A, COX-2 and CRP or as agonists for PPAR-γ; thereby inducing anti-inflammatory/immuno-modulatory activities. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that Cousinia thomsonii contains therapeutically active compounds and thus could serve as potential therapeutic regimen against diverse inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Asteraceae , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dexametasona , Dodecanol , Álcoois Graxos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Metanol , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos
9.
Behav Brain Res ; 436: 114055, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964782

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the orexin and POMC populations in the hypothalamic nuclei of male Wistar rats after the activity-based anorexia (ABA) procedure. Four groups were established based on food restriction and activity: activity (A), ABA, diet (D) and control (C). The ABA protocol consisted of free access to a running wheel for a period of 22 h and access to food for 1 h. When the animals in the ABA group reached the ABA criterion, were sacrificed, and their brains were collected and serially sectioned. The free-floating sections were processed for orexin and POMC immunostaining. The number of orexin A-ir cells in the perifornical-dorsomedial-hypothalamus continuum (PFD) and lateral hypothalamus (LH) and the number of POMC-ir cells in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) were estimated. Data on food intake, body weight and wheel turns were also analyzed. The ABA procedure caused a significant decrease in body weight along with a significant increase in activity. Moreover, at the end of the ABA procedure, the number of POMC-ir cells decreased in the Arc in the A group, and significantly more in the ABA group, and the number of orexin A-ir positive cells decreased in the LH in D and ABA groups. The differential decrease in POMC in the ABA group emphasizes the importance of the melanocortin system in the maintenance of ABA, but more research is needed to elucidate the involvement of this peptide in the mechanism that promotes and maintains anorexia nervosa and how increased activity may interact with all these processes.


Assuntos
Anorexia , Pró-Opiomelanocortina , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Hipotálamo , Masculino , Melanocortinas , Atividade Motora , Orexinas , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115739, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126784

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Arnebia euchroma (Royle) I.M.Johnst. (AE) is a Chinese medicinal herb that is traditionally used to treat various circulatory diseases. It exhibits certain effects, such as the promotion of blood circulation and cooling, rash clearance, and detoxification. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was designed to explore the hepatoprotective and hemostatic effects of the ethyl acetate extract of AE in rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were treated via oral gavage with different doses of the ethyl acetate extract of AE (3.5, 7, or 14 g kg-1·day-1) for 14 consecutive days, following which hemostatic and liver function tests were conducted. For the hemostatic tests, the platelet count, blood platelet aggregation, blood platelet adhesion to fibrinogen, platelet factor 4 (PF-4) secretion from blood platelets, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT), and fibrinogen levels were measured at the end of the treatment period. For the liver function tests, 0.25 mL/200 g (1.25 mL kg-1·day-1) of olive oil was injected into the abdominal cavity of the control rats, whereas 15% CCl4 plus olive oil (prescription: 7.5 mL CCl4 + 42.5 olive oil) was injected into that of the treated rats at 1 h after extract administration on day 6, 13, and 20. Additionally, food and water were withheld from all the animals. On the following day, the rats were anesthetized and their albumin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured. Glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels among the groups were determined using a one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: The platelet count and blood platelet aggregation, blood platelet adhesion to fibrinogen and PF-4 secretion levels were significantly increased in the (3.5 g kg-1 day-1) AE group as compared to those in the control group (all p < 0.001; for the 7 and 14 g kg-1 day-1 AE groups, all p > 0.05, respectively). Although the PT and aPTT were not affected by the AE extract (all p > 0.05), the TT was reduced and the FIB levels were significantly increased in all AE groups (p < 0.05). Liver function tests showed that CCl4 caused significant liver damage, thereby decreasing the albumin, SOD, CAT, GSH, GST, GR, and GPx levels, while increasing the AST, ALT, ALP, SGOT, SGPT, GGT, LDH, ROS, and MDA levels (all p < 0.001). By contrast, treatment with the different doses of AE extract reversed the CCl4 effects on all these parameters. Compared with the levels in the CCl4 group, the GSH and GR levels in the three AE groups (3.5, 7, and 14 g kg-1·day-1) were significantly higher (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.001, respectively), whereas the differences in the other parameters for these three groups were all at the significance levels of p < 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.01, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: AE extracts administered orally exhibited hepatoprotective activity by affecting platelet production and blood coagulation and ameliorating liver function-damaging modifications. Specifically, a dosage of 3.5 g kg-1·day-1 resulted in the most optimal effects.


