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1.
Hig. Aliment. (Online) ; 38(298): e1144, jan.-jun. 2024.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1531444

RESUMO

As falhas na higienização em um estabelecimento de alimentos podem refletir em problemas causando a contaminação ou deterioração do produto produzido. Esta pesquisa foi motivada por reclamações de consumidores informando que os queijos apresentaram fungos, mesmo estando dentro do prazo de validade e por solicitação do Serviço de Inspeção Municipal. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a contaminação ambiental em uma agroindústria da agricultura familiar produtora de queijo colonial no Sudoeste Paranaense. Foram realizadas a contagem para aeróbios mesófilos em equipamentos e superfícies que entram em contato com o alimento e análise microbiológica ambiental de bolores e leveduras na sala de secagem dos queijos. A coleta foi realizada com método de esfregaço de suabe estéril para aeróbios mesófilos e semeadas em placas de Petri com Ágar Padrão de Contagem. Para a coleta ambiental foram expostas placas de Petri com ágar Saboraund durante 15 minutos. Os resultados demonstraram ausência de contaminação nas superfícies, mas foram encontrados bolores e leveduras de forma acentuada na sala de secagem dos queijos, o que pode contribuir para a deterioração do produto, diminuindo sua validade. Para minimizar as perdas por contaminação é necessário que o processo de higienização dos ambientes seja realizado de forma eficiente.


Failures in hygiene in a food establishment can result in problems causing contamination or deterioration of the product produced. This research was motivated by complaints from consumers reporting that the cheeses had mold, even though they were within their expiration date and at the request of the Municipal Inspection Service. This research was to evaluate environmental contamination in an agroindustry in the family farm producing colonial cheese in Southwest Paraná. For the microbiological assessment of environmental contamination, counting for mesophilic aerobes was carried out on equipment and surfaces that come into contact with food and, environmental microbiological analysis of molds and yeast in the cheese drying room. The collection was carried out using the sterile swab smear for mesophilic aerobes and seeded in Petri dishes with Counting Standard Agar. For environmental collection, sheets of Petri with Saboraund agar for 15 minutes. The results demonstrated absence of contamination on surfaces. But the presence of molds and yeasts in the drying room cheeses, which can contribute to the deterioration of the product and thus reduce the validity. To minimize losses due to contamination, it is It is necessary that the process of cleaning and disinfecting environments is carried out efficiently.


Assuntos
Higiene dos Alimentos , Queijo/microbiologia , Brasil , Boas Práticas de Fabricação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 471: 134330, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678704

RESUMO

Water scarcity, affecting one-fifth of the global population, is exacerbated by industrial, agricultural, and population growth pressures on water resources. Wastewater, containing Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) such as antibiotics, presents environmental and health hazards. This study explores a Nature-Based Solution (NBS) using Constructed Wetlands (CWs) for wastewater reclamation and CECs removal. Two CW configurations (Vertical-VCW and Hybrid-HCW) were tested for their efficacy. Results show significant reduction in for all the chemico-physical and biological parameters meeting Italian water reuse standards. Furthermore, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria (ARB) and Antibiotic Resistant Genes (ARGs) were effectively reduced, emphasizing the potential of the CWs in mitigating Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR). Lettuce seedlings irrigated with the treated wastewater exhibited no ARB/ARGs transfer, indicating the safety of the reclaimed wastewater for agricultural use. Overall, CWs emerge as sustainable Nature Based Solutions (NBS) for wastewater treatment, contributing to global water conservation efforts amid escalating water scarcity challenges.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Áreas Alagadas , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Purificação da Água/métodos , Lactuca/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
3.
Foods ; 13(3)2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338521

RESUMO

Entomophagy describes the practice of eating insects. Insects are considered extremely nutritious in many countries worldwide. However, there is a lethargic uptake of this practice in Europe where consuming insects and insect-based foodstuffs is often regarded with disgust. Such perceptions and concerns are often due to a lack of exposure to and availability of food-grade insects as a food source and are often driven by neophobia and cultural norms. In recent years, due to accelerating climate change, an urgency to develop alternate safe and sustainable food-sources has emerged. There are currently over 2000 species of insects approved by the World Health Organization as safe to eat and suitable for human consumption. This review article provides an updated overview of the potential of edible insects as a safe, palatable, and sustainable food source. Furthermore, legislation, food safety issues, and the nutritional composition of invertebrates including, but not limited, to crickets (Orthoptera) and mealworms (Coleoptera) are also explored within this review. This article also discusses insect farming methods and the potential upscaling of the industry with regard to future prospects for insects as a sustainable food source. Finally, the topics addressed in this article are areas of potential concern to current and future consumers of edible insects.

