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1.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 11(1): 58-66, 2023 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36406322

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Emerging evidence has demonstrated that abnormal body composition may potentiate the development of frailty, whereas little work focuses on the role of divergent adipose tissue. Therefore, we aimed to determine the potential contribution of adipose tissue distribution to multidimensional frailty in decompensated cirrhosis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study. Divergent adipose tissues were assessed by computed tomography-derived subcutaneous adipose tissue index (SATI), visceral adipose tissue index (VATI) and total adipose tissue index (TATI), respectively. Frailty was identified by our validated self-reported Frailty Index. Multiple binary logistic models incorporating different covariates were established to assess the relationship between adipose tissue distribution and frailty. Results: The study cohort comprised 245 cirrhotic patients with 45.3% being male. The median Frailty Index, body mass index (BMI) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score were 0.11, 24.3 kg/m2 and 8.9 points, respectively. In both men and women, patients who were frail exhibited lower levels of SATI in comparison with nonfrail patients. SATI inversely correlated with Frailty Index in the entire cohort (rs=-0.1361, p=0.0332). Furthermore, SATI or TATI was independently associated with frail phenotype in several multiple logistic regression models adjusting for age, BMI, presence of ascites, sodium, Child-Pugh class or MELD score in isolation. Conclusions: In the context of decompensated cirrhosis, low SATI and concomitant TATI were associated with higher risk of being frail. These findings highlight the importance to further apply tissue-specific tools of body composition in place of crude metric like BMI.

2.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134405, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36444031

RESUMO

Several factors can impact the gut microbiota, affecting host metabolism and immunity. It implies intestinal barrier disruption and translocation of gut microbiota metabolites to the bloodstream, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS is an endotoxin from gram-negative gut bacteria that trigger the activation of the Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) inflammatory pathway and can modulate white adipose tissue (WAT) metabolism. Dietary components, including diets rich in fiber and polyphenols, contribute to intestinal environment homeostasis. Grape seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE) may improve intestinal permeability and microbial diversity and increase short-chain fatty acids production. Furthermore, GSPE has been involved in LPS reduction, down-regulating the TLR-4 pathway, decreasing the WAT metainflammatory profile, and preventing adipocyte hypertrophy. Studies have pointed out strategies to promote health and control obesity by modulating the gut microbiota environment. Therefore, this review aims to summarize the potential effects of GSPE on the gut microbiota-white adipose tissue axis against obesity.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Proantocianidinas , Vitis , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Lipopolissacarídeos , Promoção da Saúde , Tecido Adiposo Branco , Fibras na Dieta , Obesidade
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2598: 75-85, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355286

RESUMO

Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASC) are a promising alternative cell source to chondrocytes as well as to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSC) in cartilage tissue engineering and repair. Here we describe ASC isolation from liposuction by-products by collagenase-based tissue digestion combined with cell filtration and followed by monolayer attachment and expansion culture. Quality control requires confirmation of correct surface marker expression and multilineage differentiation potential by a trilineage differentiation assay.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Condrogênese , Diferenciação Celular , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Cartilagem , Condrócitos , Células Cultivadas , Células da Medula Óssea
4.
J Nutr Biochem ; 111: 109153, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150680

RESUMO

This study aimed to characterize the potential beneficial effects of chronic docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on restoring subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) plasticity in obese aged female mice. Two-month-old female C57BL/6J mice received a control (CT) or a high fat diet (HFD) for 4 months. Then, 6-month-old diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were distributed into the DIO and the DIOMEG group (fed with a DHA-enriched HFD) up to 18 months. In scWAT, the DHA-enriched diet reduced the mean adipocyte size and reversed the upregulation of lipogenic genes induced by the HFD, reaching values even lower than those observed in CT animals. DIO mice exhibited an up-regulation of lipolytic and fatty oxidation gene expressions that was reversed in DHA-supplemented mice except for Cpt1a mRNA levels, which were higher in DIOMEG as compared to CT mice. DHA restored the increase of proinflammatory genes observed in scWAT of DIO mice. While no changes were observed in total macrophage F4/80+/CD11b+ content, the DHA treatment switched scWAT macrophages profile by reducing the M1 marker Cd11c and increasing the M2 marker CD206. These events occurred alongside with a stimulation of beige adipocyte specific genes, the restoration of UCP1 and pAKT/AKT ratio, and a recovery of the HFD-induced Fgf21 upregulation. In summary, DHA supplementation induced a metabolic remodeling of scWAT to a healthier phenotype in aged obese mice by modulating genes controlling lipid accumulation in adipocytes, reducing the inflammatory status, and inducing beige adipocyte markers in obese aged mice.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Obesidade , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Camundongos Obesos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo
5.
J Nutr Biochem ; 111: 109159, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162565