Assuntos
Boraginaceae , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Hemostáticos , Plantas Medicinais , Acetatos , Alanina Transaminase , Albuminas/farmacologia , Aldeídos , Fosfatase Alcalina , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Tetracloreto de Carbono/farmacologia , Catalase , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fibrinogênio , Glutationa/farmacologia , Glutationa Peroxidase , Glutationa Redutase , Glutationa Transferase , Hemostáticos/farmacologia , Lactato Desidrogenases , Fígado , Metano/farmacologia , Azeite de Oliva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Fator Plaquetário 4/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Superóxido Dismutase , gama-Glutamiltransferase
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2576: 213-224, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152189

RESUMO

In animal tissues, N-acyltransferase (NAT) catalyzes the first reaction in the biosynthetic pathway of bioactive N-acylethanolamines, in which an acyl chain is transferred from the sn-1 position of the donor phospholipid, such as phosphatidylcholine, to the amino group of phosphatidylethanolamine, resulting in the formation of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine. NAT has long been known to be stimulated by Ca2+ and hence referred to as Ca2+-dependent NAT. Later, this enzyme was identified as cPLA2ε (also referred to as PLA2G4E). On the other hand, members of the phospholipase A/acyltransferase (PLAAT) family (also known as HRAS-like suppressor family) show Ca2+-independent NAT activity. In this chapter, we describe (1) partial purification of Ca2+-dependent NAT from rat brain, (2) purification of recombinant cPLA2ε and PLAAT-2, and (3) NAT assay using radiolabeled substrate.


Assuntos
Fosfatidiletanolaminas , Fosfolipases A , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Animais , Fosfatidilcolinas , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , Fosfolipases A/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos , Ratos , Ácidos Urônicos
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2576: 261-274, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152194

RESUMO

N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA) is a lysosomal hydrolase degrading various N-acylethanolamines at acidic pH. NAAA prefers anti-inflammatory and analgesic palmitoylethanolamide to other N-acylethanolamines as a substrate, and its specific inhibitors are shown to exert anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions in animal models. Therefore, these inhibitors are expected as a new class of therapeutic agents. Here, we introduce an NAAA assay system, using [14C]palmitoylethanolamide and thin-layer chromatography. The preparation of NAAA enzyme from native and recombinant sources as well as the chemical synthesis of N-[1'-14C]palmitoyl-ethanolamine is also described.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases , Etanolaminas , Amidas , Amidoidrolases/química , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Ácidos Palmíticos
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2576: 361-371, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152202

RESUMO

In this chapter, we will describe the bioinformatic tools that allow verifying the presence of CpG islands in a gene promoter region. We will also describe the tools needed to identify consensus motifs for specific transcription factors, focusing on the study of rat type-1 cannabinoid receptor gene (R_Cnr1) as a case study.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Endocanabinoides , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Ilhas de CpG , Endocanabinoides/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ratos , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/genética , Receptores de Canabinoides , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988849

