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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38946667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on stakeholder conversations, speech and language therapists have anecdotally observed cases of dysphagia with suspected laryngeal hypersensitivity. These presentations have been coined as 'muscle tension dysphagia' often with concurrent laryngeal sensitivity symptoms. However, the role of laryngeal hypersensitivity in dysphagia is not fully understood. Knowledge user engagement highlights a lack of clarity around diagnosis and investigative approaches, limited clinical guidance and inconsistent practice, which leads to inequity in service delivery and care. AIM: To identify and present the published literature regarding the definitions and clinical identification tools used during the management of laryngeal hypersensitivity related dysphagia. METHODS & PROCEDURES: A scoping review was conducted following Joanna Briggs Institute methodology and EQUATOR PRISMA-ScR guidance. Patient and stakeholder engagement was embedded at each review stage. The protocol was registered with the Open Science Framework: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/CUXYN. A multidatabase search strategy identified literature published between 2012 and 2022. A narrative description was used to report the study findings. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: The search identified 2590 citations. The full paper screening was completed on 88 studies, with 17 studies included in data extraction. There was a wide range of terminology and assessment approaches which varied across different clinical settings. The most cited term was 'muscle tension dysphagia'. The most common assessments tools were videofluoroscopy, fibreoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and videostroboscopy, predominantly used in speech and language therapy and/or Ear, Nose and Throat settings. Gastroesophageal and respiratory investigations were less frequently cited. MAIN CONTRIBUTION: This review details the current evidence related to the terminology and assessment tools cited in laryngeal hypersensitivity related dysphagia to improve clinician knowledge and understanding. Patient and stakeholder involvement indicated that future research needs to: optimize consensus of terminology, and improve consistent identification methods, service provision and treatment approaches. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: This review highlights the lack of consistent terminology across the literature. A wide range of assessment tools report nonspecific positive clinical features and a lack of significant instrumental assessment findings. Patients and stakeholders identify the research priorities should improve clinician awareness, knowledge, guidance and evidence to support patient care. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: What is already known on the subject Swallowing difficulties can occur in adults for a number of different reasons, such as neurological, respiratory or physiological conditions. Swallowing difficulties with no evidence of biomechanical or structural impairment on instrumental assessment and of unknown cause (termed idiopathic functional dysphagia or medically unexplained dysphagia) is a poorly understood phenomenon. More recently, concurrent oropharyngeal dysphagia and laryngeal hypersensitivity and/or muscle tension have been posited as a potential underlying mechanism. What this study adds to the existing knowledge This scoping review contributes to our expanding knowledge of the role of laryngeal hypersensitivity in dysphagia by providing an overview of the current evidence related to the terminology and assessment tools reported in the literature. Embedded patient and stakeholder involvement further deepens real-world insights into the increased referrals for these individuals with increasing uncertainty in how to best assess, manage and support patients. Patients equally have reported that reduced professional awareness and inequalities in service delivery pathways result in poor patient experience and quality of life, and healthcare economic burden. What are the potential or actual clinical implications of this work? This scoping review draws our attention to an area of practice which has received little attention in both clinical practice and academic research. First, the study raises awareness of this population and the impact for services, speech and language therapists and clinicians; and second, highlights evidence-practice gaps with seldom consistency in the use of terminology and assessment approaches. The study provides priority research themes to expand our knowledge and understanding, as guided by the literature and patient and stakeholder input.

2.
Laryngoscope ; 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38963230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vocal tremor (VT) poses treatment challenges due to uncertain pathophysiology. VT is typically classified into two phenotypes: isolated vocal tremor (iVT) and essential tremor-related voice tremor (ETvt). The impact of phenotypes on upper aerodigestive tract physiology during swallowing remains unclear. Qualitative and quantitative measures were employed to characterize tremor phenotypes and investigate the effects on swallowing physiology. METHODS: Eleven ETvt participants (1 Male, 10 Female; x̄ age = 74) and 8 iVT participants (1 Male, 7 Female; x̄ age = 71) swallowed 20 mL boluses in cued and uncued conditions under standardized fluoroscopic visualization. Sustained/a/productions were captured to assess the rate and extent of fundamental frequency (F0) modulation. Penetration and Aspiration Scale (PAS) scores were obtained and swallowing biomechanics were captured using Swallowtail™ software. Participants also completed the Swallowing Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL) questionnaire. RESULTS: Hypopharyngeal transit was faster in both VT phenotypes compared with Swallowtail™ normative reference data. Total pharyngeal transit times, however, were only faster in patients with iVT, relative to reference data. No significant differences were observed on the SWAL-QOL or PAS between tremor phenotypes. SWAL-QOL scores revealed that these patients rarely reported dysphagia symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Subtle differences in swallowing patterns were observed across VT phenotypes, possibly related to adaptive mechanisms resulting in quicker pharyngeal bolus transit. Most patients did not report swallowing issues or dysphagia symptoms. This study is foundational for larger studies on this challenging population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2024.

