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1.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-11, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765503

RESUMO

The telencephalon refers to the most highly developed and anterior part of the forebrain, consisting mainly of the cerebral hemispheres. The study determined Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) expression in the telencephalon of yak and cattle, and compare the expression and distribution pattern of Ngb and HIF-1α in the two animals. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) were employed to investigate Ngb and Hif-1α expression in the telencephalon of yak and cattle. mRNA and protein expressions of Ngb and HIF-1α showed positive in different tissues of the yak and cattle telencephalon. Ngb expression in tissues of the yak recorded higher as compare to cattle while HIF-1α expression was found higher in cattle than yak. The HIF-1α expression in some tissues of yak telencephalon was consistent with the cattle. The results documented that HIF-1α may have a direct or indirect synergistic effect on Ngb expression in the yak telencephalon to improve hypoxia adaptation. It is suggested that yak may need more Ngb expression for adaptation, but the expression of HIF-1α seems to be down-regulated during long-term adaptation, and the specific causes of this phenomenon needs to be further verified.(AU)


O telencéfalo refere-se à parte anterior e mais desenvolvida do prosencéfalo, consistindo principalmente dos hemisférios cerebrais. O estudo determinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator indutível por hipóxia (HIF-1α) no telencéfalo de iaques e bovinos e comparou a expressão e o padrão de distribuição de Ngb e HIF-1α nos dois animais. Imuno-histoquímica (IHC), reação em cadeia da polimerase quantitativa em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e Western blot (WB) foram empregados para investigar a expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α no telencéfalo de iaques e bovinos. As expressões de mRNA e proteínas de Ngb e HIF-1α mostraram-se positivas em diferentes tecidos do telencéfalo de iaque e bovino. A expressão de Ngb nos tecidos do iaque foi registrada mais alta em comparação com o gado, enquanto a expressão do HIF-1α foi encontrada mais alta no gado do que no iaque. A expressão de HIF-1α em alguns tecidos do telencéfalo de iaque foi consistente com o gado. Os resultados documentaram que o HIF-1α pode ter um efeito sinérgico direto ou indireto na expressão de Ngb no telencéfalo de iaque para melhorar a adaptação à hipóxia. É sugerido que o iaque pode precisar de mais expressão de Ngb para adaptação, mas a expressão de HIF-1α parece ser regulada para baixo durante a adaptação de longo prazo, e as causas específicas desse fenômeno precisam ser verificadas.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Telencéfalo , Neuroglobina/análise , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/análise , Imuno-Histoquímica , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Western Blotting
2.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-15, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765481

RESUMO

Background: The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Aim: The study examined the expression of Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) in adult and young yak brain tissues, and provided researchers with meaningful insight into the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of this mammal. Method: The study employed immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) to obtain the results. Results: Ngb and Hif-1α were significantly (P<0.05) expressed in the cerebellar cortex, piriform lobe, medulla, and corpus callosum of the adult yak while in the young yak brain tissues, the protein expressions were significantly found in the white matter of the cerebellum, pineal gland, corpus callosum, and cerebellar cortex. The Ngb and Hif-1α expression showed similarities and differences. This may have resulted from similar animal species, source of nutrition, age factors, brain size, emotional activities, and communication. The findings documented that Ngb and Hif-1α are commonly expressed in various adult and young yak brain tissues. Multiple roles in the brain tissues of the adult and young yaks are involved in the expression and distribution and are proposed to play a significant role in the adaptation of the yak to the high altitude environment. Conclusion: This study provides meaningful data to understand the adaptive mechanism to hypoxia and recommended researchers to expand on the adaptive mechanism and brain tissues that are not recorded.(AU)


