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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248281, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350304

RESUMO

Abstract The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.


Resumo A covid-19 é uma doença viral contagiosa, que surgiu pela primeira vez em Wuhan, China, em dezembro de 2019, e deixou o mundo todo em alerta. A taxa de mortalidade na maioria dos principais países da Ásia, com referência especial ao Paquistão, foi enfocada. De 26 de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, o total de casos confirmados e a taxa de mortalidade foram medidos por meio da Wikipedia e de periódicos notáveis. O Irã é o único país com maior número de mortes (5,73%), seguido pela Indonésia (3,77%), enquanto a Arábia Saudita mostra o menor número de mortes, 1,39%. No Paquistão, o primeiro caso foi confirmado em 26 de fevereiro de 2020. O nCov-19 está intimamente relacionado à síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS), daí o nome SARS COV-2. Esse vírus é responsável por mais de 33,9 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo em 20 de setembro de 2020. O número de novos casos está aumentando de tempos em tempos. A província de Sindh, no Paquistão, registrou o maior número de casos até 20 de setembro de 2020, em comparação com outras partes do país, e tem o maior número de mortes, seguida por Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Por causa do contato pessoa a pessoa, a doença está se espalhando rapidamente. Indivíduos que já foram diagnosticados com outras doenças, como câncer ou diabetes, etc. são mais vulneráveis. O nCOV-19 é o mais contagioso devido ao seu modo de transmissão. Ainda não há vacina disponível para o tratamento da doença causada pelo nCoV-2019. Portanto, a única opção para controlar essa pandemia é a adoção de medidas preventivas eficazes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19 , Paquistão/epidemiologia , China , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-6, 2023. graf, ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765589

RESUMO

The study was undertaken from September 2018 to April 2019 to determine the prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in human beings living in six districts of Karachi. Suspected persons were screened for the disease and positive cases were identified on the basis of skin lesions and blood samples. Samples were observed by mounting their smear. A total of 207 subjects of different ages and sex groups were investigated, however, only 192 (92%) of the suspected cases were found to have the disease 64% of cases were male which were significantly high (p<0.05), than female 36%. The lesion was more frequently detected among the youth ages of 21-30 years (31%) as compared to other groups. In both sexes, legs were found to be more infected (25% male + 20% female) followed by arms (20% male + 0% female) and face (15% male +11% female). The mixed body parts had shown the lowest infections such as (4% in males + 5%) in females. In conclusion, the highest and lowest leishmaniasis infections were observed in District West (23% male + 9% female) followed by District East (15% male + 7% female), District Malir (11% male+ 4% female), District Central (7% male + 5% female), District Korangi (4% male + 7% female) and District South (4% male + 4% female) respectively.(AU)


O estudo foi realizado de setembro de 2018 a abril de 2019 para determinar a prevalência de leishmaniose tegumentar em seres humanos que vivem em seis distritos de Karachi. Pessoas suspeitas foram rastreadas para a doença e os casos positivos foram identificados com base em lesões de pele e amostras de sangue. As amostras foram observadas montando seu esfregaço. Um total de 207 indivíduos de diferentes idades e grupos sexuais foi investigado, no entanto apenas 192 (92%) dos casos suspeitos foram encontrados para ter a doença; 64% dos casos eram do sexo masculino, que foram significativamente elevados (p < 0,05), e do sexo feminino 36%. A lesão foi detectada com maior frequência entre os jovens de 21 a 30 anos (31%) em comparação com os outros grupos. Em ambos os sexos, as pernas estavam mais infectadas (25% homens + 20% mulheres), seguidas pelos braços (20% homens + 0% mulheres) e rosto (15% homens + 11% mulheres). As partes mistas do corpo mostraram as infecções mais baixas (4% homens + 5% mulheres). Em conclusão, as infecções de leishmaniose mais altas e mais baixas foram observadas no Distrito Oeste (23% homens + 9% mulheres) seguido pelo Distrito Leste (15% homens + 7% mulheres), Distrito Malir (11% homens + 4% mulheres), Distrito Central (7% homens + 5% mulheres), Distrito Korangi (4% homens + 7% mulheres) e Distrito Sul (4% homens + 4% mulheres), respectivamente.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Leishmaniose Cutânea/sangue , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Prevalência
3.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-4, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765585

