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1.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 68(2): 127-130, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491202

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the associations between skin carotenoid measurements and fruit and vegetables intake among school children. We conducted a cross-sectional study for 10-y-old children in 2020 in Japan. We compared the optical skin carotenoid score, measured using Veggie Meter®, and food intake, based on a self-administered questionnaire. Among the 328 children who were registered in the three primary schools, 321 (97.9%) agreed to undergo skin carotenoid measurements. None of the children were unable to undergo the examination or experienced any adverse events. Among the 321 children who underwent skin carotenoid measurements, 315 (96.0%) responded to the questionnaire. The baseline characteristics showed that 160 (50.8%) children were boys. The median (interquartile range) skin carotenoid score was 335 (277-407) points. The minimum and maximum scores were 138 and 822 points, respectively, and the mean score (standard deviation) was 349 (104) points. The multivariable model showed a higher intake of fruits and green-yellow vegetables and more exercises were independently associated with higher skin carotenoid scores. We showed positive associations between higher skin carotenoid scores and higher intake of fruits and green-yellow vegetables and more exercise. The skin carotenoid score could be used to promote better food intake among children.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Dieta , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Verduras
2.
Environ Health Insights ; 16: 11786302221095030, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35495174

RESUMO

Background: Access to drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) at schools are the basic determinants of a child's right to healthy and quality education. In Nepal, most of the schools had limited WASH facilities, including separate sanitation facilities for girls. The limited WASH facilities, unsafe drinking water, poor sanitation, and hygiene practices result in irresponsible behaviors that directly impede on students' health. This study examines the association between WASH services and health status of basic level students', ranging sixth to eighth grades. In Nepal, basic level education consists up to eighth standards from grade 1. Methods: The study applies causal-comparative research design within 2 groups; 1 having improved WASH and another without improved WASH services at the schools in Dhanusha and Chitwan districts of Nepal. Each group consists 2 schools, so altogether 4 schools were included in this study. Total 768, equal 384 respondents were selected from each improved and without improved WASH facilities. The study was conducted in between January and March 2021 at a single-phase time. The sample size was calculated using the standard statistical formula for the infinite population. The study applied quantitative research method, including 3 sorts of analysis; univariate, bivariate, and the multivariate. The univariate was applied to analyze the frequency and percentages of the respondents. Bivariate analysis was made applying chi2 test in order to show the association between 2 variables, whereas the multivariate logistic regression was performed through multilevel modeling to show the effects of school WASH facilities on students' health status. Results: Out of 768 students', 384 (50%) were from improved and 384 (50%) were from unimproved WASH facilities at schools. More than two third (64%) of respondents from the unimproved and higher than two fifth (41%) from the improved schools got sickness (P <.001). Further, three fifth (59%) of respondents aged 15 to 19 and higher than half (51%) of respondents ages of 10 to 14 years got sickness (P <.05). Most (57%) of the female respondents had sickness compared to males (47%), (P <.05). More than two-thirds (67%) of respondents from Dalit and nearly two-thirds (62%) of respondents from Brahmin/Chhetri-Terai more often found being sick in unimproved schools compared to other castes (55%), Janajati (43%), and Brahmin/Chhetri-Hill (39%) (P <.001). The school WASH services has significant effect (cOR = 0.388, CI; 290-0.519, P <.001) on students health status, even adjusting other socio-covariates (aOR = .442, CI; 0.302-0.646, P <.001). The female respondents were more likely to fall sick (aOR = 678, CI; 0.502-0.915, P <.01) compared to the male respondents keeping all other variables constant in the model. Conclusion: The study recommends to extend WASH awareness program to school families, particularly to the students as there is an evident need to increase preventive as well as the therapeutic efficacy of the potential infections.

3.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A systematic review is presented with the objective of determining whether school children with congenital heart disease participate in psychological interventions in the cardiovascular rehabilitation process. METHOD: Guided review by the PRISMA method was carried out in the databases: Dialnet, Pub Med, Redalyc, Science Direct, Scielo, Google Academic of articles published in English, Portuguese and Spanish. The inclusion criteria are: rehabilitative interventions that contain actions for the management of psychological factors. 23 reports were evaluated for eligibility, only 1 was chosen through the data tabulation method. RESULTS: It was evidenced that these programs for children with heart disease are scarce, they focus on physical activity, neglecting socio-psychological variables. It is proposed to implement standardized intervention actions with congenital cardiovascular patients and their families from psychocardiology according to their needs.