Contexto: O cérebro é um órgão que funciona como o centro do sistema nervoso em todos os animais vertebrados e na maioria dos invertebrados. Objetivo: O estudo examinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator-1α indutível por hipóxia (Hif-1α) em tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens e forneceu aos pesquisadores uma visão significativa da anatomia, fisiologia e bioquímica desse mamífero. Método: O estudo utilizou imuno-histoquímica (IHC), PCR quantitativo em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e western blot (WB) para a obtenção dos resultados. Resultados: Ngb e Hif-1α foram significativamente (P < 0,05) expressos no córtex cerebelar, lobo piriforme, medula e corpo caloso do iaque adulto, enquanto nos tecidos cerebrais do iaque jovem as expressões proteicas foram encontradas significativamente na substância branca do cerebelo, glândula pineal, corpo caloso e córtex cerebelar. A expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α apresentou semelhanças e diferenças. Isso pode ter resultado de espécies animais semelhantes, fonte de nutrição, fatores de idade, tamanho do cérebro, atividades emocionais e comunicação. Os resultados documentaram que o Ngb e o Hif-1α são comumente expressos em vários tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens. Múltiplos papéis nos tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens estão envolvidos na expressão e distribuição e são propostos para desempenhar um papel significativo na adaptação do iaque ao ambiente de alta altitude. Conclusão: Este estudo fornece dados significativos para compreender o mecanismo adaptativo à hipóxia e recomendou que os pesquisadores expandissem o mecanismo adaptativo e os tecidos cerebrais que não foram registrados.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Bovinos , Bovinos , Cérebro/anatomia & histologia , Cérebro/fisiologia , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Neuroglobina/análise , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/análise
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245330, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339394

RESUMO

Abstract Background The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Aim The study examined the expression of Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) in adult and young yak brain tissues, and provided researchers with meaningful insight into the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of this mammal. Method The study employed immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) to obtain the results. Results Ngb and Hif-1α were significantly (P<0.05) expressed in the cerebellar cortex, piriform lobe, medulla, and corpus callosum of the adult yak while in the young yak brain tissues, the protein expressions were significantly found in the white matter of the cerebellum, pineal gland, corpus callosum, and cerebellar cortex. The Ngb and Hif-1α expression showed similarities and differences. This may have resulted from similar animal species, source of nutrition, age factors, brain size, emotional activities, and communication. The findings documented that Ngb and Hif-1α are commonly expressed in various adult and young yak brain tissues. Multiple roles in the brain tissues of the adult and young yaks are involved in the expression and distribution and are proposed to play a significant role in the adaptation of the yak to the high altitude environment. Conclusion This study provides meaningful data to understand the adaptive mechanism to hypoxia and recommended researchers to expand on the adaptive mechanism and brain tissues that are not recorded.


Resumo Contexto O cérebro é um órgão que funciona como o centro do sistema nervoso em todos os animais vertebrados e na maioria dos invertebrados. Objetivo O estudo examinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator-1α indutível por hipóxia (Hif-1α) em tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens e forneceu aos pesquisadores uma visão significativa da anatomia, fisiologia e bioquímica desse mamífero. Método O estudo utilizou imuno-histoquímica (IHC), PCR quantitativo em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e western blot (WB) para a obtenção dos resultados. Resultados Ngb e Hif-1α foram significativamente (P < 0,05) expressos no córtex cerebelar, lobo piriforme, medula e corpo caloso do iaque adulto, enquanto nos tecidos cerebrais do iaque jovem as expressões proteicas foram encontradas significativamente na substância branca do cerebelo, glândula pineal, corpo caloso e córtex cerebelar. A expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α apresentou semelhanças e diferenças. Isso pode ter resultado de espécies animais semelhantes, fonte de nutrição, fatores de idade, tamanho do cérebro, atividades emocionais e comunicação. Os resultados documentaram que o Ngb e o Hif-1α são comumente expressos em vários tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens. Múltiplos papéis nos tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens estão envolvidos na expressão e distribuição e são propostos para desempenhar um papel significativo na adaptação do iaque ao ambiente de alta altitude. Conclusão Este estudo fornece dados significativos para compreender o mecanismo adaptativo à hipóxia e recomendou que os pesquisadores expandissem o mecanismo adaptativo e os tecidos cerebrais que não foram registrados.