RESUMO

The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.(AU)


A covid-19 é uma doença viral contagiosa, que surgiu pela primeira vez em Wuhan, China, em dezembro de 2019, e deixou o mundo todo em alerta. A taxa de mortalidade na maioria dos principais países da Ásia, com referência especial ao Paquistão, foi enfocada. De 26 de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, o total de casos confirmados e a taxa de mortalidade foram medidos por meio da Wikipedia e de periódicos notáveis. O Irã é o único país com maior número de mortes (5,73%), seguido pela Indonésia (3,77%), enquanto a Arábia Saudita mostra o menor número de mortes, 1,39%. No Paquistão, o primeiro caso foi confirmado em 26 de fevereiro de 2020. O nCov-19 está intimamente relacionado à síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS), daí o nome SARS COV-2. Esse vírus é responsável por mais de 33,9 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo em 20 de setembro de 2020. O número de novos casos está aumentando de tempos em tempos. A província de Sindh, no Paquistão, registrou o maior número de casos até 20 de setembro de 2020, em comparação com outras partes do país, e tem o maior número de mortes, seguida por Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Por causa do contato pessoa a pessoa, a doença está se espalhando rapidamente. Indivíduos que já foram diagnosticados com outras doenças, como câncer ou diabetes, etc. são mais vulneráveis. O nCOV-19 é o mais contagioso devido ao seu modo de transmissão. Ainda não há vacina disponível para o tratamento da doença causada pelo nCoV-2019. Portanto, a única opção para controlar essa pandemia é a adoção de medidas preventivas eficazes.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
4.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533065

RESUMO

Bats are the only flying mammalian animals and are distributed worldwide. Bats are well-known hosts of several zoonotic viruses and bacteria, including Leptospira sp. Here, we performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis of evidence of Leptospira sp. infection in bats by examining studies published between 1964 and 2021. We reported the frequencies of various species and serogroups on all continents, several species and feeding habits of bats, and different diagnostic tools. Together, 33 papers from all continents with seven to 2077 individuals from one to 31 species were included. Molecular detection was conducted in most studies, followed by MAT (Microscopic Agglutination Test) and isolation and identification. Molecular characterization of Leptospira sp. revealed L. borgpetersenii as the most frequent species. Moreover, 179 positive samples for MAT contained the most likely infecting serogroups described, particularly the Australis serogroup. The percentage of positive tests in isolation and identification ranged between zero and 0.5%. The highest frequency of Leptospira infection among the continents was observed in Asia, whereas South America had the lowest percentage. Finally, Nycteridae and Rhinonycteridae were the most frequently infected bat families. Our study provides valuable information about the epidemiology of Leptospira sp. infection in bats. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524648

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that is caused by spirochete bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Around the world, one million people each year are infected, leading to 60,000 deaths. Infection occurs through contact with environmental pathogens excreted by mammals (notably rodents). Data on Leptospira and leptospirosis in Africa are rather scarce, especially in urban habitats though these appear to be favourable environments for the pathogen circulation and human contamination. Using qPCR, DNA sequencing as well as MST/VNTR approaches, we examined Leptospira occurrence and genetic diversity in 779 commensal small mammals that were sampled over 2 years in the city centre of Cotonou, Benin, from three neighbourhoods with contrasting socio-environmental conditions. Overall prevalence reached 9.1%. However, very marked variations in both space and time were observed, with local peaks of high prevalence but no clear seasonal pattern. In most sites that could be regularly sampled, Leptospira-positive rodents were found at least once, thus confirming the widespread circulation of the pathogen within small mammal communities of Cotonou. Interestingly, an unusual diversity of small mammal-borne Leptospira species and genotypes was retrieved, with up to four species and three different genovars within the same neighbourhood, and even instances of two species and two genovars identified simultaneously within the same household. To our knowledge, such a high genetic diversity has never been described at such a fine scale, a fortiori in Africa and, more generally, within an urban environment. Altogether, our results underline that much remains unknown about leptospirosis as well as the associated infectious risk in African cities where the disease may be massively over-looked.

