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1.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535342

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the training and use of auditory perceptual evaluation of the voice reported by Colombian speech-language pathologists. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational research with a quantitative approach. Methods: A digital questionnaire was designed and distributed to gather information regarding professionals' training process and implementation of auditory-perceptual evaluation procedures. Descriptive statistics were applied, and several generalized linear models were adjusted to determine the influence of certain variables on others. Results: The survey received responses from 40 speech-language pathologists, revealing that the most used scales for training and evaluating vocal quality within this group are direct magnitude estimations (82.5% and 77.5%). Similarly, in this group, the tasks most frequently used to train and use as an evaluation strategy are vowel assessments (38%) followed by spontaneous speech (30%). Practitioners of this group were mostly trained using a conceptual framework involving multiple exposures to rating (42.5%). The use of direct magnitude estimation in training with a normal voice showed significance (p = 0.015), as did the use of the vowel /i/ in training with an equal-appearing interval (p = 0.013). The statistical models relating the scale used to the scale on which participants were trained were also significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The GRBAS scale is the training tool most used by the group of speech-language pathologists of the study group in Colombia. Future efforts should focus on improving training practices for auditory-perceptual evaluation, exploring alternative conceptual frameworks, and incorporating external references to enhance validity and reliability.


Objetivo: Explorar los reportes de fonoaudiólogos colombianos acerca del entrenamiento y uso de la evaluación perceptual auditiva de la voz. Diseño de estudio: Se eligió un diseño de investigación observacional transversal con un enfoque cuantitativo. Metodología: Se diseñó y distribuyó un cuestionario digital para recopilar información sobre el proceso de formación de los profesionales y la implementación de procedimientos de evaluación perceptual auditiva. Se aplicaron estadísticas descriptivas y se ajustaron varios modelos lineales generalizados para determinar la influencia de ciertas variables en otras. Resultados: La encuesta recibió respuestas de 40 fonoaudiólogos, revelando que las escalas más utilizadas para la formación y la evaluación de la calidad vocal en el grupo son las estimaciones de magnitud directa (82.5% y 77.5%). Del mismo modo, en este grupo las tareas más frecuentemente utilizadas para la formación y el uso como estrategia de evaluación son las vocales (38%), seguidas por el habla espontánea (30%). La mayoría de los profesionales del grupo fueron formados utilizando un marco conceptual que involucra múltiples exposiciones a la calificación (42.5%). El uso de la estimación de magnitud directa en la formación con una voz normal mostró significancia (p = 0.015), al igual que el uso de la vocal /i/ en la formación con intervalos de igual apariencia (p = 0.013). Los modelos estadísticos que relacionan la escala utilizada con la escala en la que los participantes fueron entrenados también fueron significativos (p < 0.05). Conclusiones: La escala GRBAS es la herramienta de formación más utilizada por el grupo de fonoaudiólogos del estudio. Los esfuerzos futuros deberían centrarse en mejorar las prácticas de formación para la evaluación perceptual auditiva, explorar marcos conceptuales alternativos e incorporar referencias externas para mejorar la validez y la confiabilidad.