Assuntos
Animais , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Hipóxia , Encéfalo , RNA Mensageiro , Bovinos , Neuroglobina
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248911, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339362

RESUMO

Abstract The telencephalon refers to the most highly developed and anterior part of the forebrain, consisting mainly of the cerebral hemispheres. The study determined Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) expression in the telencephalon of yak and cattle, and compare the expression and distribution pattern of Ngb and HIF-1α in the two animals. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) were employed to investigate Ngb and Hif-1α expression in the telencephalon of yak and cattle. mRNA and protein expressions of Ngb and HIF-1α showed positive in different tissues of the yak and cattle telencephalon. Ngb expression in tissues of the yak recorded higher as compare to cattle while HIF-1α expression was found higher in cattle than yak. The HIF-1α expression in some tissues of yak telencephalon was consistent with the cattle. The results documented that HIF-1α may have a direct or indirect synergistic effect on Ngb expression in the yak telencephalon to improve hypoxia adaptation. It is suggested that yak may need more Ngb expression for adaptation, but the expression of HIF-1α seems to be down-regulated during long-term adaptation, and the specific causes of this phenomenon needs to be further verified.


Resumo O telencéfalo refere-se à parte anterior e mais desenvolvida do prosencéfalo, consistindo principalmente dos hemisférios cerebrais. O estudo determinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator indutível por hipóxia (HIF-1α) no telencéfalo de iaques e bovinos e comparou a expressão e o padrão de distribuição de Ngb e HIF-1α nos dois animais. Imuno-histoquímica (IHC), reação em cadeia da polimerase quantitativa em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e Western blot (WB) foram empregados para investigar a expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α no telencéfalo de iaques e bovinos. As expressões de mRNA e proteínas de Ngb e HIF-1α mostraram-se positivas em diferentes tecidos do telencéfalo de iaque e bovino. A expressão de Ngb nos tecidos do iaque foi registrada mais alta em comparação com o gado, enquanto a expressão do HIF-1α foi encontrada mais alta no gado do que no iaque. A expressão de HIF-1α em alguns tecidos do telencéfalo de iaque foi consistente com o gado. Os resultados documentaram que o HIF-1α pode ter um efeito sinérgico direto ou indireto na expressão de Ngb no telencéfalo de iaque para melhorar a adaptação à hipóxia. É sugerido que o iaque pode precisar de mais expressão de Ngb para adaptação, mas a expressão de HIF-1α parece ser regulada para baixo durante a adaptação de longo prazo, e as causas específicas desse fenômeno precisam ser verificadas.


Assuntos
Animais , Telencéfalo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Bovinos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Neuroglobina
5.
J Food Biochem ; : e14234, 2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35608959

RESUMO

This research aimed to explore the effects of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (L-NAME) on mitochondria apoptosis in postmortem Gannan yak (Bos grunniens) longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and to explore its effect on meat quality further. The Gannan yak meat samples were treated with the control group (0.9% NaCl) and L-NAME (20, 60, and 100 mM) for 24 h and then stored for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days at 4°C. NOS activity and NO content were investigated, and the parameters of mitochondrial apoptosis of the postmortem Gannan yak meat were determined. Meanwhile, the meat quality such as the centrifugation loss, meat color, and myofibril fragmentation index (MFI) was evaluated. The results indicated that after treatment with L-NAME, NOS activity and NO content decreased, causing mitochondrial membrane damage, Bax protein, and Cyt-c levels increased, and resulted in increased activities of caspase-9 and -3, promoting the occurrence of mitochondrial apoptosis. Furthermore, it increased the tenderness and water retention of Gannan yak meat. The results indicated that NOS inhibitor played a regulatory role in postmortem Gannan yak meat quality by regulating mitochondria apoptosis during postmortem aging. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The meat's tenderness is often considered the most important factor affecting consumers' willingness to repurchase. The relationship of caspases and MFI suggested that L-NAME played a regulatory role in postmortem Gannan yak meat quality by regulating mitochondria apoptosis during postmortem aging. This study provides valuable information for the development of the Gannan yak economy in Tibetan areas.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522695

