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1.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-14, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765512

RESUMO

A huge amount of rice cultivation and consumption occur in Asia particularly in Pakistan and China. However, multiple abiotic stresses especially high and low-temperature proved to be a substantial threat for rice production ultimately risks for food security. To overcome various types of abiotic stress; seed priming is among the effective approaches to improve the rice seed germination and growth vigor. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate physiological and biochemical modifications in Chinese and Pakistani rice varieties by Qiangdi 863 biological assistant growth apparatus nano treated water (NTW), Osmo priming Calcium chloride (CaCl2), redoxpriming hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hormonal priming by Salicylic acid (SA) under temperature stress conditions. The experiment was performed with completely randomize design conditions. Five rice varieties, nomenclature as Zhongzoa 39, (Chinese rice variety) KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati and PK 1121 aromatic (Pakistani rice variety) were sown under low temperature (LT) (17ºC), optimal temperature (OT) 27ºC and high temperature (HT) 37ºC conditions. The present study indicated that nanopriming were the most effective treatments increased Germination Energy Percentage (GEP) (96.1, 100, 100%), Speed of Germination (SG) (27.2, 35.45, 37.1), Final Germination Percentage (FGP) (98.2, 99.1, 99.4%), Seedling Dry Weight Biomass (DWB) (0.1, 0.137, 0.14g), Total Chlorophyll Content (0.502, 13.74, 15.21), antioxidant enzymes Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)(3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh-1), Catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) and decreased Malondialdehyde (MDA) (6.5, 12.2, 6.5 µmol g-1 FW) for Zhongzao 39 and KSK 133 rice varieties under low (LT+NTW), optimal temperature (OP+NTW) and high temperature (HT+NTW) stress., Therefore, nano-priming is recommended to cope with the high and low-temperature stress conditions along with improved productivity of rice.(AU)


Cultivo e consumo de arroz ocorrem em grandes quantidades na Ásia, particularmente no Paquistão e na China. No entanto, vários estresses abióticos, especialmente de alta e baixa temperatura, provaram ser uma ameaça considerável para a produção de arroz, em última análise, riscos para a segurança alimentar. Para superar vários tipos de estresse abiótico, o priming de sementes está entre as abordagens eficazes que melhoram a germinação e o vigor de crescimento das sementes de arroz. Portanto, o presente estudo foi planejado para avaliar as modificações fisiológicas e bioquímicas em variedades de arroz chinês e paquistanês por Qiangdi 863, aparelho assistente biológico de crescimento com água nanotratada (NTW), Osmopriming cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2), peróxido de hidrogênio redox (H2O2) e priming hormonal por ácido salicílico (SA) em condições de estresse de temperatura. O experimento foi realizado em condições de delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Cinco variedades de arroz, nomenclaturas como Zhongzoa 39 (variedade de arroz chinês), KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati e PK 1121 aromático (variedade de arroz do Paquistão) foram semeadas sob baixa temperatura (LT) (17 ºC), temperatura ótima (OT) 27 ºC e condições de alta temperatura (HT) 37 ºC. O presente estudo indicou que nanocondicionamento foi o tratamento mais eficaz: aumento da porcentagem de energia de germinação (GEP) (96,1%, 100%, 100%), velocidade de germinação (SG) (27,2, 35,45, 37,1), porcentagem de germinação final (FGP) (98,2%, 99,1%, 99,4%), biomassa de peso seco de mudas (DWB) (0,1 g, 0,137 g, 0,14 g), conteúdo total de clorofila (0,502, 13,74, 15,21), enzimas antioxidantes superóxido dismutase (SOD) (3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh- 1), catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) e malondialdeído diminuído (MDA) (6,5, 12,2, 6,5 µmol g-1 FW) para as variedades de arroz Zhongzao 39 e KSK 133 sob baixo (LT + NTW), temperatura ótima (OP + NTW) e estresse de alta temperatura [...].(AU)


Assuntos
Oryza/fisiologia , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Estresse Fisiológico
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245206, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339387