6.
J Vet Med Sci ; 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491091

RESUMO

The members of family Chlamydiaceae have a broad host range and cause many kinds of diseases in humans and animals. Several cases of Chlamydiaceae being detected in atypical hosts have been reported recently. Consequently, cross-species monitoring of Chlamydia in wildlife and livestock is pertinent for public health, animal hygiene and wildlife conservation. In this study, we conducted molecular surveillance of Chlamydia in wild birds and livestock around a small village in the foothills of Mt. Afadjato, Ghana where direct contact between wildlife and livestock occurs. Among 29 captured wild birds and 63 livestock, 5 sheep, 30 goats and 28 chickens, the positive ratios of Chlamydia were 24.1%, 40.0%, 43.3% and 26.9%, respectively. Chlamydia pecorum was detected in wild birds, goats, sheep and chickens. On the basis of the variable domain 2 region of ompA, several samples from different hosts showed identical sequences and were phylogenetically located to the same clusters. In addition, using ompA, C. psittaci, C. abortus and C. gallinacea were also detected in this small habitat. Further genetic and pathogenic analyses of the chlamydial distribution in this area, which represents the interface of wild and domestic animal interactions, may improve our knowledge of their transmission among different hosts.

8.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 131, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dipilidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by the tapeworm Dipylidium caninum. Fleas and, less frequently, lice act as an intermediate host, and their ingestion is required for infection to occur. While the disease mainly affects domestic and wild carnivores, it is also considered a zoonotic disease, with most human cases reported in children. Dipylidium caninum is considered to be the most common tapeworm infesting companion animals, but dipilidosis in humans is rare. The aims of this review were to improve current understanding of the epidemiology of this parasitosis and its management by the medical and veterinary community. METHODS: A comprehensive review of the published literature during the last 21 years (2000-2021) on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention measures of D. caninum infection and dipilidiosis in companion animals and humans was conducted. RESULTS: Using predefined eligibility criteria for a search of the published literature, we retrieved and screened 280 publications. Of these, 161 (141 epidemiological studies, 20 case reports [16 human cases]) were considered for inclusion in this review. This parasitosis is present worldwide; however, despite being the most frequent cestode infection in animals, it is often underdiagnosed using common coprological techniques. Its diagnosis in humans has also proved challenging, being frequently confused with pinworm infection, leading to inappropriate treatment and to the persistence of the disease over time. Prevention measures include control of ectoparasites in animals and the environment, as well as regular deworming of animals, most commonly with praziquantel. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of dipilidiosis remains challenging in both animals and humans, primarily due to the low sensitivity of the diagnostic methods currently available and a lack of knowledge of the morphological characteristics of the parasite. Although treatment with the appropriate anti-cestode compounds is well tolerated and results in resolution of the infection, indiscriminate use of these compounds may predispose to an increase in resistance. Given the worldwide distribution of this parasite, it is essential to act on several fronts, with a focus on health education for children and animal owners and the control of intermediate hosts, both in animals and in the surrounding environment.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Infestações por Pulgas , Sifonápteros , Animais , Infecções por Cestoides/diagnóstico , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Humanos , Animais de Estimação , Sifonápteros/parasitologia
9.
Dev Comp Immunol ; : 104443, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35568245

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is a wake-up call on the zoonotic viral spillover events and the need to be prepared for future outbreaks. Zoonotic RNA viruses like the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are potential pathogens that could trigger the next pandemic. Dromedary camels are the only known animal source of MERS-CoV zoonotic infections, but little is known about the molecular antiviral response in this species. IFN-ß and other type-I interferons provide the first line of defense against invading pathogens in the host immune response. We identified the IFNB gene of the dromedary camel and all extant members of the family Camelidae. Camelid IFN-ß is unique with an even number of cysteines in the mature protein compared to other eutherian mammals with an odd number of cysteines. The viral mimetic poly(I:C) strongly induced IFN-ß expression in camel kidney cells. Induction of IFN-ß expression upon infection with camelpox virus was late and subdued when compared to poly(I:C) treatment. Prokaryotically expressed recombinant dromedary IFN-ß induced expression of IFN-responsive genes in camel kidney cells. Further, recombinant IFN-ß conferred antiviral resistance to camel kidney cells against the cytopathic effects of the camelpox virus, an endemic zoonotic pathogen. IFN-ß from this unique group of mammals will offer insights into antiviral immune mechanisms and aid in the development of specific antivirals against pathogens that have the potential to be the next zoonotic pandemic.