RESUMO

Obesity and metabolic disorders are threats to human health. Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important member of adipose microenvironment. ECM remodeling contributes to obesity and insulin resistance, but the roles of every single ECM component is still not fully understood. We observed glucose and lipids metabolic disorders in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and humans with obesity. Higher levels of inflammatory factors and hormones existed in serum of HFD-fed mice. Multiple collagens, laminins, fibronectin, nidogen, and Hspg2 were upregulated in obese white adipose tissue (WAT) from mice and humans. These effects were stronger in subcutaneous WAT than visceral WAT in mice, but the fat depot difference was reversed in humans. The ECM structure and the morphology of adipocytes seeded on ECM were changed in the HFD group. In human visceral WAT, ECM genes showed positive correlations with blood lipids and glucose. In vitro, collagen I/IV and LAMA4 proteins showed similar changes with C/EBPα during the differentiation of adipocytes. Macromolecular crowders (MMC) promoted partial collagen and non-collagen gene expression. Oleic acid (OA) and MMC upregulated collagen I/IV and LAMA4 proteins, and the effects of MMC were stronger than that of OA. Moreover, MMC promoted the differentiation of adipocytes, but OA increased the size of lipid droplets. Positive correlations were observed between ECM genes and adipogenesis-related genes in adipocytes. In conclusion, some obesogens (such as HFD) induce ECM remodeling, and the upregulation of ECM components is closely related to adipogenesis, suggesting that adipose ECM deposition is an indicator of obesity and metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Obesidade/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Adipogenia , Matriz Extracelular , Glucose/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
6.
J Nutr Biochem ; 111: 109175, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223834

RESUMO

Increased body iron stores and inflammation in adipose tissue have been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying basis of these associations is unclear. To attempt to investigate this, we studied the development of IR and associated inflammation in adipose tissue in the presence of increased body iron stores. Male hepcidin knock-out (Hamp1-/-) mice, which have increased body iron stores, and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 and 24 weeks. Development of IR and metabolic parameters linked to this, insulin signaling in various tissues, and inflammation and iron-related parameters in visceral adipose tissue were studied in these animals. HFD-feeding resulted in impaired glucose tolerance in both genotypes of mice. In response to the HFD for 24 weeks, Hamp1-/- mice gained less body weight and developed less systemic IR than corresponding WT mice. This was associated with less lipid accumulation in the liver and decreased inflammation and lipolysis in the adipose tissue in the knock-out mice, than in the WT animals. Fewer macrophages infiltrated the adipose tissue in the knockout mice than in wild-type mice, with these macrophages exhibiting a predominantly anti-inflammatory (M2-like) phenotype and indirect evidence of a possible lowered intracellular iron content. The absence of hepcidin was thus associated with attenuated inflammation in the adipose tissue and increased whole-body insulin sensitivity, suggesting a role for it in these processes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Ferro/metabolismo
7.
J Nutr Biochem ; 111: 109173, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228975

RESUMO

The antidiabetic effects of green tea have been demonstrated in clinical trials and epidemiological studies. This study investigated the antidiabetic effects of green tea extract (GTE) and its underlying molecular mechanisms using a leptin receptor-deficient db/db mouse model (Leprdb/db). Treatment with GTE for 2 weeks improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in Leprdb/db mice. In addition, GTE treatment reduced the body weight and adiposity of Leprdb/db mice. Furthermore, GTE treatment reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in white adipose tissue (WAT), and also reduced dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) expression levels in WAT as well as in the serum. The promoter region of Dpp4 contains the NF-κB binding site, and DPP4 was found to be a direct target of NF-κB. Consistently, in vitro treatment of cells with GTE or its main constituent epigallocatechin gallate reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB/DPP4 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264.7 cells. Overall, our data demonstrated that GTE exerts an anti-diabetic effect by regulating the expression levels of NF-κB and DPP4 in WAT.