RESUMO

Abstract A huge amount of rice cultivation and consumption occur in Asia particularly in Pakistan and China. However, multiple abiotic stresses especially high and low-temperature proved to be a substantial threat for rice production ultimately risks for food security. To overcome various types of abiotic stress; seed priming is among the effective approaches to improve the rice seed germination and growth vigor. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate physiological and biochemical modifications in Chinese and Pakistani rice varieties by Qiangdi 863 biological assistant growth apparatus nano treated water (NTW), Osmopriming Calcium chloride (CaCl2), redox priming hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hormonal priming by Salicylic acid (SA) under temperature stress conditions. The experiment was performed with completely randomize design conditions. Five rice varieties, nomenclature as Zhongzoa 39, (Chinese rice variety) KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati and PK 1121 aromatic (Pakistani rice variety) were sown under low temperature (LT) (17ºC), optimal temperature (OT) 27ºC and high temperature (HT) 37ºC conditions. The present study indicated that nanopriming were the most effective treatments increased Germination Energy Percentage (GEP) (96.1, 100, 100%), Speed of Germination (SG) (27.2, 35.45, 37.1), Final Germination Percentage (FGP) (98.2, 99.1, 99.4%), Seedling Dry Weight Biomass (DWB) (0.1, 0.137, 0.14g), Total Chlorophyll Content (0.502, 13.74, 15.21), antioxidant enzymes Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)(3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh-1), Catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) and decreased Malondialdehyde (MDA) (6.5, 12.2, 6.5 µmol g-1 FW) for Zhongzao 39 and KSK 133 rice varieties under low (LT+NTW), optimal temperature (OP+NTW) and high temperature (HT+NTW) stress., Therefore, nano-priming is recommended to cope with the high and low-temperature stress conditions along with improved productivity of rice.


Resumo Cultivo e consumo de arroz ocorrem em grandes quantidades na Ásia, particularmente no Paquistão e na China. No entanto, vários estresses abióticos, especialmente de alta e baixa temperatura, provaram ser uma ameaça considerável para a produção de arroz, em última análise, riscos para a segurança alimentar. Para superar vários tipos de estresse abiótico, o priming de sementes está entre as abordagens eficazes que melhoram a germinação e o vigor de crescimento das sementes de arroz. Portanto, o presente estudo foi planejado para avaliar as modificações fisiológicas e bioquímicas em variedades de arroz chinês e paquistanês por Qiangdi 863, aparelho assistente biológico de crescimento com água nanotratada (NTW), Osmopriming cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2), peróxido de hidrogênio redox (H2O2) e priming hormonal por ácido salicílico (SA) em condições de estresse de temperatura. O experimento foi realizado em condições de delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Cinco variedades de arroz, nomenclaturas como Zhongzoa 39 (variedade de arroz chinês), KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati e PK 1121 aromático (variedade de arroz do Paquistão) foram semeadas sob baixa temperatura (LT) (17 ºC), temperatura ótima (OT) 27 ºC e condições de alta temperatura (HT) 37 ºC. O presente estudo indicou que nanocondicionamento foi o tratamento mais eficaz: aumento da porcentagem de energia de germinação (GEP) (96,1%, 100%, 100%), velocidade de germinação (SG) (27,2, 35,45, 37,1), porcentagem de germinação final (FGP) (98,2%, 99,1%, 99,4%), biomassa de peso seco de mudas (DWB) (0,1 g, 0,137 g, 0,14 g), conteúdo total de clorofila (0,502, 13,74, 15,21), enzimas antioxidantes superóxido dismutase (SOD) (3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh- 1), catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) e malondialdeído diminuído (MDA) (6,5, 12,2, 6,5 µmol g-1 FW) para as variedades de arroz Zhongzao 39 e KSK 133 sob baixo (LT + NTW), temperatura ótima (OP + NTW) e estresse de alta temperatura (HT + NTW). Portanto, o nanopriming é recomendado para lidar com as condições de estresse de alta e baixa temperatura, juntamente com a produtividade aprimorada do arroz.