4.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(5): 1755-1760, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502067

RESUMO

Purpose: To profile the presentation of ocular conditions among school children aged 6 to 17 years from the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Methods: The study was conducted as part of a school eye health program in Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu that aimed to address the refractive needs of children (6-17 years) between July 2016 and June 2019. The study followed a three-phase protocol, which included visual acuity test, modified clinical test, color vision test, binocular vision assessment, objective and subjective refraction, dispensing spectacles, posterior segment evaluation using direct ophthalmoscopy, and referral to the base hospital. The demographics, clinical details, and ocular conditions (classified under 16 categories) were analyzed. Profiling and association of ocular conditions among different locations, types of schools, class grades, and gender were presented. Results: Data of 2,45,565 children were analyzed from 1,047 schools, of which 4,816 (1.96%) children were identified with ocular conditions other than refractive errors. The common reasons for referral were high myopia 901 (0.37%), strabismus 819 (0.33%), and amblyopia 691 (0.28%). Retinal problems (odds ratio [OR]: 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-2.22, P = 0.001) and strabismus (OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21-1.65, P < 0.001) were the conditions prevalent in the rural location. Cataract and related conditions (OR: 5.73, 95% CI: 4.10-8.01, P < 0.001) and retinal problems (OR: 4.76, 95% CI: 3.37-6.72, P < 0.001) were common in children studying in public schools. Of the 16 categories, 13 conditions were seen among primary school children. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (OR: 3.64 95% CI: 2.12-6.23 P < 0.001) was common among males. Conclusion: The study profiled ocular conditions among school children. Most ocular conditions warrant prolonged care and specialty eye care services. Ensuring the availability of such services and follow-up after school eye screening would safeguard the visual development of these children.


Assuntos
Miopia , Estrabismo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Acuidade Visual
5.
Front Psychol ; 13: 870371, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35548529

RESUMO

To investigate the relationships among child psychological abuse and neglect (CPAN), children's learning engagement, family socioeconomic status (family SES), and children's academic achievement, 271 children (M age = 9.41 ± 0.81 years old) and their parents participated in this study with a longitudinal design. Results revealed that learning engagement at T1 mediated the relationship between CPAN at T1 and academic achievement at T2 when gender, age, grade, and academic achievement at T1 were under control. Family SES at T1 moderated the relationship between children's learning engagement at T1 and academic achievement at T2. The association between learning engagement and academic achievement was stronger among children from lower family SES. Our findings highlighted the negative impact of CPAN and the critical role of learning engagement in children's academic achievement, especially for those from low SES families.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35554839

RESUMO

Hookah smoking is one of the major indoor sources of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). This study aimed to investigate the potential exposure to BTEX among primary school children, particularly those exposed to hookah smoke. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Khesht, one of the southwestern cities in Iran, in mid-June 2020. Totally, 50 primary school children exposed to hookah smoke were chosen as the case group and 50 primary school children were selected as the control group. Urinary un-metabolized BTEX was measured by a headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Additionally, a detailed questionnaire was used to gather data and information from the students' parents. The mean levels of urinary benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene were 1.44, 5.87, 2.49, 6.93, and 7.17 µg/L, respectively in the exposed children. Urinary BTEX was 3.93-folds higher in the case group than in the controls (p<0.05). Household cleaning products, the floor on which the house was located, children's sleeping place, and playing outdoors were found to be important factors in predicting urinary BTEX levels. Overall, it was found necessary to avoid indoor smoking to prevent the emission of BTEX compounds via exhaled mainstream smoke and to protect vulnerable non-smokers, especially children, from exposure to second-hand and third-hand smoke.

7.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; : 17470218221102916, 2022 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570698

RESUMO

Children's oral vocabulary acquisition is an important aspect of language development that plays a crucial role in reading and literacy development and subsequent academic success. Therefore, it is important to identify and implement evidence-based effective strategies of vocabulary instruction for primary school children. Orthographic facilitation refers to the benefit afforded to word learning by incidentally presenting spellings when new words are introduced (Ricketts et al., 2009). The current study aimed to replicate the orthographic facilitation effect in primary school (grades 1 to 6) children and further assess whether children in different grades benefitted differently from the presence of orthography during spoken word learning. To do this, ninety-one children from grades 1 to 6 were taught novel picture-word pairs with or without spellings. Word learning was assessed during and after training using behavioural and eye tracking data from picture-naming and picture-word-matching (PWM) tasks. Irrespective of grade, all children experienced a significant orthographic facilitation effect during training. The post-training results were more task dependent with all grades showing a significant orthographic facilitation effect on the picture-naming task, and only grades 1-4 showing a facilitation effect on the PWM task. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