3.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 55(3): 769-776, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948293

RESUMO

Objective: To experimentally validate the effects of a self-developed heat-stable thickening agent on the textual characteristics of enteral nutrition solutions of standard concentration and its applicability in improving dysphagia. Methods: A gradient of different doses of the self-developed thickening agent (1.0 g, 1.5 g, 2.0 g, 2.5 g, and3.0 g) and three commonly used commercial thickeners were mixed with 23.391 g of a complete nutrition formula powder dissolved in 85 mL of purified water to prepare 100 mL standard concentration nutrition solutions. The textual parameters (cohesiveness, viscosity, thickness, and hardness) of these nutrition solutions were measured using a texture analyzer at various temperature gradients (20 ℃, 40 ℃, 60 ℃, and 80 ℃) to compare their thermal stability. A dysphagia rat model was created via epiglottectomy to explore the effects of the thickener on lung tissue damage scores and levels of inflammatory markers. The rats were divided into a test intervention group, a positive control group, a negative control group, and a blank control group (no surgery and normal feeding after fasting for one day), with 15 rats in each group. After fasting for one day post-surgery, the test intervention group was fed with the standard concentration nutrition solution thickened with the self-developed thickener, while the positive control group was given a standard concentration nutrition solution thickened with product 3, and the negative control group was fed a normal diet. All groups were fed for two weeks with food dyed with food-grade green dye. General conditions, body mass, and food intake were observed and recorded. After two weeks, abdominal aorta blood was collected, and heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney tissues were harvested and weighed to calculate the lung tissue organ coefficient. The organ conditions were evaluated using routine H&E staining, and lung damage was semi-quantitatively analyzed based on the Mikawa scoring criteria. Blood supernatants were collected to measure the total serum protein and albumin levels to determine the nutritional status of the rats. The expression of IL-6 and TNF-α genes in lung tissues was measured by RT-qPCR. IL-6 and TNF-α protein expression levels in lung tissues, lung tissue homogenate, and serum were measured by ELISA. The aspiration incidence rate was calculated. Results: Within the dosage range of 1.0 g to 3.0 g, the self-developed thickener in the test samples exhibited superior thermal stability in cohesiveness compared to the three commercially available thickeners, with a statistically significant difference (P<0.01). The differences in the thermal stability of viscosity and hardness between the self-developed thickener and the three commercially available thickeners were not statistically significant. The viscosity stability was optimal for the self-developed thickener, followed by the commercially available thickeners 1 and 3, with thickeners 2 being the least stable, though the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Product 1 showed the best thermal stability in thickness, followed by the self-developed thickener and product 2, while the product 3 exhibited the worst performance, with the difference being statistically significant (P<0.01). The self-developed thickener had the best thermal stability in hardness at temperatures ranging from 20℃ to 80 ℃, followed by products 1 and 2, with product 3 being the least stable. However, the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Animal experiment results indicated that the body weight gain in the positive control group and the test intervention group was lower than that in the blank and negative control groups (P<0.01). The spleen coefficient of the intervention group was lower than that of the positive control group and the blank control group (P<0.01), while the heart, liver, and kidney coefficients were lower than those of the blank control group (P<0.01). The differences in the lung coefficient of the intervention group and those of the other three groups were no statistically significant. Levels of TP and ALB in the test intervention group, the positive control group, and the negative control group were all lower than those in the blank control group, with statistically significant differences (P<0.01). ELISA results showed that serum IL-6 levels in the blank and test intervention groups were lower than those in the negative and positive control groups (P<0.05), while the difference in the other indicators across the four groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). There were no statistically significant differences among the four groups in terms of lung tissue damage pathology scores, or in the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α gene expression in lung tissues. The aspiration incidence rate was 0% in all groups. Conclusion: The self-developed enteral nutrition thickening agent demonstrated excellent thermal stability and swallowing safety. Further research to explore its application in patients with dysphagia is warranted.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Nutrição Enteral , Animais , Ratos , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Deglutição/fisiologia , Masculino , Pulmão/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Viscosidade