Assuntos
Oryza , Sementes , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura , Germinação , Plântula , Peróxido de Hidrogênio
3.
Int J Phytoremediation ; : 1-20, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549957

RESUMO

Unexpected bioaccumulation and biomagnification of heavy metal(loid)s (HMs) in the environment have become a predicament for all living organisms, including plants. The presence of these HMs in the plant system raised the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and remodeled several vital cellular biomolecules. These lead to several morphological, physiological, metabolic, and molecular aberrations in plants ranging from chlorosis of leaves to the lipid peroxidation of membranes, and degradation of proteins and nucleic acid including the modulation of the enzymatic system, which ultimately affects the plant growth and productivity. Plants are equipped with several mechanisms to counteract the HMs toxicity. Among them, seed priming (SP) technology has been widely tested with the use of several inorganic chemicals, plant growth regulators (PGRs), gasotransmitters, nanoparticles, living organisms, and plant leaf extracts. The use of these compounds has the potential to alleviate the HMs toxicity through the strengthening of the antioxidant defense system, generation of low molecular weight metallothionein's (MTs), and phytochelatins (PCs), and improving seedling vigor during early growth stages. This review presents an account of the sources, uptake and transport, and phytotoxic effects of HMs with special attention to different mechanism/s, occurring to mitigate the HMs toxicity in plants employing SP technology.Novelty statement: To the best of our knowledge, this review has delineated the consequences of HMs on the crucial plant processes, which ultimately affect plant growth and development. This review also compiled the up to dated information on phytotoxicity of HMs through the use of SP technology, this review discussed how different types of SP approaches help in diminishing the concentration HMs in plant systems. Also, we depicted mechanisms, represent how HMs transport and their actions on cellular levels, and emphasized, how diverse SP technology effectiveness in the mitigation of plants' phytotoxicity in unique ways.

4.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 29(4): 2253-2261, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531255

RESUMO

Introduction: Bacterial spot disease of tomato was identified a few decades ago. The varying point of entry for the pathogen has enhanced the complexities for designing an effective disease management method. Recent advances in the use of inducers to elicit immune response in order to prepare the plant for a future attack by the pathogen are similar to the vaccination that is undertaken in humans and is a trending technology. Objectives: The present study aims at understanding the effect of salicylic acid (SA) for management of bacterial spot disease caused by Xanthomonas perforans. Methods: The study evaluated the effects of SA on the disease incidence along with seed germination and seedling vigor in two cultivars of tomato namely, Sun hybrid- resistant variety (R) and Quality- highly susceptible variety(HS). Results: The germination and seedling vigor, which was reduced in case of HS variety in comparison with that of the R variety, was notably improved after seed priming in both the cultivars. The antioxidant enzyme activities of ascorbate peroxidise (APx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) were assessed which showed that the R variety reached maximum activity at 18 h post inoculation (hpi), 24 hpi and 21 hpi, respectively, whereas the HS variety reached maximum at 30 hpi for APx and 36 hpi for CAT and GR activities. The transcript accumulation using qRT-PCR was also evaluated showing mRNA accumulation was maximum in the R cultivar after SA priming at 1.5 mM concentration. Conclusion: the present study demonstrates the potential benefits of seed priming with SA to effectively elicit defence response in tomato seedlings against the bacterial spot disease.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563577

RESUMO

Abiotic stresses are the major environmental factors that play a significant role in decreasing plant yield and production potential by influencing physiological, biochemical, and molecular processes. Abiotic stresses and global population growth have prompted scientists to use beneficial strategies to ensure food security. The use of organic compounds to improve tolerance to abiotic stresses has been considered for many years. For example, the application of potential external osmotic protective compounds such as proline is one of the approaches to counteract the adverse effects of abiotic stresses on plants. Proline level increases in plants in response to environmental stress. Proline accumulation is not just a signal of tension. Rather, according to research discussed in this article, this biomolecule improves plant resistance to abiotic stress by rising photosynthesis, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activity, regulating osmolyte concentration, and sodium and potassium homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the biosynthesis, sensing, signaling, and transport of proline and its role in the development of various plant tissues, including seeds, floral components, and vegetative tissues. Further, the impacts of exogenous proline utilization under various non-living stresses such as drought, salinity, high and low temperatures, and heavy metals have been extensively studied. Numerous various studies have shown that exogenous proline can improve plant growth, yield, and stress tolerance under adverse environmental factors.