8.
J Clin Med ; 11(9)2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35566744

RESUMO

The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the dental treatments received under general anesthesia (GA) in pre-school children and school children with special healthcare needs (n = 263) compared with healthy controls (n = 62). In order to analyze the impact of pre-existing cofactors on oral health, children were divided into the following groups: heart disease, cancer, syndromic disease, and other diseases as well as in- and outpatient healthy children. Caries experience (dmf-t/DMF-T) before GA (impulse 1), waiting time, and dental treatment under GA (impulse 2) were determined. Pre-school children showed a higher caries experience (mean ± standard deviation; 8.3 ± 4.8) compared to schoolchildren (6.9 ± 4.3). Predominantly, early childhood caries (ECC) of type 1 were detected. From all groups with special healthcare needs, children with cancer revealed the highest Significant Caries Index (17.0 ± 2.0), followed by other diseases (14.6 ± 2.6), syndromic disease (14.3 ± 1.8), and heart disease (13.8 ± 2.7). Overall, 2607 dental procedures were performed under GA with a mean of 8.0 ± 6.5 dental measures per child. Within the limitations of this study, the data exhibited independent of pre-existing cofactors and age high caries risk in all patient groups showing a high need for treatment.

9.
J Helminthol ; 96: e28, 2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35431015

RESUMO

The performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection of Schistosoma mansoni DNA from stool and urine samples in comparison with Kato-Katz and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was studied. After obtaining informed consent, 50 children participated in the present study and agreed to submit stool and urine samples. Stool samples were examined by Kato-Katz. Both real-time PCR and LAMP techniques were applied on stool and urine samples. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni was 46% in stool and urine samples as detected by the employed techniques, and 90% of cases had light infection intensity. The highest percentage of infection was diagnosed by real-time PCR (44%), followed by Kato-Katz (42%) and LAMP in the stool (36%), while the lowest percentages of infection were diagnosed by real-time PCR and LAMP in urine samples (24% and 14%, respectively). Kato-Katz, real-time PCR and LAMP showed 100% specificity where the sensitivity was 91.3%, 95.7% and 78.3%, respectively, in stool samples. Real-time PCR and LAMP showed lower sensitivity in urine samples. The LAMP assay is a promising technique for S. mansoni diagnosis in endemic countries of moderate and high-intensity infection. Yet, it needs further optimization, particularly in urine samples.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose mansoni , Animais , Criança , Fezes , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Esquistossomose mansoni/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health ; 16(1): 30, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the relationship among family, personal, parental correlates, and behavioral disturbances in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We performed a hospital-based cross-sectional study. School-aged boys who first visited the hospital between 2000 and 2011 with ADHD were identified. Through medical records review, demographic information, family characteristics, personal characteristics, parental characteristics, and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) collected during the first outpatient visit were retrieved. A T-score higher than 63 in the internalizing or externalizing subscale of the CBCL indicated severe behavioral disturbances in each domain. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between the correlates and behavioral disturbances. Eligible patients were further classified into groups without behavioral disturbance, with either only severe internalizing or only severe externalizing behaviors, or with both behaviors. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression was used to investigate the association between the correlates and the number of types of behavioral disturbances. RESULTS: A total of 1855 boys with ADHD were included. In the multivariable logistic regression, family factors, including being first-born, living in a family not with both parents, and family history of mental disorder, were associated with severe internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Personal factors, including prenatal complications, perinatal complications, and medical and psychiatric comorbidities, were associated with severe internalizing behaviors, but only prenatal complications and medical comorbidities were associated with severe externalizing behaviors. Parental factors were only associated with severe externalizing behaviors. A higher paternal education level had a protective effect, but younger motherhood increased the risk. In ordinal logistic regression, these factors were also associated with more types of behavioral disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple factors are related to behavioral disturbances in ADHD. Our study reported the association among family, personal, parental factors, severe internalizing behavior, severe externalizing behavior, and number of behavioral disturbances in boys with ADHD. However, the impacts differed as the behavior phenotypes varied. Further research is needed to better understand the heterogeneity of ADHD behavior.