4.
BMC Pulm Med ; 24(1): 315, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Swallowing is a complex process that requires the coordination of muscles in the mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus. Dysphagia occurs when a person has difficulty swallowing. In the case of subjects with respiratory diseases, the presence of oropharyngeal dysphagia potentially increases lung disease exacerbations, which can lead to a rapid decline in lung function. This study aimed to analyze the swallowing of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). METHODS: Patients with IPF were evaluated using the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), tongue pressure, the Timed Water Swallow Test (TWST), and the Test of Mastication and Swallowing Solids (TOMASS). The findings were related to dyspnea severity assessed by the modified Medical Research Counsil (mMRC) score; the nutritional status screened with Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool; and pulmonary function tests, specifically spirometry and measurement of the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), the maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax), and the maximal expiratory pressure (PEmax). RESULTS: The sample consisted of 34 individuals with IPF. Those who exhibited swallowing modifications scored lower on the MNA than those who did not (9.6 ± 0.76 vs. 11.64 ± 0.41 points; mean difference 1.98 ± 0.81 points; p = 0.02). They also showed poorer lung function when considering the predicted force vital capacity (FVC; 81.5% ± 4.61% vs. 61.87% ± 8.48%; mean difference 19.63% ± 9.02%; p = 0.03). The speed of liquid swallowing was altered in 31of 34 of the evaluated subjects (91.1%). The number of liquid swallows correlated significantly with the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/FVC ratio (r = 0.3; p = 0.02). Solid eating and swallowing assessed with the TOMASS score correlated with lung function. The number of chewing cycles correlated negatively with PImax% predicted (r = -0.4; p = 0.0008) and PEmax% predicted (r = -0.3; p = 0.02). FVC% predicted correlated with increased solid swallowing time (r = -0.3; p = 0.02; power = 0.6). Swallowing solids was also impacted by dyspnea. CONCLUSION: Patients with mild-to-moderate IPF can present feeding adaptations, which can be related to the nutritional status, lung function, and the severity of dyspnea.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Deglutição , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática , Língua , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/complicações , Deglutição/fisiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Língua/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Pressão , Estado Nutricional , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
5.
Am J Transl Res ; 16(6): 2589-2598, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39006276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical effectiveness of reconstructing laryngeal function using thyroid cartilage fenestration and "draw-out" resection, supplemented by internal fixation with titanium microplates in early glottic carcinoma. METHODS: Data from 99 patients with glottic carcinoma treated in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University between January 2014 and September 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. Forty-eight patients who underwent thyroid cartilage fenestration and resection followed by internal fixation with titanium microplates for laryngeal function reconstruction were assigned to the thyroid cartilage fenestration group (TCF group), while the other 51 patients who underwent sternohyoid muscle and fascia repair for laryngeal function reconstruction were assigned to the sternohyoid muscle repair group (SMR group). Patients were followed up for 1-8 years. Data on postoperative phonatory function, respiratory function, swallowing function, and survival status were collected. RESULTS: Compared to the SMR group, patients in the TCF group showed better postoperative recovery in phonatory function and verbal communication (all P<0.05). In the TCF group, patients demonstrated stable respiration and the extubation rate was 100.00%, which was significantly higher than 82.35% in the SMR group (P<0.05). Patients in both groups showed good postoperative recovery of swallowing function (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: One-stage reconstruction of laryngeal function by thyroid cartilage fenestration and "draw-out" resection with adjuvant internal titanium microplate fixation in early glottic carcinoma demonstrates good postoperative recovery and good preservation of the laryngeal function.