6.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 881039, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574088

RESUMO

Seed germination is the sensitive period to salt stress. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) has been proved as an effective priming agent which can promote the sorghum germination under salt stress. However, there are few reports on CaCl2 priming to improve the salt tolerance during seed germination. The present study investigated the effects of CaCl2 priming on sorghum germination, antioxidant metabolism, osmotic regulation and ion balance under salt stress (150 mM NaCl). The results revealed that the salt stress inhibited the elongation of mesocotyl and root and reduced the germination rate of sorghum. While CaCl2 priming significantly promoted the elongation of mesocotyl and root, and increased the germination rate of sorghum under salt stress. CaCl2 priming notably increased the content of osmotic substances in mesocotyl and root of sorghum under salt stress, and increased the relative water content in these tissues. CaCl2 priming decreased Na+ content and increased K+, Ca2+ contents and the K+/ Na+ in mesocotyl and root, such effects might be induced by up-regulating the expression of NHX2, NHX4, SOS1, AKT1, AKT2, HKT1, HAK1, and KUP. CaCl2 priming reduced the antioxidant enzymes activities and related gene expression compared with untreated sorghum seeds under salt stress. In short, CaCl2 priming improved sorghum germination by enhancing osmotic regulation and ion balance instead of antioxidant enzyme activity. However, the molecular mechanisms of Ca2+ signaling induced by CaCl2 priming in association with the enhanced germination in primed sorghum seeds under salt stress need to be addressed in future studies.

7.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 29(6): 103294, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574280

RESUMO

Improving physio-biochemical traits in wheat under drought stress conditions has received more research attention in recent years for better adaptability and higher yield. In this study, we explored the potential bio-physiological mechanisms underlying improved plant growth and water use efficiency in wheat following soil application of potassium (0 and 100 kg ha-1) and seed primed salicylic acid (SA) (150 mg per L) and SA foliar application (100 mg per L) under drought stresses (100%, 60% and 30% FC). Two years' average data revealed that inducing drought stress resulted in a decrease in plant pigments content, growth traits, and plant water status however, the influence was substantially reduced with the combined application of K and SA under drought stress conditions. The SA foliar spray in combination with K had increased chlorophyll a (174% and 83%), chl b (130% and 192%), chl a + b (156% and 120), carotenoid (22% and 11%), proline contents (24% and 29%) leaf relative water content (24% and 29%) while reduced leaf WSD (17% and 20%), WRC (6% and 7%), and WUC (23% and 28%) under mild and severe drought stresses, respectively. The increase in grain yield by 41% and 37% with enhanced water use efficiency was obtained with combined foliar SA and K under mild and severe drought stress, respectively indicating its vital role in overcoming the deleterious effects of drought via regulation of osmotic and metabolic processes and stabilizes cell components. RDA analysis revealed that the studied traits were completely discriminated under severe stress than mild or no drought stress. A positive and significant association was found between plant pigments with seed yield whereas a negative and significant correlation existed between water leaf traits and plant pigments. It was concluded that both foliar SA and seed primed SA with K fertilization combat the adverse effects of drought and improved plant water status as well as growth and bio-physiological traits of wheat under drought stress conditions.