10.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 168, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strongyloides stercoralis is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions, but reports of infections in central and northern Europe have been recently increasing. Infections occur mainly in humans and dogs. In dogs, both dog-adapted and zoonotic S. stercoralis genotypes seem to occur. Clinical manifestations mainly include gastrointestinal and respiratory signs. The severity of the disease can vary greatly and depends on the immune status of the host. The infection is potentially fatal in immunosuppressed individuals, either medically induced or due to an underlying disease, in which hyperinfections and disseminated infections with extraintestinal parasite dissemination may occur. METHODS: Diagnosis was based on coproscopy, including flotation and the Baermann funnel technique, histology of small intestinal biopsies and molecular analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and hypervariable regions I and IV (HVR I and HVR IV) of the nuclear 18S rDNA loci. RESULTS: Two independent cases of severe canine S. stercoralis infection in Austria are presented. In both cases, S. stercoralis was detected in histological sections of the small intestine and with the Baermann funnel technique. Molecular analysis revealed strains with zoonotic potential. Case 1 was a 1-year-old female French bulldog with a long history of respiratory and gastrointestinal signs, severe emaciation and apathy before S. stercoralis infection was diagnosed. Treatment with moxidectin (2.5 mg/kg body weight [BW], oral route) did not eliminate the infection, but treatment with ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg BW, subcutaneously) was successful. Case 2 consisted of two 2-month-old Pomeranian puppies, one female and one male, from a litter of four, which died soon after presenting dyspnoea and haemorrhagic diarrhoea (female) or torticollis (male); S. stercoralis infection was first diagnosed post-mortem. CONCLUSION: More attention should be paid to this nematode because although it appears to be rare in Austria, it is easily overlooked on standard coproscopy unless a Baermann funnel technique is used, and even then, it can be missed. Moxidectin is not always successful in eliminating the infection, and treatment with ivermectin should be considered in cases of infection.

11.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35578793

RESUMO

Viruses pose a major threat to animal health worldwide, causing significant mortalities and morbidities in livestock, companion animals and wildlife, with adverse implications on human health, livelihoods, food safety and security, regional/national economies, and biodiversity. The Greater and Lesser Antilles consist of a cluster of islands between the North and South Americas and is habitat to a wide variety of animal species. This review is the first to put together decades of information on different viruses circulating in companion animals, livestock, and wildlife from the Caribbean islands of Greater and Lesser Antilles. Although animal viral diseases have been documented in the Caribbean region since the 1940s, we found that studies on different animal viruses are limited, inconsistent, and scattered. Furthermore, a significant number of the reports were based on serological assays, yielding preliminary data. The available information was assessed to identify knowledge gaps and limitations, and accordingly, recommendations were made, with the overall goal to improve animal health and production, and combat zoonoses in the region. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35579163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glanders is a rare zoonotic disease caused by Burkholderia mallei. Humans can be infected by B. mallei, which causes cutaneous lymphadenitis and pneumonia, leading to sepsis and death in severe cases. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 60-year-old male who was diagnosed with glanders. The patient who had a history of diabetes presented with cough, expectoration, and fever. Computed tomography (CT) imaging showed B. mallei infection in the right upper lobe of the lung with mediastinal lymph node involvement and the lingual segment of the left lung. Moreover, the posterior basal segment of the lower lobe of both lungs had inflammation. Subsequently, B. mallei infection was confirmed by lymph node biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage multiplex PCR-based targeted gene sequencing. After meropenem treatment, the patient was discharged, and CT imaging showed reduced absorption of pulmonary inflammatory lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Glanders is a rare disease that can cause skin infection, lymphadenitis, and pneumonia and in severe cases, it can be life-threatening. The diagnosis of this disease mainly relies on microbiological culture and pathological biopsy. Diagnosis is also facilitated by multiplex PCR-based targeted gene sequencing facilitates the diagnosis of this disease. Glanders is treated with cephalosporins, carbapenems, and other sensitive antibiotics.