4.
Toxins (Basel) ; 16(2)2024 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38393172

RESUMO

Probiotics and their bacteriocins have increasingly attracted interest for their use as safe food preservatives. This study aimed to produce soft white cheese fortified with Lacticaseibacillus MG847589 (Lb. paracasei MG847589) and/or its bacteriocin; cheese with Lacticaseibacillus (CP), cheese with bacteriocin (CB), and cheese with both Lacticaseibacillus and bacteriocin (CPB) were compared to control cheese (CS) to evaluate their biopreservative and anti-mycotoxigenic potentials for prolonged shelf life and safe food applications. The effects of these fortifications on physiochemical, microbial, texture, microstructure, and sensory properties were studied. Fortification with Lacticaseibacillus (CP) increased acidity (0.61%) and microbial counts, which may make the microstructure porous, while CPB showed intact microstructure. The CPB showed the highest hardness value (3988.03 g), while the lowest was observed with CB (2525.73 g). Consequently, the sensory assessment reflected the panelists' preference for CPB, which gained higher scores than the control (CS). Fortification with Lb. paracasei MG847589 and bacteriocin (CPB) showed inhibition effects against S. aureus from 6.52 log10 CFU/g at time zero to 2.10 log10 CFU/g at the end of storage, A. parasiticus (from 5.06 to 3.03 log10 CFU/g), and P. chrysogenum counts (from 5.11 to 2.86 log10 CFU/g). Additionally, CPB showed an anti-mycotoxigenic effect against aflatoxins AFB1 and AFM1, causing them to be decreased (69.63 ± 0.44% and 71.38 ± 0.75%, respectively). These potentials can extend shelf life and pave the way for more suggested food applications of safe food production by fortification with both Lb. paracasei MG847589 and its bacteriocin as biopreservatives and anti-mycotoxigenic.


Assuntos
Bacteriocinas , Queijo , Lacticaseibacillus paracasei , Lactobacillus , Bacteriocinas/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Microbiologia de Alimentos
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 23(1): 576, 2023 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37978421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Green chili is the predominant vegetable in tropical and subtropical regions with high economic value. However, after harvest, it exhibits vigorous metabolic activities due to the high moisture level, leading to a reduction in bioactive compounds and hence reduced shelf life and nutritional quality. Low temperature storage results in the onset of chilling injury symptoms. Therefore, developing techniques to increase the shelf life of green chilies and safeguard their nutritional value has become a serious concern for researchers. In this regard, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of the alone or combined application of hot water treatment (HWT) (45 °C for 15 min) and eucalyptus leaf extract (ELE) (30%) on 'Golden Hot' chilies in comparison to the control. After treatment, chilies were stored at 20 ± 1.5 °C for 20 days. RESULTS: HWT + ELE-treated chilies had a significant reduction in fruit weight loss (14.6%), fungal decay index (35%), red chili percentage (41.2%), soluble solid content (42.9%), ripening index (48.9%), and reactive oxygen species production like H2O2 (55.1%) and O-2 (46.5%) during shelf in comparison to control, followed by the alone application of HWT and ELE. Furthermore, the combined use of HWT and ELE effectively improved the antioxidative properties of stored chilies including DPPH radical scavenging activities (54.6%), ascorbic acid content (28.4%), phenolic content (31.8%), as well as the enzyme activities of POD (103%), CAT (128%), SOD (26.5%), and APX (43.8%) in comparison to the control. Additionally, the green chilies underwent HWT + ELE treatment also exhibited higher chlorophyll levels (100%) and general appearance (79.6%) with reduced anthocyanin content (40.8%) and wrinkling (43%), leading to a higher marketable fruit (41.3%) than the control. CONCLUSION: The pre-storage application of HWT and ELE could be used as an antimicrobial, non-chemical, non-toxic, and eco-friendly treatment for preserving the postharvest quality of green chilies at ambient temperature (20 ± 1.5 °C).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Eucalyptus , Antioxidantes/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Ácido Ascórbico , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Frutas/microbiologia
7.
Nutrients ; 15(14)2023 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37513590