RESUMO

Pamir yak milk is considered to be ideal food for local people, but its nutritional profile has not yet been reported. This study investigated the chemical and nutritional composition of Pamir yak milk, and compared the results with reference composition of goat and cow milk. We found that the Pamir yak milk had higher contents of protein (4.30%), fat (4.63), lactose (5.21%) and total solid (14.84%) than that of goat and cow milk. The predominant amino acids were glutamate (20%), proline (10%), lysine (10%) and leucine (10%), of which the essential amino acids accounted for 48% of the total amino acids. Meanwhile, Pamir yak milk was rich in minerals such as Ca, Fe, Zn and Mg and thiamine (B1 ), niacin (B3 ), Pyridoxine (B6 ) and cobalamin (B12 ) were higher than those of cow and goat milk. Also, medium-chain fatty acids (C12-C16) exhibited the highest level. However, The α -linolenic acid (C18:3), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were found in yak milk. All of the above-mentioned differences were demonstrated by the fact that the yak milk quality may be affecting by pasture production, animal species and nutritive value of the herbage. Therefore, Pamir yak milk is a promising alternative food that may contribute to human health.

7.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 791245, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35529830

RESUMO

Variation in food and diet shapes the diversity of the gut microbiota of ruminants. The present study investigated the microbial diversity in the fecal microbiota of yaks reared under natural grazing and feedlot system. A total of 48 domestic yaks with an average age of 7.5 years were selected from two different grazing habitats: one group grazed on natural pasture (grazing yaks-GY) while the other group was fed fodder and concentrate (feedlot yaks-FY). Crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrate, hemicelluloses, and digestible dry matter contents of natural pastures were higher than those in the feedlot. The lower insoluble fiber contents were found in grazing land. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed 675 and 348 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the GY and FY, respectively, in addition to 1,778 common OTUs. Overall, a total of 9,891 OTUs were identified as a whole, of which 6,160 OTUs were from GY and 3,731 were from FY. Shannon index analysis revealed a higher bacterial diversity in GY than FY. At the phylum level, Firmicutes were dominant bacterial taxa in both groups. The relative abundance of Firmicutes in GY (56% ± 0.05) was higher than in FY (41% ± 0.08). At the family level, GY had a significantly higher abundance of Ruminococcaceae (p < 0.001) and Rikenellaceae (p < 0.001) than FY, but FY had a significantly higher abundance of Prevotellaceae than GY (p < 0.001). At the genus level, abundances of Faecalibacterium, Alloprevotella, and Succinivibrio were higher in FY than in GY. This study presents novel information on fecal bacterial composition and diversity in yaks reared under two different production systems.

8.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 86: 106020, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504136

RESUMO

Promoting processing efficiency and taking advantage of agricultural by-products are two promising ways to achieve sustainable textile industry. This study presents a customized efficient ultrasonic-assisted bleaching strategy for yak hair - a widely existing but underexploited secondary dark shade fibre from yak. A melanin-targeted Fenton oxidation process is established which involves three phases, i.e., (I) incorporation of Fe2+ ions with melanin, (II) catalytic oxidative bleaching using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and (III) reductive cleansing. The bleaching efficacy, dyeing performance and tensile property of yak hair treated with and without ultrasound were explored and compared. Further, the ultrasonic bleaching mechanism in terms of the catalytic effect of Fe2+ ions, the promotion of H2O2 decomposition, removal of melanin granule from yak hair, were demonstrated. Finally, the main effects and interactions of parameters in phase II, and optimal condition were obtained through mathematical modelling based on a central composite design (CCD). Results reveal that ultrasonic bleaching dramatically enhances the whiteness index (WI) of yak hair from 11 to 45 which is 44.6% higher than those bleached without ultrasound, and also promotes the uptake of acid dyes. There is only 15% tensile strength loss and 14% elongation increment of yak hair after ultrasonic bleaching, rising from a slight damage of cuticle layer and cleavage of disulfide bonds, respectively. In the study of bleaching mechanism, Fe2+ ion is confirmed to improve the H2O2 decomposition rate by 20.9% which further runs up to 35.9% after introducing ultrasound. Ultrasound increases the concentration of hydroxyl radicals (HO) by 94% which are the main oxidative species participating in bleaching confirmed by HO scavenging experiment. The porous structure was observed on the cross section of yak hair stemming from the removal of melanin granules contributed by the cleaning action of ultrasound. A theoretical highest WI of 52.4 can be achieved under an optimal condition based on the CCD study. In general, the proposed melanin-targeted bleaching strategy for yak hair that integrates ultrasonic technology and Fenton reaction, is beneficial to the development of sustainable textile industry from material and processing perspectives.