11.
BMC Nutr ; 8(1): 35, 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449025

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Healthy dietary habits prevent childhood overweight and obesity and the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) later in life. We examined dietary patterns and their association with adiposity among primary school children in northern Tanzania. METHODS: Dietary data was collected by 24-h recall and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for 1170 primary school children aged 9 - 11 years from 20 primary schools in the Kilimanjaro region. Factor analysis and FFQ data were used to identify dietary patterns. Children were categorized into terciles of their adherence to each dietary pattern. Multilevel logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of dietary pattern terciles with adiposity indicators: body mass index z-scores (BMI z scores), body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance, triceps, subscapular skinfold thicknesses, and waist circumference. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of children had BMI Z > 1.0, indicating overweight or obesity. Two dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis: a healthy pattern characterized by frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables; and a mixed dietary pattern characterized by intake of fatty snacks, sweets and sugar snacks, sugary beverages, meat and alternatives, milk, and milk products. After adjusting for potential confounders, for both models: model 1 (age and sex), and model 2 (age, sex, school type, time spent walking to school, district [urban/ rural], availability of television and electronic gadgets at home and neighbourhood playground); we found no significant associations between dietary patterns and adiposity measures. CONCLUSION: Dietary patterns were not associated with adiposity in Tanzanian primary school children, possibly because of limitations of the FFQ, which did not record information on portion sizes. Future research should focus on understanding the key foods / snacks consumed by school children, portion sizes and their long-term effects on adiposity in children.

12.
Nutrients ; 14(8)2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458147

RESUMO

A universal salt iodization (USI) was introduced in Sarawak, Malaysia in 2008 to control the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) among its population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the USI among school children in Sarawak after 10 years of implementation. The data were extracted from 2008 and 2018 Sarawak state-wide IDD surveys. Briefly, both surveys were cross-sectional surveys covering information on the socio-demographic, status of goitre, urinary iodine, and the amount of iodine in the salt samples. A total of 1104 and 988 between the ages of 8 and 10 were involved in the 2008 and 2018 surveys, respectively. The overall prevalence of goitre among the school children in Sarawak was significantly lower in 2018 (0.1%) compared to 2008 (2.9%). The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in urine samples had risen significantly from 102.1 µg/L in 2008 to 126.0 µg/L in 2018. In terms of iodine content in salt samples, the median concentration improved significantly in 2018 (35.5 µg/L) compared to 2008 (14.7 µg/L). After 10 years of USI implementation in Sarawak, the results from both surveys confirmed the effectiveness of mandatory USI in increasing the nutritional iodine status of school children in Sarawak.


Assuntos
Bócio , Iodo , Criança , Bócio/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta
13.
Appetite ; : 106040, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429582

RESUMO

Food literacy (FL) is a goal for many food camps aimed at improving school children's culinary skills and food knowledge. FL in relation to children has been defined as constituting five competencies: "to do" (practical skills),"to know" (knowledge), "to sense" (sensory experiences), "to care" (care for self and others), and "to want" (to be willing to act). However, understanding the processes and mechanisms that relates to school children's FL remain underexplored. The aim of this study was to identify underlying mechanisms operating at a food camp and elucidate how they relate to FL competencies among school children. A qualitative embedded case study design was used to explore this with a Danish food camp programme 'FOODcamp' targeting school-going children aged 12-14 years, constituting an instrumental case. A theory-driven abductive research strategy was used to facilitate analytical generalization. Five schools and nine classes participating in FOODcamp were recruited for the study. Data comprised 10 focus group discussions conducted with children, nine interviews conducted with teachers, and 10 days of observation at FOODcamp. The analysis resulted in 12 conceptually derived mechanisms operating at a food camp namely 'hands-on with food and kitchen utensils', 'use of all senses', 'help and recognition', 'theoretical reflection', 'from farm to table', 'try new and scary things', 'experimenting', 'genuine participation', 'cook from scratch', 'principles', 'meal group community' and 'food group community'. These mechanisms were in various combinations and in a dynamic interplay with contextual conditions related to school children's five FL competencies. The conceptually derived mechanisms may guide future research and practice by highlighting various processes and contextual conditions, given that they are adapted to the specific possibilities of a given context and age group.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457448