RESUMO

One of the main obstacles in treating psychostimulant addiction is relapse even after long-term abstinence. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is located in the basal forebrain, responsible for regulating several behaviors, specifically reward-related effect of psychostimulants. In the current study, an unbiased place conditioning paradigm was performed to inquire the role of the hypocretin/orexin system in the NAc in the extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine (Meth)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Similar to previous investigations, rats were conditioned with Meth (1 mg/kg; sc) for five consecutive days to elicit CPP. The rats underwent Meth conditioning protocol received SB334867 or TCS OX2 29, an orexin receptor 1 (OXr1) antagonist or orexin receptor 2 (OXr2) antagonist (0, 3, 10, and 30 nmol/0.5 µL DMSO %12) in the NAc during the extinction period to elucidate the role of OXrs on the extinction of Meth-induced CPP. Meanwhile, extinguished rats received SB334867 or TCS OX2 29 (0, 1, 3, 10, and 30 nmol/0.5 µL DMSO %12) in the NAc prior to an effective priming dose of Meth to evaluate the impact of OXr antagonists on the reinstatement of Meth-induced CPP. The current data pointed out intra-NAc microinjection of SB334867 or TCS OX2 29 blocked both extinction and reinstatement of Meth-induced CPP. In addition, the OXr1 antagonist was more potent than the OXr2 antagonist to suppress both extinction and reinstatement phases of Meth-induced CPP. Based on the current data, the OX system in the NAc is extensively implicated in the reward properties of Meth; therefore, modulation of this system has therapeutic potential in treating psychostimulant use disorders.


Assuntos
Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Metanfetamina , Ratos , Animais , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Metanfetamina/farmacologia , Orexinas , Receptores de Orexina/metabolismo , Condicionamento Operante , Extinção Psicológica , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Orexina/farmacologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116673

RESUMO

Exposure to stressful stimuli induces various physiological and behavioral responses, affects pain perception, and alters gene expression. Stress elicits an analgesic effect in laboratory animals, termed the "stress-induced analgesia" (SIA). Orexin neuropeptides, processed from pre-pro-orexin in the hypothalamus, release during stress and are known to be antinociceptive. The current study examined the modulatory role of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) orexinergic system in the restraint SIA and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to intra-VTA injection of orexin-1 and -2 receptor antagonists (SB334867 and TCS OX2 29; 1, 3, 10, and 30 nmol/0.3 µl, respectively) five min before a 3-h period of exposure to restraint stress (RS). Western blot analysis was also used to assess the levels of ERK and phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) in the NAc tissues. RS exposure produced an analgesic response to the thermal pain model (Tail-flick test). RS-induced antinociception was inhibited by intra-VTA administration of SB334867 and TCS OX2 29. Moreover, in the molecular study, exposure to forced swim stress (FSS) and RS significantly enhanced the p-ERK/ERK ratio. Blockade of both orexin receptors diminished the p-ERK/ERK ratio, but this decrease was significant only in the FSS group of animals that received TCS OX2 29. Collectively, the present findings suggested the functional roles of intra-VTA orexin receptors and ERK signaling in the SIA.


Assuntos
Analgesia , Neuropeptídeos , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Analgésicos/farmacologia , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Receptores de Orexina/metabolismo , Orexinas/metabolismo , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos Wistar , Área Tegmentar Ventral/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal
16.
J Invest Surg ; 36(1): 1-9, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36345760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sepsis is one of the major problems encountered in intensive care units, causing organ damage and increasing mortality. Suberosin (SBR) is a type of coumarin with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The goal of this study is to explore the protective effects of SBR on the lungs in a rat model of sepsis. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were utilized in this study. A cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model was applied to induce sepsis. Rats were separated into six groups with nine animals in each group, including healthy control, SBR, CLP, and CLP + SBR (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) groups. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) enzyme activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Histopathological changes in the lungs were investigated with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). RESULTS: MDA levels and GSH and SOD enzyme activities were negatively affected in the CLP group, but SBR treatment ameliorated these oxidative stress parameters in the SBR1-3 groups (p< 0.05). The mRNA expressions of TNF-α and IL-1ß were increased in the CLP group, and SBR treatment decreased those expression levels in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Organ damage and necrosis were seen in the CLP group and were alleviated in the SBR3 group. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of lung tissues demonstrated decreased TNF-α and IL-1ß immunopositivity in the SBR1-3 groups (p< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: SBR ameliorated sepsis-related lung injury in a dose-dependent manner. This compound has significant potential as a future agent in the treatment of sepsis.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar , Sepse , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Lesão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Lesão Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Ligadura/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/patologia , Punções , Glutationa/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro , Modelos Animais de Doenças
17.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136796, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228722