RESUMO

The low-bacterial diet (LBD) is a widely used dietary regimen to reduce the risk of food-borne infections in patients with neutropenic cancer, but its role is controversial due to its unclear benefits. The purpose of this study was to provide an updated analysis of the available evidence on the efficacy of the LBD to reduce the risk of infections, mortality rates, and quality of life (QoL) in neutropenic patients with cancer. A systematic literature search was conducted in the biomedical databases Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINHAL, and EMBASE. The process of the screening, selection, inclusion of articles, and assessment of risk of bias and methodological quality was conducted by two reviewers. Of the 1985 records identified, 12 were included. The LBD demonstrated heterogeneity in definition, composition, and initiation timing; moreover, the LBD did not demonstrate a reduction in infection and mortality rates compared to a free diet, showing a negative correlation with quality of life. The LBD, in addition to not bringing benefits in terms of reductions in infection and mortality rates, has been shown to worsen the quality of life due to the reduced palatability and limited variety of the food supply, negatively impacting nutritional status.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Dieta , Neoplasias/complicações
8.
Foods ; 12(11)2023 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37297384

RESUMO

As a result of the increasing focus on alternative protein sources which are ideally still sustainable, the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, has come into focus. To verify its suitability as a food source in relation to human health, an analysis of the microbiome of larvae of T. molitor is pertinent. Subsequently, the focus of this study was, on the one hand, to analyze the influence of the substrate on the microbial load of the larvae microbiome, and, on the other hand, to determine which processing methods ensure the risk-free consumption of mealworms. For this purpose, mealworms were grown on 10 different substrates derived from by-products of food production (malt residual pellets, corn germ meal, chestnut breakage and meal, wheat bran, bread remains, draff, nettle, hemp seed oil cake, oyster mushrooms with coffee grounds, pumpkin seed oil cake) and microbial loads were analyzed using different selective media. Further starvation/defecation and heating (850 W for 10 min) methods were used to investigate how the reduction of microorganisms is enabled by these methods. The results showed that there was no significant relationship between the microbial load of the substrate and the mealworm. Starvation and defecation led to a lower stock of microorganisms. Heating led to a significant microbial reduction in non-defecated mealworms. The group of defecated and heated mealworms showed no detectable microbial load. In conclusion, firstly, the choice of substrate showed no effect on the microbial load of larvae of Tenebrio molitor and secondly, heating and starvation allow risk-free consumption. This study makes an important contribution for evaluating the safety of mealworms as a sustainable protein source in human nutrition.

9.
Foods ; 12(11)2023 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37297400

RESUMO

Access to safe food is one of the most important issues. In this context, rice plays a prominent role. Because high levels of arsenic in rice grain are a potential concern for human health, in this study, we determined the amounts of arsenic in water and soil used in the rice development stage, changes in the arsC and mcrA genes using qRT-PCR, and the abundance and diversity (with metabarcoding) of the dominant microbiota. When the rice grain and husk samples were evaluated in terms of arsenic accumulation, the highest values (1.62 ppm) were obtained from areas where groundwater was used as irrigation water, whereas the lowest values (0.21 ppm) occurred in samples from the stream. It was observed that the abundance of the Comamonadaceae family and Limnohabitans genus members was at the highest level in groundwater during grain formation. As rice development progressed, arsenic accumulated in the roots, shoots, and rice grain. Although the highest arsC values were reached in the field where groundwater was used, methane production increased in areas where surface water sources were used. In order to provide arsenic-free rice consumption, the preferred soil, water source, microbiota members, rice type, and anthropogenic inputs for use on agricultural land should be evaluated rigorously.