RESUMO

Numerous epidemiological studies have evaluated the association of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and indoor air pollutants, but limited information available of the risks between schools located in suburban and urban areas. We therefore investigated the association of FeNO levels with indoor particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure in suburban and urban school areas. A comparative cross-sectional study was undertaken among secondary school students in eight schools located in the suburban and urban areas in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 470 school children (aged 14 years old) were randomly selected, their FeNO levels were measured, and allergic skin prick tests were conducted. The PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, and relative humidity were measured inside the classrooms. We found that the median of FeNO in the school children from urban areas (22.0 ppb, IQR = 32.0) were slightly higher as compared to the suburban group (19.5 ppb, IQR = 24.0). After adjustment of potential confounders, the two-level hierarchical multiple logistic regression models showed that the concentrations of PM2.5 were significantly associated with elevated of FeNO (>20 ppb) in school children from suburban (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.17-1.72) and urban (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.10-1.91) areas. Despite the concentrations of NO2 being below the local and international recommendation guidelines, NO2 was found to be significantly associated with the elevated FeNO levels among school children from suburban areas (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.06-1.17). The findings of this study support the evidence of indoor pollutants in the school micro-environment associated with FeNO levels among school children from suburban and urban areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas
15.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580221087881, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410522

RESUMO

In Thailand, rabies is an endemic fatal viral zoonosis where 40% of those infected are under age 15. The aim of this rabies KAP study (Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices) is to examine preventive behaviors. A multistage sampling technique was employed for selecting the sample. Of 290 primary school students, 52.1% of them had poor knowledge, 89% had favorable attitudes, and 52.1% exercised proper preventive behaviors. We employed structural equation modeling to verify the systemic relationships and found rabies knowledge (ß = .157, se=.059, P = .008) and attitude (ß = .206 se=.054, P < .001) were associated with rabies preventive behaviors. Moreover, children in school No.4 statistically had less adept at rabies prevention than others. (ß = - .232, se=.054, P < .001). This study highlights the need to strengthen rabies education programs, especially for rabies risk situations among school-aged children.


Assuntos
Raiva , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 773323, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433596

RESUMO

Several studies have focused on how different school ground environments can stimulate physical activity (PA) in children. This study aimed to investigate the contributions of two school ground environments (a constructed schoolyard and a natural forest) in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of Norwegian school children in the 5th and 7th grades. This study described two school ground environments that provided large and multifunctional spaces, giving the children several affordances for being physically active during the school day. The constructed schoolyard afforded a space of 44 m2 per child and had an access to sports and game courts and various types of equipment for PA. The natural forest provided a space of 50.6 m2 per child and had a varied landscape for activities that afforded a wide range of PA. On average, the children engaged in 50% of the 60-min period of MVPA when playing in the natural and constructed play settings. The two different environments, thus, contributed equally to the daily MVPA of the school children. The findings can inform policies and programs aiming at promoting recommended levels of PA among children using school outdoor environments that may eventually have implications for the physical and mental health of school children during the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Humanos , Noruega
17.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 11(1): 21, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unintentional childhood injuries are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Attempts to prevent child home injuries have rarely been implemented in hospital settings which present an important opportunity for intervention. The SHABI ('Keeping our Children Safe; SHomrim Al BetIchut Yeladenu') program recruits at-risk families presenting with child injury to the Emergency Department. Medical/nursing students conduct two home visits and provide safety equipment and guidance. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of SHABI on participating families' home-safety. METHODS: The pilot was conducted between May 2019 and March 2020 in northern Israel, an area with high child injury rates. Eligibility included families with preschool children who incurred a home injury. Home-safety was assessed by observation through the 'Beterem' checklist. Parents' views, knowledge, awareness of dangers and report of home injuries were assessed at the start of each visit. RESULTS: 352 of 773 eligible families agreed to be contacted. 135 participated, 98 completed both home visits. Significant improvement in home-safety items was observed 4 months after the first visit (14 [IQR12-16]) vs. (17 [IQR15-19]; p < 0.001), accompanied by an overall increase in home safety (Mean ± SD 71.9% ± 9.5% vs. 87.1% ± 8.6%; p < 0.001). 64% reported greater awareness of dangers, 60% affirmed home was safer, and 70% valued the equipment. No difference was found in the prevalence of injuries (14 of 98 families prior and 8 after the visit; p = 0.17). Home visitors reported benefiting from the experience of working with disadvantaged families. CONCLUSION: The program, which included recruitment in a hospital emergency setting and use of healthcare students as home visitors, was successfully implemented and accompanied by significant improvement in home safety with a non-significant trend of child injury decrease.