Assuntos
Dipeptidil Peptidase 4 , Hipoglicemiantes , Camundongos , Animais , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/genética , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Chá/química
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 302(Pt A): 115700, 2023 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126782

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Obesity is a critical threat to global health, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a potential target for the treatment of obesity and comorbidities. Xuezhikang Capsule (XZK), an extract of red yeast rice, has remarkable clinical efficacy and is widely used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease. However, its modulatory effect on BAT remains unknown. AIM OF THIS STUDY: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective mechanism of XZK in the obese spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model by evaluating the regulatory effect of XZK on the BAT gene profile through transcriptome sequencing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SHRs were randomly divided into four groups: the standard chow diet (STD) group, the STD supplemented with 126 mg/kg of XZK group, the high-fat diet (HFD) group, and the HFD supplemented with 126 mg/kg of XZK group. All SHRs were fed for 18 weeks. The metabolic phenotypes, including body weight, fat mass, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and serum glucose and lipid levels, was evaluated, and hematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E) staining was performed to evaluate the adipose tissue histopathological phenotype. Transcriptome sequencing was performed to determine the mechanism by which XZK improves the metabolic phenotype and the expression of key differential expression genes was verified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RESULTS: XZK inhibited HFD-induced weight gain and adipose tissue remodeling in SHRs and prevented hypertrophy of epididymal adipocytes and maintained the brown fat phenotype. XZK intervention also improved glucose and lipid metabolism in SHRs, as suggested by a reduction in serum triglyceride (TG), low-density cholesterol (LDL-C), and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels as well as increasing in serum high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Transcriptome sequencing analysis confirmed the regulatory effect of XZK on the gene expression profile of BAT, and the expression patterns of 45 genes were reversed by the XZK intervention. Additionally, the results of the transcriptome analysis of 10 genes that are important for brown fat function were in line with the results of qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: XZK protected SHRs from HFD-induced obesity, inhibited fat accumulation and improved glucolipid metabolism. Additionally, the protective effect of XZK on the overall metabolism of obese SHRs might partly be related to its regulatory effect on the BAT gene expression profile. These findings might provide novel therapeutic strategies for obesity-related metabolic diseases in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).


Assuntos
Hiperlipidemias , Doenças Metabólicas , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Ratos , Animais , Camundongos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Transcriptoma , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Colesterol , Glucose , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
9.
Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg ; 1864(1): 148930, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272463

RESUMO

At low inner mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) oxaloacetate (OAA) accumulates in the organelles concurrently with decreased complex II-energized respiration. This is consistent with ΔΨ-dependent OAA inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase. To assess the metabolic importance of this process, we tested the hypothesis that perturbing metabolic clearance of OAA in complex II-energized mitochondria would alter O2 flux and, further, that this would occur in both ΔΨ and tissue-dependent fashion. We carried out respiratory and metabolite studies in skeletal muscle and interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) directed at the effect of OAA transamination to aspartate (catalyzed by the mitochondrial form of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, Got2) on complex II-energized respiration. Addition of low amounts of glutamate to succinate-energized mitochondria at low ΔΨ increased complex II (succinate)-energized respiration in muscle but had little effect in IBAT mitochondria. The transaminase inhibitor, aminooxyacetic acid, increased OAA concentrations and impaired succinate-energized respiration in muscle but not IBAT mitochondria at low but not high ΔΨ. Immunoblotting revealed that Got2 expression was far greater in muscle than IBAT mitochondria. Because we incidentally observed metabolism of OAA to pyruvate in IBAT mitochondria, more so than in muscle mitochondria, we also examined the expression of mitochondrial oxaloacetate decarboxylase (ODX). ODX was detected only in IBAT mitochondria. In summary, at low but not high ΔΨ, mitochondrial transamination clears OAA preventing loss of complex II respiration: a process far more active in muscle than IBAT mitochondria. We also provide evidence that OAA decarboxylation clears OAA to pyruvate in IBAT mitochondria.