13.
Mol Ecol ; 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510794

RESUMO

Astroviruses (AstVs) infect numerous mammalian species including reservoirs such as bats. Peptides encoded by the genes of the highly polymorphic Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) form the first line of host defence against pathogens. Aside from direct involvement in mounting adaptive immune responses, MHC class II genes are hypothesized to regulate gut commensal diversity and shape the production of immune-modulatory substances by microbes, indirectly affecting host susceptibility. Despite initial empirical evidence for the link between host MHC and the microbiota, associations among these factors remain largely unknown. To fill this gap, we examined MHC allelic diversity and constitution, the gut bacterial community and abundance pattern of a wild population of a neotropical bat (Artibeus jamaicensis) challenged by AstV infections. First, we show an age-dependent relationship between the host MHC class II diversity and constitution and the gut microbiota in AstV-uninfected bats. Crucially, these associations changed in AstV-infected bats. Additionally, we identify changes in the abundance of specific bacterial taxa linked to the presence of certain MHC supertypes and AstV infection. We suggest changes in the microbiota to be either a result of AstV infection or the MHC-mediated modulation of microbial communities. The latter could subsequently affect microbe-mediated immunity and resistance against AstV infection. Our results emphasize that the reciprocal nature of host immune genetics, gut microbial diversity and pathogen infection require attention, which are particularly important given their repercussions for disease susceptibility and severity in wild animal populations with a history of zoonotic spillover and frequent human contact.

14.
Exp Suppl ; 114: 389-415, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544010

RESUMO

The microsporidian Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an obligate intracellular pathogen that causes enteric disease (microsporidiosis) in humans and has been recorded in a wide range of animal species worldwide. The transmission of E. bieneusi is direct and likely occurs from person to person and from animal to person via the ingestion of spores in water, food, or the environment. The identification of E. bieneusi is usually accomplished by molecular means, typically using the sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Currently, ~820 distinct genotypes of E. bieneusi have been recorded in at least 210 species of vertebrates (mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians) or invertebrates (insects and mussels) in more than 50 countries. In this chapter, we provide a perspective on (1) clinical aspects of human microsporidiosis; (2) the genome and DNA markers for E. bieneusi as well as molecular methods for the specific and genotypic identification of E. bieneusi; (3) epidemiological aspects of E. bieneusi of animals and humans, with an emphasis on the genotypes proposed to be zoonotic, human-specific, and animal-specific; and (4) future research directions to underpin expanded molecular studies to better understand E. bieneusi and microsporidiosis.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon , Microsporídios , Microsporidiose , Animais , Enterocytozoon/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Mamíferos , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Filogenia
15.
Food Waterborne Parasitol ; 27: e00158, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35518124

RESUMO

Toxocara canis and T. cati are zoonotic roundworm parasites of dogs, cats and foxes. These definitive hosts pass eggs in their faeces, which contaminate the environment and can subsequently be ingested via soil or contaminated vegetables. In humans, infection with Toxocara can have serious health implications. This proof-of-concept study aimed to investigate the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs on 'ready-to-eat' vegetables (lettuce, spinach, spring onion and celery) sampled from community gardens in southern England. The contamination of vegetables with Toxocara eggs has never been investigated in the UK before, and more widely, this is the first time vegetables grown in community gardens in Europe have been assessed for Toxocara egg contamination. Sixteen community gardens participated in the study, providing 82 vegetable samples fit for analysis. Study participants also completed an anonymous questionnaire on observed visits to the sites by definitive hosts of Toxocara. Comparison of egg recovery methods was performed using lettuce samples spiked with a series of Toxocara spp. egg concentrations, with sedimentation and centrifugal concentration retrieving the highest number of eggs. A sample (100 g) of each vegetable type obtained from participating community gardens was tested for the presence of Toxocara eggs using the optimised method. Two lettuce samples tested positive for Toxocara spp. eggs, giving a prevalence of 2.4% (95% CI =1.3-3.5%) for vegetable samples overall, and 6.5% (95% CI = 4.7-8.3%; n = 31) specifically for lettuce. Questionnaire data revealed that foxes, cats and dogs frequently visited the community gardens in the study, with 88% (68/77) of respondents reporting seeing a definitive host species or the faeces of a definitive host at their site. This proof-of-concept study showed for the first time the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs on vegetables grown in the UK, as well as within the soil where these vegetables originated, and highlights biosecurity and zoonotic risks in community gardens. This study establishes a method for assessment of Toxocara spp. eggs on vegetable produce and paves the way for larger-scale investigations of Toxocara spp. egg contamination on field-grown vegetables.