8.
J Chem Ecol ; 48(4): 441-454, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394556

RESUMO

A striking feature of plant ecology is the ability of plants to detect and respond to environmental cues such as herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) by priming or directly activating defenses against future herbivores. However, whether seeds also respond to compounds that are common constituents of HIPV blends and initiate future plant resistance is unknown. Considering that seeds depend on other environmental cues to determine basic survival traits such as germination timing, we predicted that seeds exposed to synthetic constituents of HIPV blends would generate well-defended plants. We investigated the effect of seed exposure to common volatiles on growth, reproduction, and resistance characteristics in the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula using herbivores from two feeding guilds. After seed scarification and vernalization, we treated seeds with one of seven different plant-derived volatile compounds for 24 h. Seeds were then germinated and the resulting plants were assayed for growth, herbivore resistance, and expression of inducible defense genes. Of all the synthetic volatiles tested, indole specifically reduced both beet armyworm growth on A. thaliana and pea aphid fecundity on M. truncatula. The induction of defense genes was not affected by seed exposure to indole in either plant species, indicating that activation of direct resistance rather than inducible resistance is the mechanism by which seed priming operates. Moreover, neither plant species showed any negative effect of seed exposure to any synthetic volatile on vegetative and reproductive growth. Rather, M. truncatula plants derived from seeds exposed to (Z)-3-hexanol and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate grew larger compared to controls. Our results indicate that seeds are sensitive to specific volatiles in ways that enhance resistance profiles with no apparent costs in terms of growth. Seed priming by HIPVs may represent a novel ecological mechanism of plant-to-plant interactions, with broad potential applications in agriculture and seed conservation.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Acetatos , Indóis/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
9.
Physiol Mol Biol Plants ; 28(2): 363-381, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400882

RESUMO

In the present study, green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) using Eucalyptus lanceolatus (leaf litter) extract was explored after characterization with UV spectrophotometery, Fourier Transform Infrared analysis, X-ray diffraction and TEM studies. ZnO NPs stability was ensured with - 32.1 mV zeta potential, while TEM showed ZnO NP as hexagonal structure (100 nm). In vitro antimicrobial activity showed potential of ZnO NP against pathogens causing diseases in maize plants. Both in vitro and in vivo studies of ZnO NP and ZnSO4 (200 ppm and 400 ppm) over a two year period (2019, 2020) were conducted on Zea mays L. var. PG2458. ZnO NP seed priming improved seed vigor index, germination percentage, shoot and root length and fresh biomass. Foliar application improved stem diameter and leaf surface area. Physiological status was relatively better, while reproductive attributes got altered to guide resource allocation for better cob growth and biomass with ZnO NP. Leaf, cob, grain and total Zn was maximum for 200 ppm ZnO NP. Translocation of Zn from leaf to cob and cob to grain was faster for ZnO NP compared to ZnSO4. Higher concentration (400 ppm) of ZnO NPs and ZnSO4 proved phytotoxic for plant growth attributes. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12298-022-01136-0.

10.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 799404, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35463399

RESUMO

Secondary metabolites, such as phenolic compounds, play an important role in alleviating salinity-induced negative effects in plants. The present study focused on seed priming and foliar application of a potent phenolic compound, coumarin, to induce salinity tolerance in Sorghum bicolor var. SS-77. Based on pilot experiment, 100 mg L-1 concentration of coumarin was applied to mitigate the negative effects of salinity on Sorghum, grown at 0, 100, and 200 mM NaCl under netted greenhouse conditions. Coumarin was applied to each salinity treatment in four different ways (i) non-primed control (NP), (ii) seed priming (COP), (iii) foliar application (COF), and (iv) a combination of seed priming and foliar application (COPF). Salinity stress significantly reduced the plant growth, biochemical attributes, and photosynthetic efficiency of Sorghum, whereas coumarin treatments (COP, COF, and COPF) showed a significant increase (P< 0.01) in above-mentioned parameters at all salinities. Among all, the combined treatment (COPF) showed maximum increase in growth, biochemicals, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzymes, and photosynthetic efficiency parameters. Therefore, it is suggested that a combination of seed priming and foliar spray of 10 mg L-1 coumarin is more suitable than their individual applications. It is an environment friendly and economically feasible approach that will be used to improve salinity tolerance of Sorghum and helpful to get considerable biomass from saline degraded lands to fulfill food, fodder, and energy demands of the ever-growing population.