10.
Nutr Res Pract ; 17(3): 565-582, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37266113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: With the outbreak of infectious diseases, such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), public interest in health and safety has increased, and consequently, interests in food safety have been heightened too. The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the involvement of various categories of consumers in food safety, the subjective evaluation of food safety in Korea, and the willingness of the consumers to pay extra for safe food according to their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. MATERIALS/METHODS: This study used data from the 2020 Consumer Behavior Survey for Food provided by the Korea Rural Economic Institute (KREI). The subjects were 6,355 adult household members aged 19 to 75 years old. The survey was conducted from June 10th to August 21st, 2020. The data for the study were subjected to statistical analyses, including descriptive statistics, complex sample general linear model, k-means cluster, and multiple regression analyses. RESULTS: The factors affecting the willingness to pay extra for safe food were education level, occupation, monthly household income, presence of a young (teenager) household member, and the subjects' involvement in food safety. the significant factors affecting the willingness to pay extra for safe food were sex, age, and income level for the group exhibiting a low level of involvement in food safety, while education level and presence of a young household member were the statistically significant factors for the group exhibiting a high level of involvement in food safety. CONCLUSION: This study verified the differences in the factors associated with the willingness to pay extra for safe food according to the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, involvement in food safety, subjective evaluation of food safety. This study offers practical implications to the industry and government that would help in directing strategies to strengthen safe food management.

11.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 56: 135-141, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37344063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Chile there is a high risk profile of developing cancer which is associated, among other factors, to eating behaviors and, in this line, it is essential for cancer survivors to have access to nutritional advice that includes aproppriate food safety practices. The objective of this study is to characterize the level of adherence of cancer survivors to safe food-handling practices and dietary patterns in a Chilean National Health Survey. METHODS: Secondary analysis study, conducted using the National Health Survey 2016-2017 database. The association between adherence to dietary patterns and safe food-handling practices was conducted by means of a logistic regression analisys, considering a p value of <0.05 as statistically significant. RESULTS: 2765 participants, females, 5.8% were cancer survivors who adhered twice more to the safe food-handling practice "wash your hands with soap and water before preparing food and before eating", and 1.5 times more to the practice "keep raw meat separate from other foods when preparing food or cooking". In both groups, it was observed a low adherence to achieve the recommendations on healthy weight, physical activity, fruits and vegetables consumption, and alcohol and sugar-sweetened beverages consumption of the WCRF/AICR. CONCLUSIONS: Partial adherence to the safe food-handling recommendations and low adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations were observed among cancer survivors and subjects without cancer.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Alimentar , Culinária , Nível de Saúde
12.
Appetite ; 179: 106306, 2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087826

RESUMO

Food contamination and food adulteration are widely known public health issues in Bangladesh. This research explores consumers' perceptions of food hazards and safe food purchasing strategies. The study uses data from a survey of 450 primary household food purchasers in an urban supermarket and two traditional bazaars in urban and regional areas. This study explored the differences between consumers in urban and regional areas. The urban supermarket consumers showed more significant concerns about food hazards and safe food purchasing strategies than consumers at the urban and regional bazaars. Urban consumers indicated a higher food safety perception, whereas regional consumers were concerned about food safety deterioration. This study finds that urban supermarket consumers considered biological food hazards more during food purchasing than the regional bazaar. Most of the consumers in this study were concerned about chemical food hazards such as formalin and pesticide residues, and these consumers considered food purchasing factors such as tastes and expiry dates more while purchasing food. On the other hand, consumers concerned about biological hazards emphasised food purchasing place and product origin. Urban and regional bazaar consumers considered prices more than urban supermarket consumers. The study also explores sociodemographic variations, such as women having more concern about chemical food hazards than men and people with less formal education levels showing less concern about food hazards. Therefore, dissemination of safe food knowledge, adequate infrastructure, monitoring, and policymaking are some immediate necessary steps to improve food safety situations and safe food accessibility in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Bangladesh , Comportamento do Consumidor , Feminino , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Formaldeído , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 62(20): 5569-5581, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591233