16.
Acta Trop ; : 106502, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523272

RESUMO

Dogs are commonly exposed to vector-borne pathogens (VBPs), yet few data are available on hunting dogs, which are often at high risk of infection due to their involvement in field activities. To investigate the occurrence of VBPs and evaluate the relative performance of different diagnostic tools, blood and serum samples were collected from hunting dogs (n = 1,433) in rural areas of southern Italy. All samples were tested by Knott's technique for filarioids, serologically (SNAP® 4Dx® Plus) for Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Dirofilaria immitis and Ehrlichia spp. and molecularly (qPCR) for all except B. burgdorferi of the above pathogens plus Babesia spp. and Leishmania infantum. Logistic regression was run to evaluate the statistical associations between the risk of VBP infection and independent variables (such as geographic area of provenience, age class and sex) and K-Cohen formula for assessing the concordance among diagnostic tests. Overall, out of 321 dogs (22.4%) positive to at least one VBP, 28 (1.9%) were infected by filarial species at the Knott's technique. In particular, Acanthocheilonema reconditum was the most prevalent (1.6%), followed by D. immitis (0.2%) and Dirofilaria repens (0.1%). One hundred forty (9.8%) and 231 (16.1%) dogs scored positive to VBPs by serological and molecular methods, respectively. The most prevalent pathogens detected were Ehrlichia spp. (7.3%) with SNAP® 4Dx® Plus, and A. reconditum (7.7%) by qPCR. Statistics revealed a significant association (p < 0.001) between A. reconditum infestation and both Ehrlichia spp. seropositivity and geographical origin of dogs. An agreement of 99.9%, 94.0% and 95.7% for Knott - SNAP® 4Dx® Plus, Knott - qPCR and SNAP® 4Dx® Plus - qPCR for D. immitis was found, respectively. Data demonstrate a high prevalence of VBPs in hunting dogs, indicating that this group of animals is largely exposed to several arthropod vector species and suggesting the transmission risk of pathogens to humans in rural areas of southern Italy. A multi-diagnostic approach and a deeper cooperation among healthcare and stakeholders are required to prevent VBP infections to animals and humans.

17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511197

RESUMO

Zoonotic hepatitis E, mainly caused by swine hepatitis E virus (sHEV), is endemic in China, causing great economic disruption and public health threats. Although recombination is critical for the evolution of viruses, there is a limited assessment of its occurrence among sHEVs. Herein, we analysed all available sHEV full-length genomes isolated in China during the past two decades (40 isolates) compared to 72 other sHEV strains isolated in different countries and determined that sHEV genotype 4 (sHEV4) dominates China. Eight potential natural recombination events were identified, four of which occurred in China and were mainly between sHEV4 strains, indicating the distinct character of China sHEV. One intergenotype recombination event was found in China, alarming the emergence of a new sHEV lineage that could become a critical threat to human health.