2.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis ; 11(3): 661-671, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have been conducting a Japanese trial-ready cohort web study since 2019 as a web-based online registry to enroll individuals with preclinical Alzheimer's disease to facilitate trials on Alzheimer's disease prevention. The usability of a website might be an important factor in determining user participation and retention. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a user questionnaire survey to analyze the usability of the Japanese trial-ready cohort website and user characteristics for future website improvement. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional prospective observational study. SETTING: Online survey using Google Forms. PARTICIPANTS: Among the Japanese trial-ready cohort web study participants, we enrolled those who provided consent to participate in the study and had completed one or more Cognitive Function Instrument tests before May 2, 2023. We sent an invitation e-mail, including the questionnaire web address, to eligible participants on July 21 and 22, 2023. MEASUREMENTS: We analyzed the questionnaire answers, including the system usability scale score and time of response (in 24 h). We also compared the respondents' characteristics with that of all the Japanese trial-ready cohort web study participants to identify features associated with an increased/decreased response rate to the questionnaire. RESULTS: Among the 10,112 Japanese trial-ready cohort web study participants that we sent invitation e-mails, we received 1,574 eligible responses (15.6%) within three weeks of the response acceptance period. The mean system usability scale score was 67.6, and no difference in system usability scale scores was observed in terms of age or sex. Approximately half of the respondents of the Japanese trial-ready cohort web study heard about it online, whereas one-fourth heard about it via newspapers. Contribution to drug development for dementia treatment was the most frequent motivation for participating in the Japanese trial-ready cohort web study (51.5%), followed by participation in the latest research (48.1%), concerns about self-memory (43.4%), and a family history of dementia (34.6%). Female respondents responded approximately 1.5 h later than male respondents. Lastly, those who had participated in the Japanese trial-ready cohort onsite study, were in their 70's, or had a larger number of Cognitive Function Instrument or Cogstate tests completion history were more likely to respond to the current online survey (relative risk of response > 1). CONCLUSIONS: We conducted an online survey using Google Forms for participants in the Japanese trial-ready cohort web study to determine the usability. The results of this study might help to improve the user experience of the Japanese trial-ready cohort website itself, increase the web study registrants, maintain user retention, facilitate future online surveys, and serve as a reference for other web-based registries of presymptomatic disease status.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Internet , Sistema de Registros , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Estudos Prospectivos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 19(4)2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722361

RESUMO

Aiming at the blade flutter of large horizontal-axis wind turbines, a method by utilizing biomimetic corrugation to suppress blade flutter is first proposed. By extracting the dragonfly wing corrugation, the biomimetic corrugation airfoil is constructed, finding that mapping corrugation to the airfoil pressure side has better aerodynamic performance. The influence of corrugation type, amplitudeλ, and intensity on airfoil flutter is analyzed using orthogonal experiment, which determines that theλhas the greatest influence on airfoil flutter. Based on the fluctuation range of the moment coefficient ΔCm, the optimal airfoil flutter suppression effect is obtained when the type is III,λ= 0.6, and intensity is denser (n= 13). The effective corrugation layout area in the chord direction is determined to be the leading edge, and the ΔCmof corrugation airfoil is reduced by 7.405%, compared to the original airfoil. The application of this corrugation to NREL 15 MW wind turbine 3D blades is studied, and the influence of corrugation layout length in the blade span direction on the suppressive effect is analyzed by fluid-structure interaction. It is found that when the layout length is 0.85 R, the safety marginSfreaches a maximum value of 0.3431 Hz, which is increased 2.940%. The results show that the biomimetic corrugated structure proposed in this paper can not only improve the aerodynamic performance by changing the local flow field on the surface of the blade, but also increase the structural stiffness of the blade itself, and achieve the effect of flutter suppression.


Assuntos
Biomimética , Desenho de Equipamento , Vento , Asas de Animais , Animais , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Biomimética/métodos , Odonatos/fisiologia , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Centrais Elétricas
4.
J Environ Manage ; 359: 121046, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728981

RESUMO

The increasing concern over pesticide pollution in water bodies underscores the need for effective mitigation strategies to support the transition towards sustainable agriculture. This study assesses the effectiveness of landscape mitigation strategies, specifically vegetative buffer strips, in reducing glyphosate loads at the catchment scale under realistic conditions. Conducted over six years (2014-2019) in a small agricultural region in Belgium, our research involved the analysis of 732 water samples from two monitoring stations, differentiated by baseflow and event-driven sampling, and before (baseline) and after the implementation of mitigation measures. The results indicated a decline in both the number and intensity of point source losses over the years. Additionally, there was a general decrease in load intensity; however, the confluence of varying weather conditions (notably dry years during the mitigation period) and management practices (the introduction of buffer strips) posed challenges for a statistically robust evaluation of each contributing factor. A reduction of loads was measured when comparing mitigation with baseline, although this reduction is not statistically significant. Glyphosate loads during rainfall events correlated with a rainfall index and runoff ratio. Overall, focusing the mitigation strategy on runoff and erosion was a valid approach. Nevertheless, challenges remain, as evidenced by the continuous presence of glyphosate in baseflow conditions, highlighting the complex dynamics of pesticide transport. The study concludes that while progress has been made towards reducing pesticide pollution, the complexity of interacting factors necessitates further research. Future directions should focus on enhancing farmer engagement in mitigation programs and developing experiments with more intense data collection that help to assess underlying dynamics of pesticide pollution and the impact of mitigation strategies in more detail, contributing towards the goal of reducing pesticide pollution in water bodies.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Glifosato , Bélgica , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/análise , Praguicidas/análise
5.
ACS Nano ; 18(20): 12610-12638, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733357