RESUMO

The outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is global health and humanitarian emergency. To respond effectively to this pandemic, it is mandatory to reaffirm science in its different fields of study, including the food safety area. Presently, we review food safety in times of COVID-19, exploring whether the virus can be transmitted by food or water; recommendations from regulatory agencies; perceptions of food hygiene practices during the pandemic; and post-pandemic perspectives. The review was based on papers published in Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and covered recommendations of public health protection and regulatory agencies around the world. The transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) by food was not confirmed until the present time. In any case, the protocols already established for food safety were reinforced, emphasizing the proper hygiene of hands after shopping, handling food packages, or before manipulating or eating food, adequate social distance, the use of individual protection equipment, the health of employees, and the proper preparation of food. It is hoped, in the post-pandemic scenario, to reach a better understanding of the particularities that led to greater care with food hygiene. Moreover, it is expected that the food system will creatively adapt the way meals are served.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Chemosphere ; 292: 133389, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34953878

RESUMO

Sustainable management of low fertile arid soils using carbon-rich organic amendments such as biochar and compost is of great concern from both agricultural and environmental points of view. The impact of pyrolysis, composting, and co-composting processes of different feedstocks on carbon loss and emissions, soil properties, and plant growth in arid soils with low organic matter content has not been sufficiently explored yet. Consequently, the aim of this work was to 1) investigate the effects of the pyrolysis, composting, and co-composting processes on the properties of the produced biochar, compost, and co-composted biochar from rice straw (RS) and sugarcane bagasse (SB), and 2) examine the impact of addition of RB biochar (RSB), SB biochar (SBB), RS compost (RSC), SB compost (SBC), co-composted RS biochar (RSCB), and co-composted SB biochar (SBCB) at an application dose of 10 ton/hectare on soil properties, carbon emission, and growth of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) in a sandy arid soil. Carbon loss (kg C kg-1 feedstock) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower during the preparation of the compost (90.36 in RSC, 220.00 in SBC) and co-composted-biochar (146.35 in RSCB, 125.20 in SBCB) than in biochar (176.5 in RSB, 305.6 in SBB). The C/N ratios of the compost and co-composted biochar (11-28.5) were narrower than the corresponding values of biochars (48-90). All amendments increased significantly soil organic carbon content (2.5 in RSC to 5.5 g kg-1 in RSCB), as compared to the non-amended control (1.2 g kg-1). All amendments, particularly RSCB, increased significantly (P < 0.05) the zucchini seed vigor index, dry weight, total chlorophyll content, and root and shoot length, as compared to the control. Moreover, RSCB was the only amendment that showed a positive soil carbon balance. The modified integrated two-way ecological model data also indicated that the co-composted biochar, particularly RSCB, is a promising amendment to improve soil quality and plant growth in sandy arid soils. However, those data should be verified under field conditions.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Oryza , Saccharum , Carbono , Celulose , Carvão Vegetal , Areia , Solo
15.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 20(5): 5043-5066, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390310

RESUMO

In January 2019, the Safe Food for Canadians Act/Safe Food for Canadians regulations (heretofore identified as SFCR) came into force across Canada and brought a more streamlined process to food safety practice in Canada. Food trade and production processes have evolved rapidly in recent decades, as Canada imports and exports food products; therefore it is critically important to remain aware of the latest advances responding to a range of challenges and opportunities in the food safety value chain. Looking through the optics of the recent SFCR framework, this paper places the spotlight on leading domestic and international research and practices to help strengthen food safety policies of the future. By shedding some light on new research, we also draw attention to international developments that are noteworthy, and place those in context as to how new Canadian food safety policy and regulation can be further advanced. The paper will benchmark Canada through a review study of food safety best practices by juxtaposing (i) stated aspirations with, (ii) actual performance in leading Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) jurisdictions.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle , Canadá , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Política Nutricional
16.
Front Nutr ; 8: 685330, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262924