6.
Cureus ; 16(6): e62191, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39006706

RESUMO

Balloon dilation therapy (BDT) is used to treat pharyngeal dysphagia in patients with impaired upper esophageal sphincter (UES) relaxation due to cricopharyngeal dysfunction. However, the mechanism underlying this immediate effect remains unclear. Here, we present a case in which we investigated the immediate effects of BDT on UES dysfunction using high-resolution manometry (HRM). A 67-year-old man was diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). He gradually developed dysphagia, and a gastrostomy was performed. Despite continuing oral intake of supplemental nutrition, the patient developed dysphagia. Videofluoroscopic (VF) examination of swallowing revealed pharyngeal residue, while HRM showed weak pharyngeal contractility and impaired UES opening. BDT was performed to address the UES dysfunction. Immediately following BDT, VF demonstrated improved pharyngeal bolus passage. As for the UES function during swallowing, HRM revealed that the UES relaxation duration was significantly longer and the UES nadir pressure was significantly decreased. The patient continued the BDT before oral intake. HRM revealed immediate and prolonged UES opening with decreased UES pressure during swallowing as an immediate effect of BDT. This suggests that these findings represent the mechanisms underlying dysphagia in this patient with SMA. BDT resulted in an immediate improvement in UES function, potentially leading to dysphagia improvement. BDT should be combined with conventional rehabilitation for impaired UES opening. However, further studies are needed to confirm the long-term effectiveness of BDT for dysphagia due to SMA.

7.
Eur J Neurol ; : e16370, 2024 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39012305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dysphagia is an important feature of neurodegenerative diseases and potentially life-threatening in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) but remains poorly characterized in these syndromes. We hypothesized that dysphagia would be more prevalent in nonfluent/agrammatic variant (nfv)PPA than other PPA syndromes, predicted by accompanying motor features, and associated with atrophy affecting regions implicated in swallowing control. METHODS: In a retrospective case-control study at our tertiary referral centre, we recruited 56 patients with PPA (21 nfvPPA, 22 semantic variant [sv]PPA, 13 logopenic variant [lv]PPA). Using a pro forma based on caregiver surveys and clinical records, we documented dysphagia (present/absent) and associated, potentially predictive clinical, cognitive, and behavioural features. These were used to train a machine learning model. Patients' brain magnetic resonance imaging scans were assessed using voxel-based morphometry and region-of-interest analyses comparing differential atrophy profiles associated with dysphagia presence/absence. RESULTS: Dysphagia was significantly more prevalent in nfvPPA (43% vs. 5% svPPA and no lvPPA). The machine learning model revealed a hierarchy of features predicting dysphagia in the nfvPPA group, with excellent classification accuracy (90.5%, 95% confidence interval = 77.9-100); the strongest predictor was orofacial apraxia, followed by older age, parkinsonism, more severe behavioural disturbance, and more severe cognitive impairment. Significant grey matter atrophy correlates of dysphagia in nfvPPA were identified in left middle frontal, right superior frontal, and right supramarginal gyri and right caudate. CONCLUSIONS: Dysphagia is a common feature of nfvPPA, linked to underlying corticosubcortical network dysfunction. Clinicians should anticipate this symptom particularly in the context of other motor features and more severe disease.

8.
Cureus ; 16(6): e62124, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38993424

RESUMO

Partial horizontal supracricoid laryngectomy (SCPL) with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy (CHEP) is a conservative surgical alternative for laryngeal cancer in the glottic or supraglottic region. Dysphagia and aspiration are frequently reported consequences of this surgery. We describe the case of a 72-year-old male patient diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx (T2N0M0), who underwent SCPL with CHEP reconstruction. The patient was initially fed through a nasogastric tube post-surgery, later replaced by a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. Swallowing evaluations were periodically conducted in collaboration with a speech therapist using fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS). In FEES assessments, the patient consistently presented with laryngeal penetration and possible tracheal aspiration. These findings were confirmed by VFSS. Additionally, a narrowing of the initial segment of the cervical esophagus was observed, caused by a large osteophyte in the anterior region of the C5 vertebral body, compromising the passage of the bolus, and leading to its accumulation above the upper esophageal sphincter and subsequent entry into the airway. Rehabilitation exercises for swallowing were recommended, maintaining an exclusive PEG diet. Three months after rehabilitation, a follow-up VFSS revealed that, for pasty consistency, the accumulation of the bolus above the cervical osteophyte was resolved with multiple swallows, without evidence of penetration or aspiration. Thus, it was possible to introduce oral intake of pasty consistency. Considering the anatomical and physiological complexity of swallowing, along with patient-specific characteristics, predicting the rehabilitation time for reconstructive laryngeal surgery is challenging. This case emphasizes the importance of a collaborative evaluation involving otorhinolaryngologists, speech therapists, and radiologists in studying dysphagia in patients undergoing conservative laryngeal surgeries to adapt and personalize rehabilitation.