RESUMO

Increased production and usage of organophosphate esters (OPEs) as flame retardants and plasticizers has trended towards larger and 'novel' (oligomeric) OPEs, although there is a dearth of understanding of the environmental fate, stability, toxicokinetics, biotransformation and bioaccumulation of novel OPEs in exposed biota. The present study characterized in vitro biotransformation of the novel OPE bisphenol-A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPADP) using Wistar-Han rat and herring gull liver based microsomal assays. Hypothesized target metabolites bisphenol-A (BPA) and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) and other metabolites were investigated by applying a lines of evidence approach. In silico modelling predicted both BPA and DPHP as rat metabolites of BPADP, these metabolites were quantified via UHPLC-QQQ-MS/MS. Additional non-target metabolites were determined by UHPLC-Q-Exactive-Orbitrap-HRMS/MS and identified by Compound Discoverer software. Mean BPADP depletion of 44 ± 10% was quantified with 3.9% and 2.6% conversion to BPA and DPHP, respectively, in the rat assay. BPADP metabolism was much slower when compared to the well-studied OPE, triphenyl phosphate (TPHP). BPADP depletion in gull liver assays was far slower relative to the rat. Additional non-target metabolites identified included two Phase I, O-dealkylation products, five Phase I oxidation products and one Phase II glutathione adduct, demonstrating agreement between lines of in vitro and in silico evidence. Lines of evidence suggest that BPADP is biologically persistent in exposed mammals or birds. These findings add to the understanding of BPADP stability and biotransformation, and perhaps of other novel OPEs, which are factors highly applicable to hazard assessments of exposure, persistence and bioaccumulation in biota.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Fosfatos , Ratos , Animais , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ratos Wistar , Organofosfatos/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Biotransformação , Aves/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Ésteres/análise , Mamíferos/metabolismo
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115851, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273748

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The external use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat fractures has a long history of clinical application and theoretical basis, and is also one of the characteristic treatment methods of TCM with significant efficacy and many advantages. Among the commonly used external Chinese medicines, Tubiechong is noteworthy. AIM OF THE STUDY: To elucidate whether local patching of Tubiechong can promote fracture healing and explore its mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rat tibia fracture model was constructed by the modified Einhorn modeling method. X-ray films were taken to evaluate the progress of fracture healing. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (BGP) and the C-terminal content of collagen type I (CTX-I) were analyzed by ELISA. CD31 immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate angiogenesis in the tibia segment. The effects of Tubiechong decoction (TD) on HUVEC proliferation, migration and invasion were detected by MTT assay, wound healing assay and Transwell migration assay, respectively. RNA-seq was performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Enrichment of functions and signaling pathway analysis were performed based on the Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to study gene expression levels. Western blotting (WB) was used to detect the expression of relevant regulatory proteins. RESULTS: The healing time of rat tibia fractures in the three TD dose groups was shortened. The serum levels of BALP, BGP and CTX- I in the TD-treated group were higher than those in the NC group. The X-ray results showed that on the 7th day after surgery, the fracture healing degree of the high-dose TD group was significantly better than that of the NC group, and the fracture healing degrees of each TD treatment group were significantly higher than those of the NC group on the 14th, 17th, and 21st days after the operation. The CD31 immunohistochemistry results showed that the number of blood vessels and the vascular area in the TD treatment group were higher than those in the NC group. In vitro, TD promoted the proliferation, wound healing and migration of HUVECs. GO analysis of transcriptome sequencing results showed that TD significantly altered the expression of genes related to cell growth, metabolism, and motility. According to KEGG annotations, VEGFA was upregulated. Eight DEGs were enriched in the VEGFA-VEGFR2 signaling pathway, of which six were upregulated. KEGG signaling pathway analysis showed that the most abundant DEGs were in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. qRT-PCR showed that VEGFA gene expression in HUVECs was 7.8 times that of the control group after 1 mg/mL TD treatment for 24 h, and WB experiments showed that its protein expression was 3 times that of the control group. WB results showed that the phosphorylated ERK gene was highly expressed, while the expression levels of phosphorylated P38 and phosphorylated JNK protein remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Tubechong patching therapy promotes tibia fracture healing in rats by regulating angiogenesis through the VEGF/ERK1/2 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Consolidação da Fratura , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Animais , Ratos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Tíbia/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas
19.
Mol Med Rep ; 27(1)2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367161