11.
Physiol Mol Biol Plants ; 28(3): 607-622, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35465200

RESUMO

This study aimed to rigorously investigate and integrate the underlying hypothesis that an enhancing effect of gibberellic acid (GA3, 3 µM) with increased growth actually leads to a modification of the physiological role of polyamines during salinity stress (NaCl, 100 mM) in fennel. These analyses concern both reserve tissues (cotyledons) and embryonic axes in growth. Physiological results indicate a restriction of germination, growth, mineral nutrition and damages to membranes of salt-treated seedlings. This was partially attenuated in seedlings treated with an interaction effect of GA3 and NaCl. Peroxidase and catalase activities showed a reduction or an augmentation according to the treatments and organs. The three main polyamines (PA): putrescine, spermidine and spermine were elevated in the salt-treated seedlings. Meanwhile, GA3 seed priming was extremely efficient in reducing PA levels in salt-stressed seedlings compared to the control. Response of PA genes to salinity was variable. Up-regulation was noted for SPMS1, ODC1, and ADC1 in hypocotyls and cotyledons (H + C) and down-regulation for SAMDC1 in the radicle. Interaction of salt/GA3 treatment showed different responses, only ODC1 in (H + C) and ADC1 in both radicle and (H + C) were overexpressed. Concerning other genes, no change in mRNA abundance was observed in both organs compared to the salt-treated seedlings. From these results, it could be inferred that the fennel seedlings were NaCl sensitive. This sensitivity was mitigated when GA3 applied for seed priming and applied in combination with NaCl, which resulted in a reduction of the PA content. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12298-022-01140-4.

12.
Rice (N Y) ; 15(1): 19, 2022 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344097

RESUMO

Chilling stress is the major abiotic stress that severely limited the seedling establishment of direct-seeded rice in temperate and sub-tropical rice production regions. While seed priming is an efficient pre-sowing seed treatment in enhancing crop establishment under abiotic stress. Our previous research has identified two seed priming treatments, selenium priming (Se) and salicylic priming (SA) that effectively improved the seed germination and seedling growth of rice under chilling stress. To further explore how seed priming enhance the starch degradation of rice seeds under chilling stress, the present study evaluated the effects of Se and SA priming on germination and seedling growth, α-amylase activity, total soluble sugar content, hormone content and associated gene relative expression under chilling stress. The results showed that both Se and SA priming significantly increased the seed germination and seedling growth attributes, and enhanced the starch degradation ability by increasing α-amylase activity and total soluble sugar content under chilling stress. Meanwhile, seed priming increased the transcription level of OsRamy1A, OsRamy3B that regulated by GA, and increased the transcription level of OsRamy3E that regulated by sugar signals. Furthermore, seed priming significantly improved the GA3 contents in rice seeds by up-regulating the expression of OsGA3ox1 and OsGA20ox1, and decreased the ABA content and the expression of OsNCED1, indicating that the improved starch degradation ability in primed rice seeds under chilling stress might be attributed to the increased GA3 and decreased ABA levels in primed rice seeds, which induced the expression of GA-mediated α-amylase. However, studies to explore how seed priming mediate hormonal metabolism and the expression of OsRamy3E are desperately needed.

13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 179: 65-77, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35316694

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) contamination dramatically affects crop growth and thus threatens crop production; while applications of melatonin (MT) serve as an effective way to tolerate Cu stress for plant development, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown in rice. Here, we found that Cu toxicity remarkably decreased germination rates and seedling growth compared to the untreated control (CK), while seed priming with a solution of 100 µM MT significantly alleviated the adverse effects on Cu-stressed seeds. In addition, the MT treatment decreased the accumulation of Cu in seedlings at 7 days after imbibition (DAI), possibly through enhanced Cu sequestration, and improved reserve mobilization through the promoted activity of α-amylase and protease in seeds under Cu stress. Interestingly, gibberellin (GA) synthesis was restored to or even exceeded the CK levels in the MT presoaking treatment, while the abscisic acid (ABA) content decreased compared to those of the Cu-stressed seeds, suggesting crosstalk between MT and other phytohormones, e.g., GA and ABA. More importantly, MT pretreatment also significantly promoted the growth of postgermination seedlings. This was largely ascribed to the MT-ameliorated antioxidant system, which consequently reduced the accumulation of Cu stress-induced oxidative products, e.g., hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide (O2·_). Collectively, these results demonstrate that seed priming with MT could greatly mitigate the adverse effects of Cu stress on seed germination and subsequent postgermination growth through crosstalk among various defensive response pathways. This study provides vital guidance for applications of MT in agronomic production.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Oryza , Cobre/metabolismo , Germinação , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo
14.
Chemosphere ; 295: 133829, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35120959

