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1.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1268, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Africa, approx. 675 million people were at risk of food insecurity. COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have exacerbated this situation, by damaging populations' access to and affordability of foods. This study is aimed at estimating the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on availability and prices of essential food commodities at 20 large markets in Ghana. METHODS: Data on food availability and food retail prices collected through weekly market-level data during the period from July 2017 to September 2020 were used in this study. We performed interrupted time-series analyses and estimated the percentage increases between the observed and predicted food prices by food group and by region to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on food prices. RESULTS: As a result, the impact of COVID-19 on food availability was limited. However, the results of interrupted time-series analyses indicate a significant increase in overall mean food prices in Greater Accra, Eastern and Upper East regions. It was also found that mean price of starchy roots, tubers and plantains significantly increased across regions. DISCUSSION: The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on food availability and prices was significant but varied by food type and regions in Ghana. Continuous monitoring and responses are critical to maintain food availability and affordability.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comércio , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio/economia , Insegurança Alimentar/economia , Pandemias/economia
2.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 9(5): 601-604, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726023

RESUMO

The African palm weevil (Rhynchophorus phoenicis) is a species of high economic importance in sub-Saharan Africa, both as a culturally traditional edible insect and as an agricultural pest. Here we provide a de novo assembly and annotation for the mitochondrial genome of this species from whole-genome sequence data. The mitogenome was AT-rich and 17,161bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding, 22 transfer RNA, and two ribosomal RNA genes. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed the African palm weevil to cluster within the genus Rhynchophorus and the weevil tribe Rhynchophorini. This mitogenome will be important for future genetic research into this emerging edible insect species.

3.
J Educ Health Promot ; 13: 94, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ensuring the security and privacy of patient data is a critical concern in the healthcare industry. The growing utilization of electronic data transmission and storage in medical records has amplified apprehensions about data security. However, due to varying stakeholder interests, not all data can be freely shared, necessitating the development of secure protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study presents a highly secure protocol that integrates blockchain technology, patient biometric information, and robust cryptographic algorithms (elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) and advanced encryption algorithm (AEC)) to facilitate data encryption and decryption. The protocol encompasses secure login, secure key sharing, and data sharing mechanisms among miners, offering comprehensive security measures. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed protocol, both informal and formal security analyses are conducted. The security protocol description language in Scyther is utilized to evaluate the protocol's resilience against attacks. RESULTS: The culmination of this research is a secure protocol that leverages blockchain technology and ECC for the secure storage and sharing of medical records. The protocol covers all stages, including system setup, user registration, login mechanisms, key exchange between users and blockchain, communication between blockchains, and interaction with other miners, with a steadfast emphasis on security. Furthermore, the protocol's communication and computation costs are assessed, with a comparison to existing blockchain-based schemes. Informal proofs establish the protocol's security against common attacks faced by medical institutions. Formal simulation of the protocol using the Scyther tool provides definitive evidence of its resistance to attacks. CONCLUSIONS: As a result, this protocol presents a viable real-time implementation solution for safeguarding patient data within the healthcare domain, representing a significant contribution to data security.