9.
Anim Nutr ; 9: 249-258, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35600551

RESUMO

The yak (Bos grunniens), an indigenous herbivore raised at altitudes between 3,000 and 5,000 m above sea level, is closely linked to more than 40 ethnic communities and plays a vital role in the ecological stability, livelihood security, socio-economic development, and ethnic cultural traditions in the Asian highlands. They provide the highlanders with meat, milk, fibres, leather and dung (fuel). They are also used as pack animals to transport goods, for travel and ploughing, and are important in many religious and traditional ceremonies. The Asian highlands are known for an extremely, harsh environment, namely low air temperature and oxygen content and high ultraviolet light and winds. Pasture availability fluctuates greatly, with sparse pasture of poor quality over the long seven-month cold winter. After long-term natural and artificial selections, yaks have adapted excellently to the harsh conditions: 1) by genomics, with positively selected genes involved in hypoxia response and energy metabolism; 2) anatomically, including a short tongue with a weak sense of taste, and large lung and heart; 3) physiologically, by insensitivity to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, maintaining foetal haemoglobin throughout life, and low heart rate and heat production in the cold season; 4) behaviourlly, by efficient grazing and selecting forbs with high nutritional contents; 5) by low nitrogen and energy requirements for maintenance and low methane emission and nitrogen excretion, namely, 'Low-Carbon' and 'Nitrogen-Saving' traits; 6) by harboring unique rumen microbiota with a distinct maturation pattern, that has co-evolved with host metabolism. This review aims to provide an overview of the comprehensive adaptive strategies of the yak to the severe conditions of the highlands. A better understanding of these strategies that yaks employ to adapt to the harsh environment could be used in improving their production, breeding and management, and gaining benefits in ecosystem service and a more resilient livelihood to climate change in the Asian highlands.

10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 209(Pt A): 220-230, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378160

RESUMO

Olfaction in vertebrates plays pivotal parts in many aspects, such as localizing prey or food, mating behavior, avoiding predators, and social communication. Yak (Bos grunniens) is the only Bos species that can thrive in high-altitude areas. In view of the critical role of olfactory receptors (ORs) in the specific recognition of diverse stimuli, investigating the evolutionary dynamics of ORs in the yak means a lot. In this study, we used the chromosome-level genome of the yak to identify the ORs genes and discussed the effects of high altitude on the yak's olfaction by comparing the yak with other low-altitude living Bos species (Bos frontalis (gayal), Bos gaurus (gaur), Bos indicus (zebu) and Bos taurus (cattle)). The yak had 400 OR genes, including 264 functional genes, 16 partial genes and 120 OR pseudo genes. There were 387 OR genes mapped to yak 31 chromosomes, and chromosomes 13 and 8 had the most OR genes and functional OR genes. Among these five Bos species, yak had the least number of OR gene subfamilies, OR genes and functional OR genes, while the total number of OR genes in gayal (n = 784) was almost twice as many as that of yak, indicating that the olfaction of yak may be less developed. In addition, the phylogenetic relationships of the functional Bos OR genes were illustrated, which comprised 79 families and 466 subfamilies distributed in two classes (Class I and Class II). There were 76 OR gene subfamilies shared by these five Bos species and 17 OR gene subfamilies were unique to the yak. The potential odor specificity of 44 yak OR genes was identified through the similarity to human OR protein sequences. Remarkably, yak lacks ß-ionone and Isovaleric acid(IVA)-related ORs, which may be related to the decline of high-altitude herbaceous plant diversity and underdeveloped yak sweat glands. The conserved motifs of OR genes were highly conserved in Bos species. These results provided a solid foundation for further studies on the molecular mechanisms of the yak's adaptation to the high-altitude environment in olfaction.