RESUMO

Salinity gradient energy, often referred to as the Gibbs free energy difference between saltwater and freshwater, is recognized as "blue energy" due to its inherent cleanliness, renewability, and continuous availability. Reverse electrodialysis (RED), relying on ion-selective membranes, stands as one of the most prevalent and promising methods for harnessing salinity gradient energy to generate electricity. Nevertheless, conventional RED membranes face challenges such as insufficient ion selectivity and transport rates and the difficulty of achieving the minimum commercial energy density threshold of 5 W/m2. In contrast, two-dimensional nanostructured materials, featuring nanoscale channels and abundant functional groups, offer a breakthrough by facilitating rapid ion transport and heightened selectivity. This comprehensive review delves into the mechanisms of osmotic power generation within a single nanopore and nanochannel, exploring optimal nanopore dimensions and nanochannel lengths. We subsequently examine the current landscape of power generation using two-dimensional nanostructured materials in laboratory-scale settings across various test areas. Furthermore, we address the notable decline in power density observed as test areas expand and propose essential criteria for the industrialization of two-dimensional ion-selective membranes. The review concludes with a forward-looking perspective, outlining future research directions, including scalable membrane fabrication, enhanced environmental adaptability, and integration into multiple industries. This review aims to bridge the gap between previous laboratory-scale investigations of two-dimensional ion-selective membranes in salinity gradient energy conversion and their potential large-scale industrial applications.

6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11304, 2024 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760426

RESUMO

The possibility of experiencing physical harm caused by an object, animal, or person is an omnipresent risk in almost any situation. People show variability in their in the propensity to perceive the possibility of harm from any ostensibly innocuous object or situation-a so-called threat bias. Despite the important psychological and societal consequences resulting from individual differences in physical threat bias, there does not currently exist an easily administered means to capture this disposition. We therefore endeavored to create a brief reliable self-report index of threat sensitivity for use by the many fields interested in the role of threat processing. We present here a physical threat sensitivity scale (TSS) that captures the dispositional tendency to perceive the possibility of physical harm in ostensibly innocuous situations or objects. We detail the development and validation of the TSS as a reliable index of individual threat bias (Studies 1a and 1b) and provide strong convergent evidence of the relationship between TS and both relevant individual differences (Study 2) and behavioral and perceptual indicates of threat bias (Study 3 and Study 4).


Assuntos
Autorrelato , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Medo/psicologia , Percepção , Adolescente
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11384, 2024 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38762679

RESUMO

Land is the spatial background and basic carrier of human survival and development. The study of land function evaluation at different scales can promote the harmonious coexistence of humans and nature. Taking Fuping County, Hebei Province, China, as an example, this study establishes the theoretical framework of county-level land scale division using a digital elevation model (DEM)-based watershed analysis method and establishes the theory and methodological system of land function evaluation from the perspective of the characteristic scale. The multifunctionality of the land was evaluated using the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford approach (CASA), the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model and comprehensive index evaluation. By using the methods of DEM-based watershed analysis, dominant factor differentiation and layer superposition, a three-level scale system of 'subwatershed scale-land chain scale-land segment scale' and a multifunctional multiscale evaluation index system containing 18 evaluation indices were established. The single-function and multifunction evaluation results of land at different scales were obtained by the comprehensive index method and Getis-Ord Gi* index method. The accuracy of land function evaluation results mainly depends on the selection of the measurement scale. The land measurement scale determined by DEM-based watershed analysis is close to the intrinsic scale of land function evaluation. The scale effect of land function in different temporal and spatial ranges is also evident and shows obvious spatial heterogeneity and difference. At larger scales, individual functions show synergistic effects.