9.
World J Clin Cases ; 12(19): 3657-3661, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38994308

RESUMO

Hu et al explored the impact of comprehensive nursing model on swallowing function and quality of life in patients with ischemic stroke. They divided 172 patients into the control group (routine care) and the research group (comprehensive care), and used standard scales to evaluate the swallowing function, neurological deficit, anxiety and depression, daily living ability, and exercise of the two groups of patients before and after care. Changes in indicators of function, quality of life, and compliance. The results showed that compared with the control group, patients in the study group achieved significant improvements in various indicators, with a lower incidence of adverse reactions and higher satisfaction with care. These data suggest that the comprehensive nursing model can significantly improve the swallowing function, quality of life and satisfaction of patients with ischemic stroke. In the future, the development of comprehensive nursing models needs to focus on technological innovation, humanized services, continuing education and training, multi-disciplinary collaboration, optimal allocation of resources, standardized practice and evaluation, etc., in order to improve nursing effects and promote the improvement of medical service quality.

10.
World J Clin Cases ; 12(19): 3725-3733, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38994319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysphagia, or swallowing disorder, is a common complication following stroke, significantly impacting patients' quality of life. Electromyographic biofeedback (EMGBF) therapy has emerged as a potential rehabilitation technique to improve swallowing function, but its efficacy in comparison with conventional treatments remains to be further explored. AIM: To investigate the effects of different treatment intensities of EMGBF on swallowing function and motor speed after stroke. METHODS: The participants were divided into three groups, all of which received routine neurological drug therapy and motor function rehabilitation training. On the basis of routine swallowing disorder training, the EMGBF group received additional EMGBF training, while the enhanced EMGBF group received two additional training sessions. Four weeks before and after treatment, the degree of swallowing disorder was evaluated using the degree of swallowing disorder score (VGF) and the Rosenbek penetration-aspiration scale (PAS). RESULTS: Initially, there was no significant difference in VGF and PAS scores among the groups (P > 0.05). After four weeks, all groups showed significant improvement in both VGF scores and PAS scores. Furthermore, the standardized swallowing assessment and videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale scores also improved significantly post-treatment, indicating enhanced swallowing function and motor function of the hyoid-bone laryngeal complex, particularly in the intensive EMGBF group. CONCLUSION: EMGBF training is more effective than traditional swallowing training in improving swallowing function and the movement rate of the hyoid laryngeal complex in patients with post-stroke dysphagia.

11.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2404211, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38981027

RESUMO

Dysphagia is more common in conditions such as stroke, Parkinson's disease, and head and neck cancer. This can lead to pneumonia, choking, malnutrition, and dehydration. Currently, the diagnostic gold standard uses radiologic imaging, the videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS); however, it is expensive and necessitates specialized facilities and trained personnel. Although several devices attempt to address the limitations, none offer the clinical-grade quality and accuracy of the VFSS. Here, this study reports a wireless multimodal wearable system with machine learning for automatic, accurate clinical assessment of swallowing behavior and diagnosis of silent aspirations from dysphagia patients. The device includes a kirigami-structured electrode that suppresses changes in skin contact impedance caused by movements and a microphone with a gel layer that effectively blocks external noise for measuring high-quality electromyograms and swallowing sounds. The deep learning algorithm offers the classification of swallowing patterns while diagnosing silent aspirations, with an accuracy of 89.47%. The demonstration with post-stroke patients captures the system's significance in measuring multiple physiological signals in real-time for detecting swallowing disorders, validated by comparing them with the VFSS. The multimodal electronics can ensure a promising future for dysphagia healthcare and rehabilitation therapy, providing an accurate, non-invasive alternative for monitoring swallowing and aspiration events.