11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 209(Pt A): 405-412, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381283

RESUMO

IFITM2 is interferon-induced transmembrane protein 2, which plays an extremely key role in anti-tumor and anti-virus diseases. In this study, the 602 bp cDNA sequence of the yak (Bos grunniens) IFITM2 (BgIFITM2) gene was obtained. Moreover, the prokaryotic expression vector of BgIFITM2 protein was constructed and expressed successfully, with a molecular weight of 33.680 kDa. The proliferation activities and migration abilities of HepG2 cells were significantly inhibited after treatment with BgIFITM2 protein (0.1 and 1 µg/mL) (P < 0.05). The expressions of B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL2)/BCL2-associated X (BAX) and molecular target of rapamycin (mTOR) genes were significantly decreased, but the expressions of BAX gene were significantly increased after treatment with BgIFITM2 protein (0.1 and 1 µg/mL) (P < 0.05). The expression of BAX protein was also significantly increased after treatment with 1 µg/mL BgIFITM2 protein (P < 0.05). Finally, the addition of BgIFITM2 protein attenuated the formation of tumor lesions in mice, and the pathological damage of the lung was less than that in the model group. The expression of Ki67 protein in the model group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05), but the expression of Ki67 protein in the BgIFITM2 group was significantly lower than that in the model group (P < 0.05). Taken together, BgIFITM2 protein could inhibit the proliferative activity of HepG2 cells by regulating apoptosis-related genes, and reduce the invasiveness of HepG2 cells in mice lung tissue. These results facilitate further studies on the function of BgIFITM2 protein.

12.
Vet Med Sci ; 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35441809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tenderness is the main quality of meat products. However, the meat tenderness formation is a complex biological process, and pathways and proteins that affect the tenderness of yak meat are unknown. METHODS: Label-free proteomics method was used to explore the effects of differentially expressed proteins on the tenderness of yak skeletal muscle (tenderloin) during post-mortem storage (0, 3, and 7 days) at 3 ± 1°C. RESULTS: The tenderness of yak skeletal muscle improved significantly during storage. A total of 91 differentially expressed proteins of yak skeletal muscle during post-mortem storage were identified by the following comparisons: day 3 versus 0, day 7 versus 0, and day 7 versus 3. NDUFS6, CYCS, COX6A2, LDB3, HSPB7, TPM4, TAGLN, COL1A1, LUM, MYH11, ACTC1, and MYOZ1 proteins showed a significant difference during yak skeletal muscle post-mortem storage. Furthermore, bioinformatics analyses revealed that the identified proteins were related to carbon metabolism, citrate cycle, glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and RNA degradation. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study could provide proteomic insights into changes in yak skeletal muscle tenderness during storage and may be a valuable resource for future investigations.

13.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408465

RESUMO

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce antimicrobial substances that could potentially inhibit the growth of pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus XN2, isolated from yak yoghurt, demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Clostridium butyricum, S. aureus, Listeria innocua CICC 10416, L. monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli. The antibacterial activity was estimated to be 3200 AU/mL after 30 h cultivation. Time-kill kinetics curve showed that the semi-purified cell-free supernatants (CFS) of strain XN2 possessed bactericidal activity. Flow cytometry analysis indicated disruption of the sensitive bacteria membrane by semi-purified CFS, which ultimately caused cell death. Interestingly, sub-lethal concentrations of semi-purified CFS were observed to reduce the production of α-haemolysin and biofilm formation. We further investigated the changes in the transcriptional level of luxS gene, which encodes signal molecule synthase (Al-2) induced by semi-purified CFS from strain XN2. In conclusion, L. rhamnosus XN2 and its bacteriocin showed antagonistic activity at both cellular and quorum sensing (QS) levels. Finally, bacteriocin was further purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), named bacteriocin XN2. The amino acid sequence was Met-Lue-Lys-Lys-Phe-Ser-Thr-Ala-Tyr-Val.