8.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; : 1-12, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701182

RESUMO

The effect of gradients of elevated glucose and low dissolved oxygen in the addition zone of fed-batch E. coli thermoinduced recombinant high cell density cultures can be evaluated through two-compartment scale-down models. Here, glucose was fed in the inlet of a plug flow bioreactor (PFB) connected to a stirred tank bioreactor (STB). E. coli cells diminished growth from 48.2 ± 2.2 g/L in the stage of RP production if compared to control (STB) with STB-PFB experiments, when residence time inside the PFB was 25 s (34.1 ± 3.5 g/L) and 40 s (25.6 ± 5.1 g/L), respectively. The recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rHuGM-CSF) production decreased from 34 ± 7% of RP in inclusion bodies (IB) in control cultures to 21 ± 8%, and 7 ± 4% during the thermoinduction production phase when increasing residence time inside the PFB to 25 s and 40 s, respectively. This, along with the accumulation of acetic and formic acid (up to 4 g/L), indicates metabolic redirection of central carbon routes through metabolic flow and mixed acid fermentation. Special care must be taken when producing a recombinant protein in heat-induced E. coli, because the yield and productivity of the protein decreases as the size of the bioreactors increases, especially if they are carried at high cell density.


Thermoinduced recombinant E. coli grew less in a two-compartment scale-down model.Heat-inducible E. coli cultures at a large scale significantly decrease recombinant protein production.The accumulation of acetic and formic acid increases when E. coli is exposed to glucose and oxygen gradients.The axial flow pattern inside the PFB mimics glucose and dissolved oxygen gradients at the industrial scale.

9.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Glasgow Coma Scale-Pupils (GCS-P) score has been suggested to better predict patient outcomes compared with GCS alone, while avoiding the need for more complex clinical models. This study aimed to compare the prognostic ability of GCS-P versus GCS in a national cohort of traumatic subdural hematoma (SDH) patients. METHODS: Patient data were obtained from the National Trauma Data Bank (2017-2019). Inclusion criteria were traumatic SDH diagnosis with available data on presenting GCS score, pupillary reactivity, and discharge disposition. Patients with severe polytrauma or nonsurvivable head injury at presentation were excluded. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of GCS-P versus GCS scores for inpatient mortality prediction were evaluated across the entire cohort, as well as in subgroups based on age and traumatic brain injury (TBI) type (blunt vs penetrating). Calibration curves were plotted based on predicted probabilities and actual outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 196,747 traumatic SDH patients met the study inclusion criteria. Sensitivity (0.707 vs 0.702), specificity (0.821 vs 0.823), and AUC (0.825 vs 0.814, p < 0.001) of GCS-P versus GCS scores for prediction of inpatient mortality were similar. Calibration curve analysis revealed that GCS scores slightly underestimated inpatient mortality risk, whereas GCS-P scores did not. In patients > 65 years of age with blunt TBI (51.9%, n = 102,148), both GCS-P and GCS scores underestimated inpatient mortality risk. In patients with penetrating TBI (2.4%, n = 4,710), the AUC of the GCS-P score was significantly higher (0.902 vs 0.851, p < 0.001). In this subgroup, both GCS-P and GCS scores underestimated inpatient mortality risk among patients with lower rates of observed mortality and overestimated risk among patients with higher rates of observed mortality. This effect was more pronounced in the GCS-P calibration curve. CONCLUSIONS: The GCS-P score provides better short-term prognostication compared with the GCS score alone among traumatic SDH patients with penetrating TBI. The GCS-P score overestimates inpatient mortality risk among penetrating TBI patients with higher rates of observed mortality. For penetrating TBI patients, which comprised 2.4% of our SDH cohort, a low GCS-P score should not justify clinical nihilism or forgoing aggressive treatment.