4.
Front Artif Intell ; 7: 1328530, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726306

RESUMO

Food and nutrition are a steadfast essential to all living organisms. With specific reference to humans, the sufficient and efficient supply of food is a challenge as the world population continues to grow. Artificial Intelligence (AI) could be identified as a plausible technology in this 5th industrial revolution in bringing us closer to achieving zero hunger by 2030-Goal 2 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UNSDG). This goal cannot be achieved unless the digital divide among developed and underdeveloped countries is addressed. Nevertheless, developing and underdeveloped regions fall behind in economic resources; however, they harbor untapped potential to effectively address the impending demands posed by the soaring world population. Therefore, this study explores the in-depth potential of AI in the agriculture sector for developing and under-developed countries. Similarly, it aims to emphasize the proven efficiency and spin-off applications of AI in the advancement of agriculture. Currently, AI is being utilized in various spheres of agriculture, including but not limited to crop surveillance, irrigation management, disease identification, fertilization practices, task automation, image manipulation, data processing, yield forecasting, supply chain optimization, implementation of decision support system (DSS), weed control, and the enhancement of resource utilization. Whereas AI supports food safety and security by ensuring higher crop yields that are acquired by harnessing the potential of multi-temporal remote sensing (RS) techniques to accurately discern diverse crop phenotypes, monitor land cover dynamics, assess variations in soil organic matter, predict soil moisture levels, conduct plant biomass modeling, and enable comprehensive crop monitoring. The present study identifies various challenges, including financial, infrastructure, experts, data availability, customization, regulatory framework, cultural norms and attitudes, access to market, and interdisciplinary collaboration, in the adoption of AI for developing nations with their subsequent remedies. The identification of challenges and opportunities in the implementation of AI could ignite further research and actions in these regions; thereby supporting sustainable development.

5.
Crit Rev Biotechnol ; : 1-9, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719539

RESUMO

Climate change-related environmental stresses can negatively impact crop productivity and pose a threat to sustainable agriculture. Plants have a remarkable innate ability to detect a broad array of environmental cues, including stresses that trigger stress-induced regulatory networks and signaling pathways. Transcriptional activation of plant pathogenesis related-1 (PR-1) proteins was first identified as an integral component of systemic acquired resistance in response to stress. Consistent with their central role in immune defense, overexpression of PR-1s in diverse plant species is frequently used as a marker for salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defense responses. Recent advances demonstrated how virulence effectors, SA signaling cascades, and epigenetic modifications modulate PR-1 expression in response to environmental stresses. We and others showed that transcriptional regulatory networks involving PR-1s could be used to improve plant resilience to stress. Together, the results of these studies have re-energized the field and provided long-awaited insights into a possible function of PR-1s under extreme environmental stress.

6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10705, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730047

RESUMO

This paper aims to propose a prediction method based on Deep Learning (DL) and Internet of Things (IoT) technology, focusing on the ecological security and tourist satisfaction of Ice-and-Snow Tourism (IST) to solve practical problems in this field. Accurate predictions of ecological security and tourist satisfaction in IST have been achieved by collecting and analyzing environment and tourist behavior data and combining with DL models, such as convolutional and recurrent neural networks. The experimental results show that the proposed method has significant advantages in performance indicators, such as accuracy, F1 score, Mean Squared Error (MSE), and correlation coefficient. Compared to other similar methods, the method proposed improves accuracy by 3.2%, F1 score by 0.03, MSE by 0.006, and correlation coefficient by 0.06. These results emphasize the important role of combining DL with IoT technology in predicting ecological security and tourist satisfaction in IST.

7.
Front Plant Sci ; 15: 1376214, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742215

RESUMO

Sustainable food security and safety are major concerns on a global scale, especially in developed nations. Adverse agroclimatic conditions affect the largest agricultural-producing areas, which reduces the production of crops. Achieving sustainable food safety is challenging because of several factors, such as soil flooding/waterlogging, ultraviolet (UV) rays, acidic/sodic soil, hazardous ions, low and high temperatures, and nutritional imbalances. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are widely employed in in-vitro conditions because they are widely recognized as a more environmentally and sustainably friendly approach to increasing crop yield in contaminated and fertile soil. Conversely, the use of nanoparticles (NPs) as an amendment in the soil has recently been proposed as an economical way to enhance the texture of the soil and improving agricultural yields. Nowadays, various research experiments have combined or individually applied with the PGPR and NPs for balancing soil elements and crop yield in response to control and adverse situations, with the expectation that both additives might perform well together. According to several research findings, interactive applications significantly increase sustainable crop yields more than PGPR or NPs alone. The present review summarized the functional and mechanistic basis of the interactive role of PGPR and NPs. However, this article focused on the potential of the research direction to realize the possible interaction of PGPR and NPs at a large scale in the upcoming years.