Assuntos
Bacteriocinas , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Animais , Antibacterianos , Bovinos , Staphylococcus aureus , Iogurte
14.
Gene ; 826: 146454, 2022 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367304

RESUMO

Copy number variation (CNV) is a principal genomic structure variation affecting the gene expression through the dose-effect and change of gene regulatory region. It plays an important role in regulating the various complex traits of vertebrates. The aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a member of ligand-dependent transcription factors which belong to the alkaline helix-loop-helix PASS family. It is used as a conservative environmental sensor during biological evolution. This study, tracked the growth data (body weight, withers height, body length, chest girth) of 332 yaks in four stages (6, 12, 18, and 30 months) were tracked. The CNV of the yaks was analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR, and the correlation between CNV of AHR and yak growth traits was analyzed using the SPSS and R software. The AHR gene expression profiles were assessed in different tissues of the 18-month-old yak. The statistical analysis indicated the AHR-CNV of the Ashidan yak to significantly correlate with the body length (P < 0.05), and was found to be correlated with the withers height at 18 months old (P < 0.01) with extreme significance. To sum up, this study for the first time discussed the relationship between AHR-CNV and the growth traits of the Ashidan yak. The results indicated that the AHR gene might become a new molecular marker in the breeding yak.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos/genética , Fenótipo
15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 805481, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35402298

RESUMO

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are principal nutrient substrates of intestinal epithelial cells that regulate the epithelial barrier in yaks. Until now, metagenomics sequencing has not been reported in diarrheal yaks. Scarce information is available regarding the levels of fecal SCFA and diarrhea in yaks. So, our study aims to identify the potential pathogens that cause the emerging diarrhea and explore the potential relationship of short-chain fatty acids in this issue. We estimated diarrhea rate in yaks after collecting an equal number of fecal samples from affected animals. Metagenomics sequencing and quantitative analysis of SCFA were performed, which revealed 15%-25% and 5%-10% prevalence of diarrhea in yak's calves and adults, respectively. Violin box plot also showed a higher degree of dispersion in gene abundance distribution of diarrheal yaks, as compared to normal yaks. We found 366,163 significant differential abundance genes in diarrheal yaks, with 141,305 upregulated and 224,858 downregulated genes compared with normal yaks via DESeq analysis. Metagenomics binning analysis indicated the higher significance of bin 33 (Bacteroidales) (p < 0.05) in diarrheal animals, while bin 10 (p < 0.0001), bin 30 (Clostridiales) (p < 0.05), bin 51 (Lactobacillales) (p < 0.05), bin 8 (Lachnospiraceae) (p < 0.05), and bin 47 (Bacteria) (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in normal yaks. At different levels, a significant difference in phylum (n = 4), class (n = 8), oder (n = 8), family (n = 16), genus (n = 17), and species (n = 30) was noticed, respectively. Compared with healthy yaks, acetic acid (p < 0.01), propionic acid (p < 0.01), butyric acid (p < 0.01), isobutyric acid (p < 0.01), isovaleric acid (p < 0.05), and caproic acid (p < 0.01) were all observed significantly at a lower rate in diarrheal yaks. In conclusion, besides the increased Staphylococcus aureus, Babesia ovata, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bacteroides fluxus, viruses, Klebsiella pneumonia, and inflammation-related bacteria, the decrease of SCFA caused by the imbalance of intestinal microbiota was potentially observed in diarrheal yaks.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metagenômica , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bovinos , Clostridiales , Diarreia/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fezes
16.
Front Genet ; 13: 798076, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35360871

RESUMO

Tianzhu white yak is a rare local yak breed with a pure white coat in China. In recent years, breeders have discovered long-haired individuals characterized by long hair on the forehead in the Tianzhu white yak, and the length and density of the hair on these two parts of the body are higher than that of the normal Tianzhu white yak. To elucidate the genetic mechanism of hair length in Tianzhu white yak, we re-sequence the whole genome of long-haired Tianzhu White yak (LTWY) (n = 10) and normal Tianzhu White yak (NTWY) (n = 10). Then, fixation index (F ST), θπ ratio, cross-population composite likelihood ratio (XP-CLR), integrated haplotype score (iHS), cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH), and one composite method, the de-correlated composite of multiple signals (DCMS) were performed to discover the loci and genes related to long-haired traits. Based on five single methods, we found two hotspots of 0.2 and 1.1 MB in length on chromosome 6, annotating two (FGF5, CFAP299) and four genes (ATP8A1, SLC30A9, SHISA3, TMEM33), respectively. Function enrichment analysis of genes in two hotspots revealed Ras signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and Rap1 signaling pathway were involved in the process of hair length differences. Besides, the DCMS method further found that four genes (ACOXL, PDPK1, MAGEL2, CDH1) were associated with hair follicle development. Henceforth, our work provides novel genetic insights into the mechanisms of hair growth in the LTWY.