10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 203: 116414, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701603

RESUMO

Blast fishing is an illegal, ecologically destructive fishing method, fatal for many fish species at large scales. Blast fishing using dynamite is preferred by the fishers, especially small scale fisheries in Turkey, as it requires minimal effort but still results in higher catches. In the current study, demonstration of 20 controlled real-time blasting results involves species composition, size of fish, catch rates, catch composition, commercial/discard ratios, CPUE estimates and clinical observations of external and internal abnormality symptoms of fish species. Blasting trials were carried out with special permission in limited numbers because of its harmful effect. The collected data was tested using PRIMER v6 and diversity indices were also analysed. For the similarity between collected species cluster analysis was used to examine the stability of the results. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) was also applied for the assessment of fish species in the catch. A total of 1014 individuals (63.8 kg) were collected and 18 fish species belonging to seven families were examined. According to laboratory examinations, it was found that blasting caused different external and internal abnormality symptoms in the sampled fish species during the study.

11.
Scand J Caring Sci ; 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702945

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To (i) determine the prevalence of delirium and identify delirium subtypes in surgical and non-surgical patients aged ≥65 years, (ii) determine whether certain precipitating factors affect the prevalence of delirium and (iii) review patients' medical records for description of delirium symptoms and the presence of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) coding for delirium in discharge summaries. METHODOLOGICAL DESIGN AND JUSTIFICATIONS: Despite being a robust predictor of morbidity and mortality in older adults, delirium might be inadequately recognised and under-reported in patients' medical records and discharge summaries. A point prevalence study (24-h) of patients ≥65 years from surgical and non-surgical wards was therefore conducted in a tertiary university hospital. ETHICAL ISSUES AND APPROVAL: The study was approved by the Data Protection Officer at the university hospital (2018/3454). RESEARCH METHODS, INSTRUMENTS AND/OR INTERVENTIONS: Patients were assessed for delirium with 4AT and delirium subtypes with the Delirium Motor Subtype Scale. Information about room transfers, need and use of sensory aids and medical equipment was collected onsite. Patients' medical records were reviewed for description of delirium symptoms and of ICD-10 codes. RESULTS: Overall, 123 patients were screened (52% female). Delirium was identified in 27% of them. Prevalence was associated with advanced age (≥85 years). The uncharacterised delirium subtype was most common (36%), followed by hypoactive (30%), hyperactive (24%) and mixed (9%). There were significant associations between positive screening tests and the need and use of sensory aids. Delirium symptoms were described in 58% of the patients who tested positive for delirium and the ICD-10 code for delirium was registered in 12% of these patients' discharge summaries. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of delirium and limited use of discharge codes highlight the need to improve the identification of delirium in hospital settings and at discharge. Increased awareness and detection of delirium in hospital settings are vital to improve patient care.

12.
Ecol Evol ; 14(5): e11347, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774134

RESUMO

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) can spread among cervids by direct and indirect transmission, the former being more likely in emerging areas. Identifying subpopulations allows the delineation of focal areas to target for intervention. We aimed to assess the population structure of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the northeastern United States at a regional scale to inform managers regarding gene flow throughout the region. We genotyped 10 microsatellites in 5701 wild deer samples from Maryland, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. We evaluated the distribution of genetic variability through spatial principal component analysis and inferred genetic structure using non-spatial and spatial Bayesian clustering algorithms (BCAs). We simulated populations representing each inferred wild cluster, wild deer in each state and each physiographic province, total wild population, and a captive population. We conducted genetic assignment tests using these potential sources, calculating the probability of samples being correctly assigned to their origin. Non-spatial BCA identified two clusters across the region, while spatial BCA suggested a maximum of nine clusters. Assignment tests correctly placed deer into captive or wild origin in most cases (94%), as previously reported, but performance varied when assigning wild deer to more specific origins. Assignments to clusters inferred via non-spatial BCA performed well, but efficiency was greatly reduced when assigning samples to clusters inferred via spatial BCA. Differences between spatial BCA clusters are not strong enough to make assignment tests a reliable method for inferring the geographic origin of deer using 10 microsatellites. However, the genetic distinction between clusters may indicate natural and anthropogenic barriers of interest for management.