8.
Heliyon ; 10(9): e30203, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707464

RESUMO

UNSC sanctions have been referred to as a powerful tool increasingly used by the UNSC to maintain international peace and security based on Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter. This study conducts a bibliometric analysis to provide a comprehensive overview of the current research status, developments trends, and research hotspots in UNSC sanctions research from 1990 to 2023. This study uses CiteSpace to visualize and analyze datasets of 345 articles about UNSC sanctions obtained from the Web of Science (WOS) database. The research on UNSC sanctions has three stages: the initial development stage (1990-2006), the transitional development stage (2007-2017), and the rapid development stage (2018-2023). This study describes UNSC sanctions research status, trends, hotspots, and distributions of publications by journal sources, disciplines, countries, institutions, and authors. It also describes the knowledge-based mapping and research hotspots on UNSC sanctions, including keywords, citation burst, keyword clusters, keyword clusters timeline view, cited references, intellectual base, and descriptive analysis. In addition, this study analyzed UNSC sanctions research divided into four domain categories: implementation, human rights, impacts, and specific regimes. The results showed that the topic of UNSC sanctions was multidisciplinary research and that scholars from different research disciplines had different focuses on UNSC sanctions. This study offers valuable insights into the current hot topics within the field of UNSC sanctions and offers recommendations for future research directions.

9.
Heliyon ; 10(9): e30225, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707477

RESUMO

The declaration of 'Fruits Decade 2016/17-2026/27' and the enaction of the 'NepalGAP Scheme' by the Government of Nepal has redirected increased public investments to promote apple production and marketability in the western high hills of Nepal. This study explores major good agricultural practices (GAP) related to orchard management, factors influencing their adoption intensity, and key underlying constraints to production using cross-sectional survey data from apple growers in Dolpa district, Nepal. The results showed that farmers mostly adopted GAP such as frequent weeding, intercropping, and nutrient management in apple orchards. Based on the negative binomial regression estimates, household characteristics such as gender of the orchard owner, experience, and number of literate household members were found influential in determining the GAP adoption intensity. The analysis of the problem severity index implied that apple production is mostly constrained by limited access to production inputs and transportation. The findings provide useful insights to the farmers and policymakers regarding the current scenario of GAP adoption along with the diversity of barriers that severely limits the realization of apple production potential in western Nepal.

10.
Jamba ; 16(1): 1502, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725878

RESUMO

A prevalence of political violence and political assassinations characterised post-1994 South Africa. These politically motivated killings appeared to be dominant in the controversial KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) province. Political killings in South Africa started as a form of inter-party warfare, especially during the transition to democracy, when the two rivals, the African National Congress (ANC) and the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP), fought each other for some areas of Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. However, following the dominance of the ANC in the KZN Province, members of the ruling party fought each other for positions in government and political party structures. Considering this, the article analyses the crisis of factionalism by examining the ANC's intra-party tensions and targeted killings, and how this poses a risk to human security in KZN. Methodologically, the article employs a qualitative literature assessment and content analysis is used to delve into the impact of intra-party tensions and targeted killings on human security in the KZN province. Contribution: In quest for curbing the crisis of factionalism in the ruling ANC, the article recommends that the ANC needs to re-visit its leadership selection as these killings have seemingly happened during leadership selection, which leads to ruthless competition of positions in government and party structures. Members of the ruling party need to identify themselves as one, as opposed to belonging to different factional groups within the party. Failure by the ruling party to address divisions within the organisation shall result in more fatal killings resulting from competition for positions and resources.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697915