RESUMO

Sustainable and cost-effective methods are required to increase the food production and decrease the toxic effects of heavy metals. Most of the agriculture land is contaminated with cadmium (Cd). The present study was designed to minimize the toxic effect of Cd stress (0, 10 and 20 mg kg1-) on tolerant and sensitive varieties of wheat (Punjab-2011; Sammar) and rice (Kisan Basmati; Chenab) under Zn-lysine (Zn-lys) application as foliar spray (0, 12.5 and 25 mM) and seed priming (0, 3 and 6 ppm). Remarkable decrease was observed in plant growth, physiology and biochemistry as well as increase in Cd uptake, roots to shoots and grains of both crops. Cd significantly reduced the root and shoot lengths, root and shoot dry weights, transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency as well as chlorophyll contents associated with enhanced electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 and Cd uptake in different plant parts including grains of both crop varieties. The foliar application of Zn-lys (0, 12.5 and 25 mM) ameliorated the toxic effect of Cd on growth and physiology associated with decrease in EL, MDA and H2O2 and improved the activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX enzymes with decreasing Cd uptake in tolerant varieties of wheat and rice as compared to seed priming. Furthermore, it has been investigated that the foliar application of Zn-lys is effective to improve quality of wheat and rice tolerant varieties (Punjab-2011 and Chenab) under Cd contamination soils.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Lisina/farmacologia , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triticum , Zinco/análise , Zinco/farmacologia
15.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(4)2022 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35214902

RESUMO

With the growing interest of society in healthy eating, the interest in fresh, ready-to-eat, functional food, such as microscale vegetables (sprouted seeds and microgreens), has been on the rise in recent years globally. This review briefly describes the crops commonly used for microscale vegetable production, highlights Brassica vegetables because of their health-promoting secondary metabolites (polyphenols, glucosinolates), and looks at consumer acceptance of sprouts and microgreens. Apart from the main crops used for microscale vegetable production, landraces, wild food plants, and crops' wild relatives often have high phytonutrient density and exciting flavors and tastes, thus providing the scope to widen the range of crops and species used for this purpose. Moreover, the nutritional value and content of phytochemicals often vary with plant growth and development within the same crop. Sprouted seeds and microgreens are often more nutrient-dense than ungerminated seeds or mature vegetables. This review also describes the environmental and priming factors that may impact the nutritional value and content of phytochemicals of microscale vegetables. These factors include the growth environment, growing substrates, imposed environmental stresses, seed priming and biostimulants, biofortification, and the effect of light in controlled environments. This review also touches on microgreen market trends. Due to their short growth cycle, nutrient-dense sprouts and microgreens can be produced with minimal input; without pesticides, they can even be home-grown and harvested as needed, hence having low environmental impacts and a broad acceptance among health-conscious consumers.

16.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(3)2022 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35159913

RESUMO

Nanotechnologies are attracting attention in various scientific fields for their technological and application potential, including their use as bio-activators and nanocarriers in agriculture. This work aimed to synthesize a hybrid material (ZnO@LNP) consisting of lignin nanoparticles containing zinc oxide (4 wt %). The synthesized ZnO hybrid material showed catalytic effect toward thermal degradation, as evidenced by the TGA investigation, while both spectroscopic and contact angle measurements confirmed a modification of surface hydrophilicity for the lignin nanoparticles due to the presence of hydrophobic zinc oxide. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the ZnO@LNP and the zinc release of this material were evaluated. At the application level, this study proposes for the first time the use of such a hybrid system to prime maize seeds by exploiting the release characteristics of this material. Concerning the dosage applied, ZnO@LNP promoted inductive effects on the early stages of seed development and plant growth and biomass development of young seedlings. In particular, the ZnO@LNP stimulated, in the primed seeds, a higher content of chlorophyll, carotenoids, anthocyanins, total phenols, and a better antioxidant activity, as supported by the lower levels of lipid peroxidation found when compared to the control samples.