12.
J Neurol Sci ; 463: 123116, 2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38981418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dysphagia in multiple system atrophy (MSA) is life-threatening and is caused by parkinsonism with cerebellar ataxia as a contributing factor. The present study investigated the relationship between dysphagia severity in MSA and the specific binding ratio (SBR) on dopamine transporter (DaT) SPECT using the Hyodo score, a qualitative scale for use with fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). METHODS: Hyodo score's ability to predict aspiration during a FEES examination of 88 patients with MSA was first tested. Then the clinical characteristics, Hyodo score, and SBR of patients with either predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P; n = 11) or cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C; n = 25) who underwent FEES and DaT SPECT simultaneously were compared. RESULTS: Logistic regression demonstrated that the Hyodo score was a significant predictive factor of aspiration (p = 0.003). The MSA-P group had a significantly higher Hyodo score (p = 0.026) and lower SBR (p = 0.011) than the MSA-C group while neither group demonstrated any significant difference in disease duration at the FEES examination. Linear regression demonstrated a significant, inverse correlation between the Hyodo score and SBR in the MSA-P (p = 0.044; r = -0.616) and MSA-C (p = 0.044; r = -0.406) groups. When the effect of SBR was removed by analysis of covariance, no significant difference in the Hyodo score remained between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested an association between presynaptic changes in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and dysphagia severity in MSA which largely contributes to the difference in dysphagia severity between MSA-P and MSA-C.

13.
Artif Intell Med ; 154: 102921, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38991399

RESUMO

High-resolution cervical auscultation (HRCA) is an emerging noninvasive and accessible option to assess swallowing by relying upon accelerometry and sound sensors. HRCA has shown tremendous promise and accuracy in identifying and predicting swallowing physiology and biomechanics with accuracies equivalent to trained human judges. These insights have historically been available only through instrumental swallowing evaluation methods, such as videofluoroscopy and endoscopy. HRCA uses supervised learning techniques to interpret swallowing physiology from the acquired signals, which are collected during radiographic assessment of swallowing using barium contrast. Conversely, bedside swallowing screening is typically conducted in non-radiographic settings using only water. This poses a challenge to translating and generalizing HRCA algorithms to bedside screening due to the rheological differences between barium and water. To address this gap, we proposed a cross-domain transformation framework that uses cycle generative adversarial networks to convert HRCA signals of water swallows into a domain compatible with the barium swallows-trained HRCA algorithms. The proposed framework achieved a cross-domain transformation accuracy that surpassed 90%. The authenticity of the generated signals was confirmed using a binary classifier to confirm the framework's capability to produce indistinguishable signals. This framework was also assessed for retaining swallow physiological and biomechanical properties in the signals by applying an existing model from the literature that identifies the opening and closure of the upper esophageal sphincter. The outcomes of this model showed nearly identical results between the generated and original signals. These findings suggest that the proposed transformation framework is a feasible avenue to advance HCRA towards clinical deployment for water-based swallowing screenings.

14.
Dysphagia ; 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958706

RESUMO

Aspiration detected in the fiberoptic endoscopy evaluation of swallowing (FEES) has been inconsistently associated with pneumonia, with no evidence of the risk of pneumonia from other alterations in swallowing safety detected in FEES. We conducted a dynamic, ambidirectional cohort study involving 148 subjects at risk of dysphagia in a tertiary university hospital. Our aim was to determine the risk of pneumonia attributed to alterations in swallowing safety detected during FEES. We used multivariate negative binomial regression models to adjust for potential confounders. The incidence density rate (IR) of pneumonia in patients with tracheal aspiration of any consistency was 26.6/100 people-years (RR 7.25; 95% CI: 3.50-14.98; P < 0.001). The IR was 19.7/100 people-years (RR 7.85; 95% CI: 3.34-18.47; P < 0.001) in those with laryngeal penetration of any consistency and 18.1/100 people-years (RR 6.24; 95% CI: 2.58-15.09; P < 0.001) in those with pharyngeal residue of any consistency. When adjusted for aspiration, the association of residue and penetration with pneumonia disappeared, suggesting that their risk of pneumonia is dependent on the presence of aspiration and that only aspiration is independently associated with pneumonia. This increased risk of pneumonia was significant in uni- and multivariate negative binomial regression models. We found an independently increased risk of pneumonia among patients with dysphagia and aspiration detected during FEES. Alterations in the oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing, without aspiration, did not increase the risk of pneumonia.