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate drug prescription indicators in outpatient services provided at Iran Social Security Organization (SSO) healthcare facilities. Methods: Data on all prescribed drugs for outpatient visits from 2017 to 2018 were extracted from the SSO database. The data were categorized into 4 main subgroups: patient characteristics, provider characteristics, service characteristics, and type of healthcare facility. Logistic regression models were used to detect risk factors for inappropriate drug prescriptions. SPSS and IBM Modeler software were utilized for data analysis. Results: In 2017, approximately 150,981,752 drug items were issued to outpatients referred to SSO healthcare facilities in Iran. The average number of drug items per outpatient prescription was estimated at 3.33. The proportion of prescriptions that included an injection was 17.5%, and the rate of prescriptions that included an antibiotic was 37.5%. Factors such as patient sex and age, provider specialty, type of facility, and time of outpatient visit were associated with the risk of inappropriate prescriptions. Conclusions: In this study, all drug prescription criteria exceeded the recommended limits set by the World Health Organization. To improve the current prescription patterns throughout the country, it would be beneficial to provide providers with monthly and annual reports and to consider implementing some prescription policies for physicians.

12.
Fam Process ; 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697926

RESUMO

A gap in research on family interventions is the understanding of long-term effects on hypothesized mechanisms of effect regarding children's processes of responding to family stressors. This study assessed the long-term effects of an intervention designed to improve interparental and family conflict resolution on adolescents' emotional insecurity about interparental conflict. Emotional insecurity about interparental conflict has long been linked with adolescents' risk for adjustment problems. These findings have motivated the development of several family-based preventive interventions, one of which is the focus of this study. A community sample of 225 adolescents and their parents participated in an RCT-based study of an intervention designed to reduce adolescent's emotional insecurity about interparental conflict. The intervention's effect on patterns of change in adolescents', mothers', and fathers' reports of the three components of adolescents' emotional insecurity (emotional reactivity, behavioral dysregulation, and cognitive representations) from posttest through the 3-year follow-up were examined using multilevel modeling. Results suggested that the intervention predicted immediate (pre to posttest) and long-term linear decreases in emotional reactivity, as well as long-term quadratic change in behavioral dysregulation. These findings support the beneficial effects of a brief intervention on multiple components of emotional security. The results also underscore the importance of considering the potential of long-term (including nonlinear) patterns of change that may occur as a function of family-based interventions, as well as that the impact of family-based interventions may vary as a function of reporter and component of emotional insecurity.

13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10459, 2024 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714825

RESUMO

A novel collaborative and continual learning across a network of decentralised healthcare units, avoiding identifiable data-sharing capacity, is proposed. Currently available methodologies, such as federated learning and swarm learning, have demonstrated decentralised learning. However, the majority of them face shortcomings that affect their performance and accuracy. These shortcomings include a non-uniform rate of data accumulation, non-uniform patient demographics, biased human labelling, and erroneous or malicious training data. A novel method to reduce such shortcomings is proposed in the present work through selective grouping and displacing of actors in a network of many entities for intra-group sharing of learning with inter-group accessibility. The proposed system, known as Orbital Learning, incorporates various features from split learning and ensemble learning for a robust and secure performance of supervised models. A digital embodiment of the information quality and flow within a decentralised network, this platform also acts as a digital twin of healthcare network. An example of ECG classification for arrhythmia with 6 clients is used to analyse its performance and is compared against federated learning. In this example, four separate experiments are conducted with varied configurations, such as varied age demographics and clients with data tampering. The results obtained show an average area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.819 (95% CI 0.784-0.853) for orbital learning whereas 0.714 (95% CI 0.692-0.736) for federated learning. This result shows an increase in overall performance and establishes that the proposed system can address the majority of the issues faced by existing decentralised learning methodologies. Further, a scalability demo conducted establishes the versatility and scalability of this platform in handling state-of-the-art large language models.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina
14.
Plants (Basel) ; 13(9)2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732452

RESUMO

Over the years, the changes in the agriculture industry have been inevitable, considering the need to feed the growing population. As the world population continues to grow, food security has become challenged. Resources such as arable land and freshwater have become scarce due to quick urbanization in developing countries and anthropologic activities; expanding agricultural production areas is not an option. Environmental and climatic factors such as drought, heat, and salt stresses pose serious threats to food production worldwide. Therefore, the need to utilize the remaining arable land and water effectively and efficiently and to maximize the yield to support the increasing food demand has become crucial. It is essential to develop climate-resilient crops that will outperform traditional crops under any abiotic stress conditions such as heat, drought, and salt, as well as these stresses in any combinations. This review provides a glimpse of how plant breeding in agriculture has evolved to overcome the harsh environmental conditions and what the future would be like.