Assuntos
Acidentes Domésticos , Equipamentos de Proteção , Acidentes Domésticos/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hospitais , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Segurança
18.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 183, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: So far, few data are available on the relationship between allergic conjunctivitis (AC) and ocular fundus. Whether retinal parameters change in patients with AC remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the influence of AC on retinal thickness and vessel density among 7-years-old school-age children. METHODS: This large population-based study is part of the Nanjing Eye Study (NES). Comprehensive examinations including anthropometric parameters, refraction, ocular biometric parameters, intraocular pressure and retinal parameters were conducted on each child. Retinal thickness and vessel density were assessed using the optical coherence tomography angiography. Information on AC was obtained from a comprehensive questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 739 children (mean age ± SD: 7.40 ± 0.29 years) had complete eye examination and questionnaire data we needed. Ninety-four children (12.7%) had AC, among which, 5 children had the history of corticosteroid use and were excluded from the final analysis. Spherical equivalent, axial length, body mass index and birth weight were correlated with retinal parameters. After adjusting for sex, age, spherical equivalent, axial length, body mass index, birth weight and premature history, children with AC had thinner retinal nerve fiber layer thickness for average (117.39 versus 120.97 µm, p = 0.007), temporal (80.73 versus 84.34 µm, p = 0.001), nasal (98.82 versus 102.18 µm, p = 0.049) and inferior (152.68 versus 157.06 µm, p = 0.034) quadrants than the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Children with AC tended to have thinner retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. More attention is needed to fundus condition of children with AC.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite Alérgica , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Conjuntivite Alérgica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Fibras Nervosas , Retina/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e058504, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459674

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and associated factors of overweight and obesity among primary school children (6-11 years old) in Thanhhoa city in 2021. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Seven primary schools in Thanhhoa city, Vietnam. PARTICIPANTS: 782 children (and their parents). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Two-stage cluster random sampling was used for selecting children and data were collected from January to February 2021. A self-administrated questionnaire was designed for children and their parents. Children's height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI)-for-age z-scores were computed using the WHO Anthro software V.1.0.4. Data were analysed using R software V.4.1.2. The associations between potential factors and childhood overweight/obesity were analysed through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Variables were selected using the Bayesian Model Averaging method. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight/obesity among primary school children in Thanhhoa city was 35.93% (overweight 21.61% and obesity 14.32%). The proportion of overweight girls was nearly equal to that of boys (20.78% and 22.52%, respectively, p=0.6152) while the proportion of boys with obesity was four times as many as that of girls (23.86% and 5.62%, respectively, p<0.0001). Child's sex was the factor significantly associated with childhood overweight/obesity. Boys had double the risk of being overweight/obese than girls (adjusted OR: aOR=2.48, p<0.0001). Other potential factors which may be associated with childhood overweight/obesity included mode of transport to school, the people living with the child, mother's occupation, father's education, eating confectionery, the total time of doing sports, and sedentary activities. CONCLUSION: One in every three primary school children in Thanhhoa city were either overweight or obese. Parents, teachers and policy-makers can implement interventions in the aforementioned factors to reduce the rate of childhood obesity. In forthcoming years, longitudinal studies should be conducted to determine the causal relationships between potential factors and childhood overweight/obesity.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica , Teorema de Bayes , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Vietnã/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 146, 2022 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473601

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study prevalence of dental fear and the relationship to gender, oral disease and dental treatment between 1973 and 2013 in school children and young adults attending public dental health care. METHODS: Every ten years from 1973 to 2013 random samples of about 100 individuals in each of the age groups 10, 15 and 20 years took part in a repeated cross-sectional study based on clinical parameters and a questionnaire. Dental fear was estimated by the question: "What do you feel at the prospect of an appointment with a dentist?". 75-99% of the samples answered the question. Agreement to at least one of the alternative answers: ill at ease, frightened and sick defined dental fear. Frightened and/or sick indicated severe dental fear. The prevalence of caries, gingivitis and number of filled tooth surfaces were calculated. Chi-square tests were used to show differences in proportions between groups and linear regression to show trends over time. RESULTS: Prevalence of dental fear declined in all age groups over time. In the 20-year olds dental fear was found in 29% of the sample and severe dental fear in 12% of girls and 5% of boys in 2013. Individuals with dental fear had higher mean caries prevalence and number of filled tooth surfaces compared with individuals without dental fear. CONCLUSIONS: This 40-year time trend study showed a reduction in dental fear prevalence in school children and young adults offered regular public dental health care based on prevention and a psychological approach. The prevalence of dental fear was still high in 2013 despite a significant decline in caries during the study period. Further improvements in the psychological approach when treating children are thus needed.


Assuntos
Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico , Cárie Dentária , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/epidemiologia , Assistência Odontológica , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
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