15.
Front Neurol ; 15: 1401982, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38962483

RESUMO

Introduction: Swallowing impairment is a crucial issue that can lead to aspiration, pneumonia, and malnutrition. Animal models are useful to reveal pathophysiology and to facilitate development of new treatments for dysphagia caused by many diseases. The present study aimed to develop a new dysphagia model with reduced pharyngeal constriction during pharyngeal swallowing. Methods: We analyzed the dynamics of pharyngeal swallowing over time with the pharyngeal branches of the vagus nerve (Ph-X) bilaterally or unilaterally transected, using videofluoroscopic assessment of swallowing in guinea pigs. We also evaluated the detailed anatomy of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles after the denervation. Results: Videofluoroscopic examination of swallowing showed a significant increase in the pharyngeal area during swallowing after bilateral and unilateral sectioning of the Ph-X. The videofluoroscopy also showed significantly higher pharyngeal transit duration for bilateral and unilateral section groups. The thyropharyngeal muscle on the sectioned side was significantly thinner than that on the intact side. In contrast, the thickness of the cricopharyngeal muscles on the sectioned and intact sides were not significantly different. The mean thickness of the bilateral thyropharyngeal muscles showed a linear correlation to the pharyngeal area and pharyngeal transit duration. Discussion: Data obtained in this study suggest that denervation of the Ph-X could influence the strength of pharyngeal contraction during pharyngeal swallowing in relation to thickness of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles, resulting in a decrease in bolus speed. This experimental model may provide essential information (1) for the development of treatments for pharyngeal dysphagia and (2) on the mechanisms related to the recovery process, reinnervation, and nerve regeneration following injury and swallowing impairment possibly caused by medullary stroke, neuromuscular disease, or surgical damage from head and neck cancer.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39001585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measuring the swallowing muscle mass with volume measurements is complex and time intensive; therefore, it is not used in clinical practice. However, it can be clinically relevant, for instance, in the case of sarcopenic dysphagia. The aim of the study was to develop a feasible and clinically applicable method to measure swallowing muscle mass. METHODS: Data from 10 head and neck cancer patients were collected from the Oncological Life Study data-biobank of the University Medical Center Groningen. The pharyngeal constrictor, genioglossus, mylohyoid and geniohyoid complex muscles, as well as the tongue complex muscles, were delineated manually on routinely performed head and neck computed tomography scans. Axial and sagittal planes were used for volume and area measurements, respectively. Muscle density measurements were performed with and without Hounsfield unit thresholding. Correlations were assessed by Pearson correlation coefficients, and interobserver reliability was measured using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between sagittal area measurements with and without Hounsfield unit thresholds for pharyngeal constrictor, tongue complex and the sum of the swallowing muscles (t > 6; P-value < 0.001). Stronger correlations emerged without Hounsfield unit thresholding. Strong positive and significant correlations were found between the total swallowing muscle mass volume and the sagittal area of the tongue complex muscles (r = 0.87, P-value < 0.05) and the sum of the sagittal areas of the pharyngeal constrictor and tongue complex muscles (r = 0.85, P-value < 0.05). The use of the Hounsfield unit threshold weakened correlations. Interobserver reliability was assessed and found to be fair to good for the pharyngeal constrictor muscle (ICC = 0.68, P-value < 0.05), excellent for the tongue complex muscles (ICC = 0.98, P-value < 0.05) and excellent for the total swallowing muscle area (ICC = 0.96, P-value < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Single-slice delineation of the sagittal area of tongue complex muscle and pharyngeal constrictor muscle is a promising, fast, simple and clinically applicable method for measuring the total volume of the swallowing muscle mass in head and neck cancer patients without Hounsfield unit thresholding. These advancements and findings would help in the early and accurate diagnosis of definitive sarcopenic dysphagia.

17.
J Oral Rehabil ; 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38987910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral food processing is an important part of daily food intake. A major part of this process is mastication, which prepares a bolus of food for swallowing by mechanically crushing and grinding ingested food between the teeth using rhythmic movements. Masticatory dysfunction is common in the elderly and in some neurological disorders and can have serious negative health consequences. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of restricted mastication, achieved by experimentally reducing the duration of mastication, on masticatory patterns and subsequent swallowing function. METHODS: Thirty healthy men (25 ± 3 years old) were instructed to chew gum jelly with a free mastication duration (G100), a half and a quarter duration of G100. Masseter and digastric electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded to assess mastication and swallowing activity, respectively. In addition, the acceleration of the thyroid cartilage ridge was measured with an accelerometer. The root mean square (RMS) of muscle EMG activity in the masseter and digastric muscles, the number of masseter EMG bursts, time to peak and total duration of each masseter EMG burst, swallowing duration and laryngeal elevation latency were analysed. RESULTS: Restricting masticatory duration reduced the number of mastication cycles (p < .001), prolonged the time to peak (p < .001) and total duration of masseter EMG bursts (p < .001) and resulted in an overall increased RMS score of masseter muscle activity (p = .017). Furthermore, restricted masticatory duration led to a decrease in both swallowing duration (p = .001) and laryngeal elevation latency (p = .012), with a significant increase in the RMS score of digastric muscle activity (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Under the experimental conditions of restricted mastication, several adaptation features were observed, including changes in masticatory cycle characteristics and swallowing duration. Thus, although the overall masticatory efficiency was reduced, these adaptations allowed healthy individuals to still swallow safely.