15.
Small ; : e2401510, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745545

RESUMO

To simulate life's emergent functions, mining the multiple sensing capabilities of nanosystems, and digitizing networks of transduction signals and molecular interactions, is an ongoing endeavor. Here, multifunctional antimonene-silver nanocomposites (AM-Ag NCs) are synthesized facilely and fused for molecular sensing and digitization applications (including ultra-multi-mode and multi-analyte sensing, parallel and batch logic computing, long-text information protection). By mixing surfactant, AM, Ag+ and Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) at room temperature for 5 min, the resulting NCs are comprised of Ag nanoparticles scattered within AM nanosheets and protected by the surfactant. Interestingly, AM-Ag NCs exhibit ultra-multi-mode sensing ability for multiplex metal ions (Hg2+, Fe3+, or Al3+), which significantly improved selectivity (≈2 times) and sensitivity (≈400 times) when analyzing the combined channels. Moreover, multiple sensing capabilities of AM-Ag NCs enable diverse batch and parallel molecular logic computations (including advanced cascaded logic circuits). Ultra-multi-mode selective patterns of AM-Ag NCs to 18 kinds of metal ions can be converted into a series of binary strings by setting the thresholds, and realized high-density, long-text information protection for the first time. This study provides new ideas and paradigms for the preparation and multi-purpose application of 2D nanocomposites, but also offers new directions for the fusion of molecular sensing and informatization.

16.
PNAS Nexus ; 3(5): pgae170, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745567

RESUMO

Lack of nitrogen limits food production in poor countries while excessive nitrogen use in industrial countries has led to transgression of the planetary boundary. However, the potential of spatial redistribution of nitrogen input for food security when returning to the safe boundary has not been quantified in a robust manner. Using an emulator of a global gridded crop model ensemble, we found that redistribution of current nitrogen input to major cereals among countries can double production in the most food-insecure countries, while increasing global production of these crops by 12% with no notable regional loss or reducing the nitrogen input to the current production by one-third. Redistribution of the input within the boundary increased production by 6-8% compared to the current relative distribution, increasing production in the food-insecure countries by two-thirds. Our findings provide georeferenced guidelines for redistributing nitrogen use to enhance food security while safeguarding the planet.

17.
Health Place ; 88: 103251, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744054

RESUMO

Food banks and food pantries are crucial in supporting access to food and addressing food insecurity for millions of people. This scoping review identified eighteen articles that applied spatial analysis approaches to measure access to food banks and food pantries. The review summarizes the methods and primary findings of these studies, and examines how these address different dimensions of food access. Findings suggest that the majority of studies measured the accessibility and availability dimensions of food access, and two addressed accommodation. Through a discussion of these studies' methods and broader literature on food environments, we highlight opportunities to integrate advanced geospatial and mixed methods to support an empirically grounded and broader understanding of food bank and pantry access in future research. This will yield a more holistic picture of food environments and provide practical implications for site selection, resource allocation, and food assistance operations.

18.
Public Health Nutr ; 27(1): e126, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated potential predictors of food insecurity among UK university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Close-ended questionnaire administered to a cross-sectional sample of UK university students. SETTING: Data were collected using an online survey platform in October 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic. PARTICIPANTS: A nationally representative sample of UK university students (n 640). RESULTS: Odds ratios (OR) obtained from logistic regression were statistically significant for three measures of economic hardship. First, students who relied on financial aid from student loans were 1·9 times more likely to report being food insecure than students who did not rely on financial aid from student loans. Second, students who could not pay their utility bill (v. those that could pay) were 3·1 times the odds of being food insecure. Finally, as perceived difficulty in paying for accommodation increased across the sample, the odds of being food insecure also increased (OR = 1·9). We also found that students who were recently ill were 2·2 times more likely to be food insecure compared with students who were not recently ill. We did not find any evidence that testing positive for COVID-19 predicted food insecurity, and university supplied food parcels/boxes did not reduce student food insecurity. CONCLUSIONS: Both economic factors and illness play a significant role in self-reported food insecurity in higher education students during pandemic lockdown. Further research is needed to explore food insecurity, economic factors and illness outside of a pandemic context.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Insegurança Alimentar , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Pandemias , Adolescente , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 933: 173086, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734102