RESUMO

Kirsten rat sarcoma virus (KRAS) mutation is considered to be the event that leads to the initiation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the mutation frequency of the KRAS gene in PDAC is 90­95%. Studies have shown that wild­type KRAS (KRASWT) has a survival advantage in PDAC and can antagonize the effect of mutated KRAS G12D (KRASG12D), leading to a low cell transformation efficiency. The present study focused on the differences in biological behavior between KRASWT and KRASG12D and explored the mechanism in pancreatic cancer. Overexpressed KRASWT and KRASG12D was transfected into cells through lentiviral transfection. The differences and mechanisms were explored using cell counting kit­8 (CCK­8), clone formation, wound healing and Transwell assays, as well as western blotting, immunohistochemistry and tumor formation in nude mice. In vitro, the proliferation of KRASWT group was reduced compared with PANC­1 group, while the proliferation of KRASG12D group was not significantly changed. In vivo, the proliferation of KRASWT group was reduced and that of KRASG12D group was enhanced compared with that in the PANC­1 group. The invasion and migration of KRASWT group were decreased, while the invasion and migration of KRASG12D group were increased. Western blotting showed that the expression of E­cadherin, α­E­catenin, MMP­3, MMP­9, STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 in KRASWT group was increased, while no significant difference was observed in KRASG12D group. The results of immunohistochemistry were consistent with those of western blotting. KRASWT group can inhibit the proliferation of pancreatic cancer in vitro and in vivo, while KRASG12D group can significantly promote proliferation in vivo, but not significantly in vitro. Wild­type KRAS may inhibit the invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer through the Wnt/ß­catenin pathway.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Animais , Camundongos , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Vírus do Sarcoma Murino de Kirsten/metabolismo , Camundongos Nus , Mutação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt
20.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 95: 63-69, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the alterations in resting-state functions and neural structures in the brain of a heatstroke rat model and explore the underlying relationship. METHODS: In total, 17 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group (CTRL, n = 7) and a heatstroke group (HS, n = 10). All rats underwent 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). T2-weighted imaging, resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were obtained. On day 25, the surviving HS group rats (the follow-up group, FU, n = 7) were scanned again. RESULTS: Heatstroke resulted in functional alterations and structural damage in the cerebellar molecular layer (CML), right perirhinal area (PA), pretectal region (PR), right dentate gyrus, and external cortex of the inferior colliculus (ECIC). Further functional changes occur in the right temporal associative cortex (TAC), left retrosplenial cortex (RC), and CML during convalescence. The fractional anisotropy values were significantly positively correlated with the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) (HS-CML: r = 0.746, p = 0.034; right PR: r = 0.648, p = 0.049; FU-right PA: r = 0.817, p = 0.025)/regional homogeneity (ReHo) ratio (HS-CML: r = 0.833, p = 0.008; ECIC: r = 0.678, p = 0.045) and negatively correlated with the ALFF (FU-left RC: r = -0.818, p = 0.024; right TAC: r = -0.813, p = 0.049). CONCLUSION: DTI and rs-fMRI allow meticulous monitoring of the progression of neurological and functional alterations in the brain after heatstroke.


Assuntos
Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Golpe de Calor , Masculino , Animais , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Golpe de Calor/diagnóstico por imagem , Golpe de Calor/patologia
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