RESUMO

Antiacanthain and granulosain are the partially purified proteolytic extracts from the South American native fruits of Bromelia antiacantha (Bertol. ) and Solanum granuloso leprosum, respectively. The aim of this work was to compare the ability of both soluble and immobilized antiacanthain and granulosain f or the synthesis of Z-Tyr-Val-OH, a novel antibacterial dipeptide, in different reaction systems formed by almost anhydrous organic solvents (Xw: 1 × 10-5) and several percentages of immiscible organic solvents in 100 mM Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane hydrochloride buffer pH 8.0. Soluble antiacanthain in half of the 24 different organic biphasic media showed higher catalytic potential than in 100 mM Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane hydrolchloride buffer pH 8.0. Soluble granulosain showed lower catalytic potential in all liquid-liquid biphasic media than in the same buffer. However, 50% (v/v) ethyl ethanoate in 100 mM Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane hydrolchloride buffer pH 8.0 allowed to express the highest catalytic potential of both soluble enzymes. In 50% v/v ethyl ethanoate, soluble antiacanthain and granulosain catalyzed the synthesis of Z-Tyr-Val-OH with 72 ± 0.15 and 60 ± 0.10% maximal peptide yields, respectively. Multi-point immobilization in glyoxyl-silica did not lead to better peptide yields than soluble enzymes, in that liquid-liquid biphasic medium under the same reaction conditions. Soluble and glyoxyl-silica immobilized antiacanthain in almost anhydrous ethyl ethanoate (Xw: 1 × 10-5) were able to retain 17.3 and 45% of the initial proteolytic activity of antiacanthain in 100 mM Tris hydrolchloride buffer pH 8.0, respectively, at 40°C under agitation (200 rpm). Soluble and glyoxyl-silica immobilized granulosain were inactivated under the same reaction conditions. Glyoxyl-silica immobilized antiacanthain showed to be a robust biocatalyst in almost anhydrous ethyl ethanoate (Xw: 1 × 10-5), eliciting the best peptide yield (75 ± 0.13%). The synthesis reaction of Z-Tyr-Val-OH could not proceed when soluble antiacanthain was used under the same conditions. Both peptidases only catalyzed the synthesis reaction under kinetic control, using activated acyl donor substrates. Finally, this work reports a novel broad-spectrum antibacterial peptide that significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.05) the specific growth rates of Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms at very low concentrations (≥15 and 35 µg/ml, respectively); contributing with a new safe food preservative of applying for different food systems.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148521, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176648

RESUMO

In previous reports large-scale EDTA-based soil washing using ReSoil® technology was demonstrated. In the current study, we established a vegetable garden with nine raised beds (4 × 1 × 0.5 m), three with original (contaminated) soil, three with remediated soil, and three with remediated soil vitalized by addition of vermicompost, earthworms, and rhizosphere inoculum. The garden was managed in 6 rotations between July 2018 and November 2019. Buckwheat was sown first as a green manure followed by spinach, lamb's lettuce, chicory, garlic, onion, leek, lettuce, carrot, kohlrabi and spinach again. Buckwheat growth on the remediated soil was reduced by half. Throughout the gardening process there were no remarkable differences in bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, available water capacity, and aggregate stability of the original and remediated soil. Biomass yield and plant performance, as measured by NDVI, also remained similar regardless of soil treatment. Remediation reduced Pb concentration in edible parts of vegetables from 76 (garlic) to 95% (kohlrabi), Zn concentration from 14 (lettuce) to 76% (first cutting of chicory), and Cd concentration from 33% (carrot) to 91% (leek and second cutting of chicory). The transfer of metals from soil to root and from root to shoot occurred in the order: Pb < Zn < Cd. The bioconcentration of toxic metals in edible plant parts was generally lower in the remediated soils. Application of ReSoil® technology and growing vegetables that exclude metals, especially Cd, has potential for safe food production on remediated soils. Vitalization had little effect on the properties of the remediated soil.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Ácido Edético , Jardinagem , Jardins , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras
18.
Front Nutr ; 8: 699955, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34977105