13.
Digit Health ; 10: 20552076241249269, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774157

RESUMO

Background: Mobile health (mHealth) apps can be used for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. User-centered design, evidence-based content and user testing can be applied to ensure a high level of usability and adequate app access. Objective: To develop and evaluate an mHealth app (HerzFit) for CVD prevention. Methods: HerzFit´s development included a user-centered design approach and guideline-based content creation based on the identified requirements of the target group. Beta testing and a preliminary usability evaluation of the HerzFit prototype were performed. For evaluation, German versions of the System Usability Scale (SUS) and the mHealth App Usability Questionnaire (GER-MAUQ) as well as free text feedback were applied. Results: User-centered design thinking led to the definition of four personas. Based on their requirements, HerzFit enables users to individually assess, monitor, and optimize their cardiovascular risk profile. Users are also provided with a variety of evidence-based information on CVD and their risk factors. The user interface and system design followed the identified functional requirements. Beta-testers provided feedback on the structure and functionality and rated the usability of HerzFit´s prototype as slightly above average both in SUS and GER-MAUQ rating. Participants positively noted the variety of functions and information presented in HerzFit, while negative feedback mostly concerned wearable synchronization. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the user-centered development of a guideline-based mHealth app for CVD prevention. Beta-testing and a preliminary usability study were used to further improve the HerzFit app until its official release.

14.
Cureus ; 16(4): e58662, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774174

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This investigation aimed to thoroughly characterize the range of pulmonary function abnormalities present in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to evaluate the effects of levodopa therapy on these respiratory dysfunctions. METHODS:  Ninety-five PD patients diagnosed via the UK Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank Diagnostic Criteria were recruited, excluding those with a smoking history or unable to perform pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Severity was assessed using the Hoehn and Yahr Scale. Spirometry-measured PFT parameters (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR)) were compared against matched predicted values. The changes in PFT parameters post-levodopa challenge were assessed. RESULTS: Most of the PD patients were aged between 51-60 years, with a mean age of 55.89 ± 8.37 years. Of these, 65.3% were male. A significant proportion of the cohort exhibited restrictive pulmonary patterns (73.7%), while a smaller fraction displayed obstructive (7.4%) or normal (18.9%) pulmonary function patterns. Notably, levodopa treatment correlated with marked improvements in all measured PFT parameters, especially evident in the enhancements from the "off" medication stage to the "on" stage for FVC and FEV1 (P=0.0001). A weak positive correlation between the severity of respiratory restriction and the duration of PD (r = 0.139, P = 0.021) was found, suggesting that PD's progression exerts an increasingly adverse effect on respiratory function over time. CONCLUSION:  The findings of this study illustrate that restrictive pulmonary abnormalities are more prevalent than obstructive patterns in PD patients and that these patients respond favorably to levodopa therapy.