17.
Front Genet ; 13: 868475, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35342391

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2021.778788.].

18.
J Food Sci Technol ; 59(4): 1362-1371, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35250061

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the protease family caspases in skeletal muscle and their potential contribution to postmortem proteolysis and meat tenderization. Nine yaks were slaughtered, and samples of Longissimus dorsal were injected with AC-DEVD-CHO at a ratio of 1:1 (w/v) and then stored at 4 °C for 2, 6, 12, 24, 72, and 120 h. Results indicate that the morphological changes of the muscle fibers are significantly obstructed, which is not conducive to the subsequent degradation of proteins. After inhibiting the activity of Caspase- 3, the activity of Caspase-8 and 9 and the energy metabolism was affected. In the case of without inhibition of caspase, the pH value decreased and then increased. The meat color and the water retention are better, the muscle fiber skeleton protein degradation is remarkable, the tenderness is improved. Furthermore, yak meat tenderness was improved by apoptotic pathway during aging.

19.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13702, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35257449

RESUMO

High-quality oocytes are a prerequisite for successful fertilization. Mammals feeding on aflatoxin-contaminated feed can cause reproductive toxicity, including follicular atresia, poor oocyte development and maturation, and aberrant epigenetic modifications of oocytes. In addition, the important role of ascorbic acid (AA) in reproductive biology has been confirmed, and AA is widely used as an antioxidant in cell culture. However, the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) on yak oocytes and whether AA has protective effects remain unknown. In this study, we found that exposure to AFB1 impedes meiotic maturation of oocytes, promotes apoptosis by triggering high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disrupts mitochondrial distribution and actin integrity, resulting in a decrease in the fertilization ability and parthenogenetic development ability of oocytes. In addition, these injuries changed the DNA methylation transferase transcription level of mature oocytes. After adding 50 µg/ml AA, the indices recovered to levels close to those of the control group. The results showed that AA could protect yak oocytes from the toxic effects of AFB1 and improve the quality of oocytes.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1 , Ácido Ascórbico , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Bovinos , Feminino , Atresia Folicular , Oócitos , Oogênese , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
20.
Gene ; 823: 146356, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227854

RESUMO

The regulatory mechanisms controlling post-natal muscle development in the yak (Bos grunniens) are still largely unknown, yet the growth and development of muscle is a complex process that plays a crucial role in determining the yield and quality of an animal's meat. In this study, we performed a transcriptome analysis based on the RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of yak longissimus dorsi muscle tissue obtained from calves (6 months of age; 6 M), young adults (30 months of age; 30 M) and adult (54 months of age; 54 M) to identify which genes are differentially expressed and to investigate their temporal expression profiles. In total, 1788 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (|log2FC| ≥ 1, P-adjusted < 0.05) were detected by pairwise comparisons between the different age groups. The expression levels of 10 of the DEGs were confirmed using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and the results were consistent with the transcriptome profile. A time-series expression profile analysis clustered the DEGs into four groups that could be divided into two classes (P < 0.05): class 1 profiles, which had up-regulated patterns of gene expression and class 2 profiles, which featured down-regulated patterns. Based on that cluster analysis, GO enrichment analysis revealed 1073, 127, and 184 terms as significantly enriched in biological process (BP), cellular component (CC), and molecular function (MF) categories in the class 1 profiles, while 714, 66, and 206 terms were significantly enriched in BP, CC, and MF in the class 2 profiles. A KEGG pathway analysis revealed that DEGs from the class 1 profiles were enriched in 62 pathways, with the most enriched being the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) - protein kinase B (Akt)-signaling pathway. The DEGs from the class 2 profiles were enriched in 16 pathways, of which forkhead box protein O (FoxO) - signaling was the most enriched. Taken together, these results provide insight into the mechanisms of skeletal muscle development, as well suggesting some potential genes of importance for yak meat production.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Bovinos , Análise por Conglomerados , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Ontologia Genética , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/química , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Tempo
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