17.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(3)2022 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35161431

RESUMO

Sulfur is a growth-limiting and secondary macronutrient as well as an indispensable component for several cellular components of crop plants. Over the years various scientists have conducted several experiments on sulfur metabolism based on different aspects of plants. Sulfur metabolism in seeds has immense importance in terms of the different sulfur-containing seed storage proteins, the significance of transporters in seeds, the role of sulfur during the time of seed germination, etc. The present review article is based on an overview of sulfur metabolism in seeds, in respect to source to sink relationships, S transporters present in the seeds, S-regulated seed storage proteins and the importance of sulfur at the time of seed germination. Sulfur is an essential component and a decidable factor for seed yield and the quality of seeds in terms of oil content in oilseeds, storage of qualitative proteins in legumes and has a significant role in carbohydrate metabolism in cereals. In conclusion, a few future perspectives towards a more comprehensive knowledge on S metabolism/mechanism during seed development, storage and germination have also been stated.

18.
Plant Direct ; 6(1): e378, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35079684

RESUMO

Prevalent irregular rainfall, flooding for weed control, and unleveled fields in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River all contribute to flooding stress on germination and growth of direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.). Herein, some experiments were conducted so as to assess the effects of seed priming with selenium (Se) on the germination and growth of rice under hypoxia. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized factorial design with two factors and five replicates. Factors included Se concentration (0, 30, and 60 µmol/L) and duration of flooding stress (0, 2, 4, and 8 days). The experimental results showed that Se accelerated seed germination and increased emergence index and final emergence percentage. Additionally, Se increased shoot and root lengths and dry weights, but high Se concentration (60 µmol/L) reduced 18-day-old seedling dry weight under long-term flooding (8 days). Furthermore, Se reduced malondialdehyde content and increased starch hydrolysis efficiency in seeds, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities and seedling soluble protein and total chlorophyll contents. Se improved seedling total Se and organic Se contents while increasing total dry weight and yield. Notably, the highest yield was obtained after a 4-day flooding period. Although Se priming favored rice seedling emergence and growth under flooding conditions, Se concentrations equal or above 60 µmol/L increased the risk of seedling death during long-term flooding (≥8 days).

19.
Planta ; 255(2): 45, 2022 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066685

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Environmental-friendly techniques based on plant stress memory, cross-stress tolerance, and seed priming help sustainable agriculture by mitigating negative effects of dehydration stress. The frequently uneven rainfall distribution caused by global warming will lead to more irregular and multiple abiotic stresses, such as heat stress, dehydration stress, cold stress or the combination of these stresses. Dehydration stress is one of the major environmental factors affecting the survival rate and productivity of plants. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop improved resilient varieties. Presently, technologies based on plant stress memory, cross-stress tolerance and priming of seeds represent fruitful and promising areas of future research and applied agricultural science. In this review, we will provide an overview of plant drought stress memory from physiological, biochemical, molecular and epigenetic perspectives. Drought priming-induced cross-stress tolerance to cold and heat stress will be discussed and the application of seed priming will be illustrated for different species.


Assuntos
Secas , Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Sementes , Estresse Fisiológico
20.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 20(3): 485-498, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665915

RESUMO

Seed vigour is an imperative trait for the direct seeding of rice. In this study, we examined the genetic regulation of seedling percentage at the early germination using a genome-wide association study in rice. One major quantitative trait loci qSP3 for seedling percentage was identified, and the candidate gene was validated as qSP3, encoding a cupin domain protein OsCDP3.10 for the synthesis of 52 kDa globulin. Disruption of this gene in Oscdp3.10 mutants reduced the seed vigour, including the germination potential and seedling percentage, at the early germination in rice. The lacking accumulation of 52 kDa globulin was observed in the mature grains of the Oscdp3.10 mutants. The significantly lower amino acid contents were observed in the mature grains and the early germinating seeds of the Oscdp3.10 mutants compared with those of wild-type. Rice OsCDP3.10 regulated seed vigour mainly via modulating the amino acids e.g. Met, Glu, His, and Tyr that contribute to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) accumulation in the germinating seeds. These results provide important insights into the application of seed priming with the amino acids and the selection of OsCDP3.10 to improve seed vigour in rice.


Assuntos
Oryza , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Germinação/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
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