15.
Arch Rheumatol ; 39(1): 20-32, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774695

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of fibromyalgianess, fibromyalgia syndrome (FS), and widespread pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and their relationship with clinical and demographic parameters. Patients and methods: This cross-sectional multicenter trial was performed in 14 centers across Türkiye between June 2018 and November 2019. Out of 685 patients recruited from the accessible population, 661 patients (342 RA, 319 AS; 264 males, 397 females; mean age: 48.1±12.9 years; range, 17 to 88 years) met the selection criteria. In these cohorts, those who did not meet the criteria for FS and had widespread pain (widespread pain index ≥7) were evaluated as a separate group. Clinical status and demographic parameters of patients in both cohorts were evaluated as well as the evaluations of RA and AS patients with widespread pain (widespread pain index ≥7) and RA and AS patients with FS groups. In addition, correlations between polysymptomatic distress scale (PSD) scores and Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI), Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), and Disease Activity Score using 28 joint counts for RA patients and VAS, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), and Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) for AS patients were analyzed. Results: Frequencies of patients with FS and patients who had PSD scores ≥12 were 34.1% and 44.4% in all RA patients, respectively. Moreover, FS and PSD scores ≥12 were found in 29.2% and 36.9% of all AS patients, respectively. PSD scores of RA patients with FS were higher than all RA patients and RA patients with widespread pain. SDAI and CDAI scores of RA patients with FS were higher than all RA patients and RA patients with widespread pain. Similarly, PSD scores of AS patients with FS were higher than all AS patients and AS patients with widespread pain. ASDAS-erythrocyte sedimentation rate and BASDAI scores of AS patients with FS were found higher than all AS patients and AS patients with widespread pain. Conclusion: Disease activity scores, including pain in RA and AS, were higher in the presence of FS or fibromyalgianess. It may be related to clinical parameters, but cohort studies with long-term follow-up are needed to reveal causality. Additionally, to avoid overtreatment, coexistence of fibromyalgianess should be kept in mind in patients who have inflammatory diseases such as RA and AS, particularly with intractable widespread pain.

16.
Biol Lett ; 20(5): 20240041, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773928

RESUMO

Corneous skin appendages are not only common and diverse in crown-group amniotes but also present in some modern amphibians. This raises the still unresolved question of whether the ability to form corneous skin appendages is an apomorphy of a common ancestor of amphibians and amniotes or evolved independently in both groups. So far, there is no palaeontological contribution to the issue owing to the lack of keratin soft tissue preservation in Palaeozoic anamniotes. New data are provided by a recently discovered ichnofossil specimen from the early Permian of Poland that shows monospecific tetrapod footprints associated with a partial scaly body impression. The traces can be unambiguously attributed to diadectids and are interpreted as the globally first evidence of horned scales in tetrapods close to the origin of amniotes. Taking hitherto little-noticed scaly skin impressions of lepospondyl stem amniotes from the early Permian of Germany into account, the possibility has to be considered that the evolutionary origin of epidermal scales deeply roots among anamniotes.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Epiderme , Fósseis , Animais , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Epiderme/anatomia & histologia , Anfíbios/anatomia & histologia , Anfíbios/classificação , Polônia , Escamas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Pele/anatomia & histologia
17.
Environ Int ; 188: 108745, 2024 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754244

RESUMO

One of the fundamental objectives in ecology is to investigate the ecological processes and associated factors governing the abundance and spatial distribution patterns of biodiversity. However, the reaction of biological communities to environmental degradation remains relatively unknown, even for ecologically crucial communities like macroinvertebrates in aquatic ecosystems. Here, we sampled 117 locations to quantify relative contributions of geographical and environmental factors, including water quality, land use, climate, and hydrological factors, to determine the absolute and relative compositions of macroinvertebrate communities and their spatial distribution in the Yellow River Basin (YRB), the sixth-longest river system on Earth. We assessed relative roles of species sorting and dispersal in determining macroinvertebrate community structure along YRB. Our results demonstrated that alpha and beta diversity indices showed an increase from the up- to low-reaches of YRB. The middle and low-reaches exhibited elevated species diversity and both regions exhibited relatively stable community compositions. The biodiversity of macroinvertebrates was influenced by a combination of geographical factors and environmental variables, with environmental factors predominantly serving as the principal determinants. Results of multiple linear regression and variance decomposition showed that the effect of environmental factors was approximately three times greater than that of spatial factors. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that species sorting, driven by environmental gradients, plays a significant role in shaping the community structure of macroinvertebrates in running water ecosystems at the basin scales. Moreover, the factors contributing to substantial shifts in biodiversity across different segments of YRB indicate that distinct river sections have been influenced by varying stressors, with downstream areas being more susceptible to the impacts of water pollution and urbanization resulting from human activities.