18.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 139, 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of Ancylostoma in dogs in the Caribbean. In view of the number of owned free-roaming and feral dogs within the islands and the ideal subtropical climate for parasite development and environmental survival, Ancylostoma could pose a threat to the health of the dogs as well as a zoonotic risk to people. METHODS: To determine whether generalities about Ancylostoma in dogs in the Caribbean could be made and to obtain a better understanding of the prevalence, published (Scielo, Scopus, and PubMed databases) and gray (e.g., student theses, conference presentations) literature was reviewed. Retrieved manuscripts were screened, and relevant data (year, location, dog population, method of diagnosis, positivity rate) were extracted. Data from two dog populations on St. Kitts also were included: a 2014 field study involving dogs with limited veterinary care and data from the Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine's Veterinary Clinic records for 2018-2019. RESULTS: Fourteen manuscripts from the 1950s to 2019, representing ten of the Caribbean islands/countries and the Bahamas, were identified. Methods of diagnosing infection status ranged from simple qualitative or quantitative flotation methods to centrifugation with Sheather's sugar flotation solution or necropsy. Dog populations sampled included stray, owned free-roaming, and owned confined. Reported rates of Ancylostoma infection ranged from 10 to 91%. Studies from the last 10 years indicate positivity rates of 21 to 73%. Ancylostoma positivity rates in the St. Kitts' populations were 61% and 10% for the 2014 and 2018-2019 populations, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There was no indication that hookworm prevalence has changed over time in the Caribbean, and there were no obvious differences between owned and unowned dogs or free-roaming and confined dogs. The data from St. Kitts were on par with positivity rates from the other islands within the last 10 years and reflective of the impact that veterinary care, including anthelmintic treatment, is expected to have on parasites in pets. There is a clear need to expand the available data for the region and improve control programs for Ancylostoma infections to protect both canine and human health.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Parasitos , Ancylostoma , Ancylostomatoidea , Animais , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 857322, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35450070

RESUMO

Carnivores such as cats and minks are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Brazil is a global COVID-19 hot spot and several cases of human-to-cat transmission have been documented. We investigated the spread of SARS-CoV-2 by testing 547 domestic cats sampled between July-November 2020 from seven states in southern, southeastern, and northeastern Brazil. Moreover, we investigated whether immune responses elicited by enzootic coronaviruses affect SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats. We found infection with significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers against the Gamma variant of concern, endemic in Brazil during 2020, than against an early SARS-CoV-2 B.1 isolate (p<0.0001), validating the use of Gamma for further testing. The overall SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in Brazilian cats during late 2020 validated by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) was 7.3% (95% CI, 5.3-9.8). There was no significant difference in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in cats between Brazilian states, suggesting homogeneous infection levels ranging from 4.6% (95% CI, 2.2-8.4) to 11.4% (95% CI, 6.7-17.4; p=0.4438). Seroprevalence of the prototypic cat coronavirus Feline coronavirus (FCoV) in a PRNT90 was high at 33.3% (95% CI, 24.9-42.5) and seroprevalence of Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) was low at 1.7% (95% CI, 0.2-5.9) in a PRNT90. Neutralizing antibody titers were significantly lower for FCoV than for SARS-CoV-2 (p=0.0001), consistent with relatively more recent infection of cats with SARS-CoV-2. Neither the magnitude of SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers (p=0.6390), nor SARS-CoV-2 infection status were affected by FCoV serostatus (p=0.8863). Our data suggest that pre-existing immunity against enzootic coronaviruses neither prevents, nor enhances SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats. High SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence already during the first year of the pandemic substantiates frequent infection of domestic cats and raises concerns on potential SARS-CoV-2 mutations escaping human immunity upon spillback.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/veterinária , Gatos , Bovinos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
20.
One Health ; 14: 100384, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392655

RESUMO

Pig production is a rapidly growing segment of the global livestock sector, especially in Asia and Africa. Expansion and intensification of pig production has resulted in significant changes to traditional pig husbandry practices leading to an environment conducive to increased emergence and spread of infectious diseases. These include a number of zoonotic viruses including influenza, Japanese encephalitis, Nipah and coronaviruses. Pigs are known to independently facilitate the creation of novel reassortant influenza A virus strains, capable of causing pandemics. Moreover, pigs play a role in the amplification of Japanese encephalitis virus, transmitted by mosquito vectors found in areas inhabited by over half the world's human population. Furthermore, pigs acted as an amplifying host in the first and still most severe outbreak of Nipah virus in Malaysia, that necessitated the culling over 1 million pigs. Finally, novel porcine coronaviruses are being discovered in high pig-density countries which have pandemic potential. In this review, we discuss the role that pigs play as intermediate/amplifying hosts for zoonotic viruses with pandemic potential and consider how multivalent vaccination of pigs could in turn safeguard human health.

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