RESUMO

The ecological security (ES) of the reservoir complex ecosystem (RCE) is one of the critical components of watershed water security and sustainable development. Hence, accurately assessing the ES of the RCE is of utmost importance. This study proposed a novel ecological security assessment model based on the improved three-dimensional emergy ecological footprint (ESM-IEEF3D), which integrated various emergy flows during the RCE's construction and operation into a three-dimensional emergy ecological footprint (EEF3D) calculation account. The Three Gorges Project (TGP) is selected as a case study to evaluate the ES from 1993 to 2022 comprehensively. The results showed that the Three Gorges RCE mainly showed an ecological remainder state, and the inflow runoff enormously promoted the TGP's sustainability. The EEF3D indicated a fluctuation decrease trend with a mean value of 7.18 × 102 ha, illustrating that TGP's ecological security and sustainability levels are gradually improving. Regarding the ES evaluation indicators, the TGP's resource dependency and ecological pressure on the natural ecosystem and the external socio-economic system are steadily relieved. Furthermore, the Three Gorges RCE's resource utilization condition is safe, the structural characteristics are healthy, and the eco-economic coordination degree is continuously enlightening. Finally, applicable policy implications for improving the ecological security of Three Gorges RCE were provided. This study helps to understand the complex relationship between humans and ecosystems. It provides a novel framework to be used as an evaluation index and policy insights for hydropower ecological security and sustainable development.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 933: 173151, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735335

RESUMO

The characteristics of cropland development and the dynamics of food production in China and India, the world's largest agricultural and most populous countries, are of great importance to global food security. However, there is a notable lack of a thorough comparison between China and India in this regard. Here, we systematically compare the differences between China and India using cropping intensity and crop production data, including cropland area, harvested area, total staple crop (i.e., cereal crops, tuber crops and pulse crops) production and yield capacity. The results are mainly as follows: (1) Both China and India experienced an increasing trend in cropland area and harvested area from 2001 to 2021, especially notable in India. In China, the cropland area and harvested area increased by 11.76 % and 14.36 %, respectively, while in India, they witnessed a more substantial increase of 31.10 % and 49.32 %, respectively. (2) The cropping intensity underwent significant transformations, primarily shifting between non-cropland, single-cropping, and double-cropping. Northwestern China exhibited a clear trend of non-cropland converting to single-cropping, whereas northeastern China showed a distinct pattern of single-cropping changing to non-cropland. The interconversion between single-cropping and double-cropping was also frequently observed in the main food-producing regions. In India, the cropland expansion and the adoption of double-cropping are highly pronounced, extending widely across most of the country. (3) From 2001 to 2021, the total staple crop production in China and India increased by 34.12 % and 55.81 %, respectively. Despite the rapid growth in India's total staple crop production, it still amounts to only about half of China's. The major crops production also showed different trends, China's cereal crops production increased significantly, while tuber and pulse crops production declined, and India's production of cereal, tuber, and pulse crops has all increased (4) China's yield capacity has increased by 17.28 %, while India's has only grown by 4.35 %. Despite the rapid increase in India's total staple crop production, the yield gap with China has widened. The boost in China's total staple crop production mainly resulted from improved yield capacity, whereas India relied more on the cropland area expansion, especially the increase in harvested area. Our comprehensive comparison of China and India in cropland development and staple crop production contributes to a deep understanding of the differences in agricultural production between the two countries, and provides lessons for global food security and sustainable agricultural development.

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