18.
Oral Dis ; 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38988121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Robotic transoral mucosectomy of the base of tongue was introduced as a diagnostic procedure in patients treated for head and neck cancer with unknown primary (CUP), increasing the identification rate of the primary tumour. For the treatment of CUP, a considerable percentage of patients require adjuvant (chemo)radiation. The aim of this study was to investigate swallowing outcomes among CUP patients after TORS and adjuvant treatment. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A systematic review was carried out on studies investigating the impact of TORS and adjuvant treatment on swallowing-related outcomes among CUP patients In addition, a cross-sectional study was carried out on swallowing problems (measured using the SWAL-QOL questionnaire) among CUP patients in routine care who visited the outpatient clinic 1-5 years after TORS and adjuvant treatment. RESULTS: The systematic review (6 studies; n = 98) showed that most patients returned to a full oral diet. The cross-sectional study (n = 12) showed that all patients were able to return to a full oral diet, nevertheless, 50% reported swallowing problems in daily life (SWAL-QOL total score ≥14). CONCLUSION: Although after TORS and adjuvant treatment for CUP a full oral diet can be resumed, patients still experience problems with eating and drinking in daily life.

19.
Cureus ; 16(6): e62600, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39027772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although a good oral environment helps reduce the risk of pneumonia in the elderly, repeated pneumonia can occur even with frequent oral care. The actual risk of pneumonia during oral intake, the choice of whether oral intake is possible, and the choice of food form are often determined using video fluorography (VF), which can provide detailed information on swallowing function. However, few reports have compared the oral environment and swallowing function, leaving the relationship unclear. We examined the relationship between the oral environment and swallowing function and the characteristics of swallowing function in elderly nursing home residents. METHODS: The subjects were 48 elderly nursing home residents (13 males, 35 females) with a mean age of 89 years who underwent outpatient or inpatient evaluation of their oral environment and swallowing function. There were three groups of residents: those who were evaluated for swallowing as outpatients, those who were hospitalised for pneumonia, and those who were hospitalised for diseases other than pneumonia. The oral environment was assessed by a dentist or dental hygienist using the Oral Health Assessment Tool (OHAT). Swallowing function was assessed by an otorhinolaryngologist using VF. RESULTS: There was no correlation between OHAT and VF scores in the outpatient group or the group hospitalised for pneumonia, but there was a correlation in the group hospitalised for reasons other than pneumonia. CONCLUSION: In facilities with good oral care, the development of pneumonia may be related to factors other than the oral environment and the OHAT may reflect conditions other than swallowing function. The swallowing function of nursing home residents should be evaluated by VF, which allows observation of all stages of swallowing.

20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(12)2024 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38931536

RESUMO

Breathing temporarily pauses during swallowing, and the occurrence of inspiration before and after these pauses may increase the likelihood of aspiration, a serious health problem in older adults. Therefore, the automatic detection of these pauses without constraints is important. We propose methods for measuring respiratory movements during swallowing using millimeter wave radar to detect these pauses. The experiment involved 20 healthy adult participants. The results showed a correlation of 0.71 with the measurement data obtained from a band-type sensor used as a reference, demonstrating the potential to measure chest movements associated with respiration using a non-contact method. Additionally, temporary respiratory pauses caused by swallowing were confirmed by the measured data. Furthermore, using machine learning, the presence of respiring alone was detected with an accuracy of 88.5%, which is higher than that reported in previous studies. Respiring and temporary respiratory pauses caused by swallowing were also detected, with a macro-averaged F1 score of 66.4%. Although there is room for improvement in temporary pause detection, this study demonstrates the potential for measuring respiratory movements during swallowing using millimeter wave radar and a machine learning method.


Assuntos
Deglutição , Aprendizado de Máquina , Radar , Respiração , Humanos , Deglutição/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem
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