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative, helix-shaped, and microaerophilic bacteria that colonizes the human gastric mucosa, causing chronic infections, gastritis, peptic ulcer, lymphomas associated with lymphoid mucosa tissue, and gastric cancer. H. pylori is considered a Type 1 human carcinogen by WHO. The prevalence of the infection is estimated in more than half of the world population. Treatment of H. pylori infection includes antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors, but the increasing antibiotic resistance promotes the research of novel, more effective, and natural antibacterial compounds. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the partially purified proteolytic extract (RAP) of the fruits from Solanum granuloso-leprosum (Dunal), a South American native plant, and a purified fraction named granulosain I, against H. pylori, to obtain natural food additives for the production of anti-H. pylori functional foods. Furthermore, granulosain I and RAP could be used as natural adjuncts to conventional therapies. Granulosain I and RAP antibacterial activity was evaluated as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against H. pylori NCTC 11638 (reference strain) and twelve H. pylori wild strains, using a microdilution plating technique (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute). All the strains tested were susceptible to granulosain I with MIC from 156.25 to 312.5 µg/mL and MBC from 312.5 to 625 µg/mL, respectively. Besides, all the strains tested were susceptible to the RAP with MIC from 312.5 to 625 µg/mL and MBC from 625 to 1,250 µg/mL, respectively. The effect of granulosain I and RAP on the transcription of H. pylori genes encoding pathogenic factors, omp18, ureA, and flaA, with respect to a housekeeping gene (16S rRNA), was evaluated by RT-PCR technique. The band intensity between pathogenic factors and control gene was correlated under treated or untreated conditions, using the ImageJ program. Granulosain I and RAP significantly decreased the expression of pathogenic factors: omp18, ureA, and flaA. The combined inhibitory effect of granulosain I or RAP and an antibiotic such as, amoxicillin (AML, 10 µg), clarithromycin (CLA, 15 µg), levofloxacin (LEV, 5 µg), and metronidazole (MTZ, 5 µg) was evaluated, using the agar diffusion technique. Granulosain I and RAP showed significant synergistic effect on AML, CLA, and LEV, but no significant effect on MTZ was observed. Besides, granulosain I and RAP did not show toxicological effects at the concentrations studied. Finally, granulosain I and RAP could be used as safe natural food additives and as adjuvants for conventional therapies against H. pylori.

19.
Microorganisms ; 8(9)2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872546

RESUMO

Artisanal kefir is a traditional fermented dairy product made using kefir grains. Kefir has documented natural antimicrobial activity and health benefits. A typical kefir microbial community includes lactic acid bacteria (LAB), acetic acid bacteria, and yeast among other species in a symbiotic matrix. In the presented work, the 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to reveal bacterial populations and elucidate the diversity and abundance of LAB species in international artisanal kefirs from Fusion Tea, Britain, the Caucuses region, Ireland, Lithuania, and South Korea. Bacterial species found in high abundance in most artisanal kefirs included Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lentilactobacillus kefiri,Lactobacillus ultunensis, Lactobacillus apis, Lactobacillus gigeriorum, Gluconobacter morbifer, Acetobacter orleanensis, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acidocella aluminiidurans, and Lactobacillus helveticus. Some of these bacterial species are LAB that have been reported for their bacteriocin production capabilities and/or health promoting properties.

20.
J Food Prot ; 83(11): 1900-1908, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574361

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Previous surveys have found that few Canadians report using a food thermometer to check cooking doneness, and many report rinsing or washing poultry prior to cooking. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted to investigate the sociodemographic and psychosocial determinants of the reported use of these behaviors among Canadians. A questionnaire was developed, guided by the Theoretical Domains Framework, and pretested through 10 cognitive interviews. The questionnaire was administered in English and French on 18 November 2019, to an online panel of 524 Canadian consumers. Logistic and ordinal regression models were constructed to evaluate determinants of consumers' reported thermometer ownership (yes or no) and thermometer use and poultry washing frequencies (each measured on a 5-point Likert scale). Nearly two-thirds of respondents (64%; n = 333) reported owning a food thermometer. Thermometer ownership was more common among males (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02, 2.15) and those with higher income categories. Nearly 45% of these respondents (n = 147) reported often or always using their thermometer to check cooking doneness. The frequency of engaging in this behavior was best determined by four psychosocial constructs: behavioral intentions, beliefs about consequences, self-efficacy, and habits. Nearly two-thirds of respondents (64%; n = 333) reported often or always washing their poultry before cooking it. This behavior was more frequently reported by males (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.002, 2.28). It was also predicted by six psychosocial constructs: behavioral intentions, beliefs about consequences, self-efficacy, social influences, social responsibility, and habits. Habits had the largest influence on both behaviors. The study results can inform the development of more targeted food safety education and outreach initiatives to improve these behaviors among Canadians.


Assuntos
Aves Domésticas , Termômetros , Animais , Canadá , Culinária , Estudos Transversais , Manipulação de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Masculino
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