18.
J Midlife Health ; 15(1): 12-18, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38764924

RESUMO

Introduction: Menopause is an unspoken and unaddressed aspect of a women's life, surrounded by many myths and taboos within the Indian context. Although a majority of menopausal women experience moderate to severe symptoms that can affect their physical, emotional, mental, and social well-being, there is poor health literacy as well as health-seeking behavior among them. The importance of social support, especially at a difficult time like menopause, is bound to minimize the severity of menopausal symptoms. Objectives: The objective is to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms among women living in rural communities of Mysuru district, and to examine the relationship of perceived social support during menopausal transition to severity of the symptoms. Materials and Methods: Between May 2022 and December 2022, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 250 women living in rural communities of Mysuru district, Karnataka. An interviewer-administered survey in Kannada was used to record the severity of menopausal symptoms and associated determinants after completion of informed consent process. Results: The average age of study participants was 50.9 (standard deviation [SD] ±4.6) years. While 77.2% were married, 20.8% were widows. About half (53.6%) belonged to lower socioeconomic class and another 28% belonged to middle class. The mean age at menopause was 47.6 (SD ± 4.24) years; 56.8% reported experiencing moderate-to-severe symptoms; 75.6% reported high social support while 24.4% of women low-to-medium social support. The odds of experiencing moderate-to-severe menopause symptoms were 4.51 (95% confidence interval: 2.337-8.690) times higher among women who received low-to-medium social support as compared to those with high social support. The social support obtained was directly proportional to socioeconomic status and living with spouse. Conclusion: The health system should emphasize the role of social support while counseling postmenopausal women. There is a dire need for both community and physician education programs on the social and medical needs of postmenopausal women.

19.
Heliyon ; 10(9): e30678, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38765127

RESUMO

Cellular Automaton (CA) is widely used because of its ability to simulate complex spatiotemporal dynamic processes through applying simple rules. The basis of the CA model is the definition of transformation rules. During a simulation process, the rules determine the change of the cell state. However, existing processing methods calculate the driving factors based on single-point time (start time or end time), making it difficult to reflect the fact that numerous driving factors affecting the cell conversion dynamically change with time. Based on the time dynamics perspective and the data set of multiple time series, this paper designs a method of dynamic adjustment of driving factors of urban expansion on the local cell-scale. It uses linear, exponential, logarithmic, and polynomial fitting to develop a CA model of dynamic adjustment that conforms to the characteristics of local spatial evolution. The main conclusions of the paper are as follows: (1) The polynomial fitting has the highest average R2, indicating that the driving factors experiences large fluctuations over time; (2) Secondly, the simulation result kappa obtained by the four fitting methods is between 0.781-0.810, which is higher than the simulation accuracy obtained by using only a single time point. In other words, the factor does not dynamically fit with time and (3) The fitting accuracy of road density is a key indicator of correct and incorrect simulation parts of construction land. Our results demonstrate that the precision of the CA model may be significantly improved by capturing the time development law of environmental variables affecting urban development at the micro-scale.

20.
Heliyon ; 10(9): e30686, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38765167

RESUMO

Objective: To translate, cross-culturally adapt and test the reliability and validity of a Chinese version of the Infertility Self-Efficacy scale. Methods: The Infertility Self-Efficacy (ISE) scale was translated into Chinese using forward and backward translations, expert consultation, cognitive interviews and a pilot study. To test the scale's reliability and validity, 515 infertile women in two hospitals were recruited to evaluate the Chinese version of the scale. Content validity was assessed by means of expert consultation. Exploratory factor and confirmatory factor analyses were performed using SPSS 26.0 and Amos 24.0. Reliability tests of the scale included Cronbach's alpha coefficient, split-half reliability and test-retest reliability. Results: The Chinese version of the ISE scale contains 16 items and one dimension. Content validity of the scale was 0.96. Results of exploratory factor analysis suggested that the one factor model was suitable for the scale, and factor loading of all items was greater than 0.4. Model fitting parameters of confirmatory factor analysis of the ISE scale were χ2/df = 2.710, Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.079, Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) = 0.042, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.953, and Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) = 0.939. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the Chinese ISE was 0.980; split-half coefficient was 0.972 and retest reliability was 0.848 (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The Chinese ISE scale is a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate the self-efficacy of infertile Chinese women.

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