10.
Nutrition ; 105: 111858, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Excess adiposity is associated with several factors involved in carcinogenesis and breast cancer progression. Evidence supporting the role of body composition in breast cancer treatment is promising, but still scanty and mainly focused on adjuvant treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in body composition during neoadjuvant chemotherapy and its association with pathologic complete response and survival outcome in patients treated for operable/locally advanced breast cancer. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed in the Oncology Section of the Department of Medicine, University of Verona between 2014 and 2019. Body composition was evaluated from clinically acquired computed tomography scans at diagnosis and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Descriptive statistic was adopted. The associations of body composition measures with pathologic complete response and disease-free survival were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier curves were compared with log-rank analysis. RESULTS: Data from 93 patients were collected. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the adipose compound changed significantly across all body mass index categories. Body composition parameters had no significant effect on pathologic complete response. Survival analysis showed that a high gain of visceral adipose tissue during neoadjuvant chemotherapy was associated with shorter disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 10.2; P = 0.026). In particular, disease-free survival was significantly worse in patients who gained ≥10% of visceral adipose tissue compared with patients who gained <10% of visceral adipose tissue (5-y disease-free survival 71.4 versus 96.3, P = 0.009, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that neoadjuvant chemotherapy significantly affects body composition, which seems to have an effect on survival outcome of breast cancer, highlighting the relevance of the body composition assessment when estimating treatment outcomes.

11.
Metabolism ; 138: 155328, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202221

RESUMO

Aging is a complex biological process characterized by a progressive loss of physiological integrity and increased vulnerability to age-related diseases. Adipose tissue plays central roles in the maintenance of whole-body metabolism homeostasis and has recently attracted significant attention as a biological driver of aging and age-related diseases. Here, we review the most recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying age-related decline in adipose tissue function. In particular, we focus on the complex inter-relationship between metabolism, immune, and sympathetic nervous system within adipose tissue during aging. Moreover, we discuss the rejuvenation strategies to delay aging and extend lifespan, including senescent cell ablation (senolytics), dietary intervention, physical exercise, and heterochronic parabiosis. Understanding the pathological mechanisms that underlie adipose tissue aging will be critical for the development of new intervention strategies to slow or reverse aging and age-related diseases.

12.
Cytokine ; 161: 156080, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is associated with obesity-related inflammation. We aim to investigate IL-33 expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects and its effects on human adipocyte glucose uptake. METHODS: Expression of IL-33 was analysed in SAT from cohort studies including subjects with and without obesity and T2D and correlated with insulin resistance and obesity markers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of tissue fat volumes was performed. We investigated the effects of IL-33 treatment on ex vivo adipocyte glucose uptake. RESULTS: T2D subjects had higher IL-33 gene and protein expression in SAT than the control subjects. IL-33 mRNA expression was positively correlated with markers of dysglycemia (e.g. HbA1c), insulin resistance (e.g. HOMA-IR) and adiposity (BMI, visceral adipose tissue volume, liver and pancreas fat %). In multiple linear regression analyses, insulin resistance and T2D status were the strongest predictors of IL-33, independent of BMI. IL-33 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with expression of genes regulating adipocyte glucose uptake, lipid storage, and adipogenesis (e.g.glucose transporter 1 and 4 (GLUT1/4), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), and PPARG). Additionally, incubation of SAT with IL-33 reduced adipocyte glucose uptake and GLUT4 gene and protein expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that T2D subjects have higher IL-33 gene and protein expressionin SATthan control subjects, which is associated with insulin resistance and reduced gene expression of lipid storage and adipogenesis markers. IL-33 may reduce adipocyte glucose uptake. This opens up a potential pharmacological route for reversing insulin resistance in T2D and prediabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Lipídeos
13.
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am ; 34(1): 25-47, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410885

RESUMO

In recent years, autologous biological preparations have emerged as a growing area of medical innovation in interventional orthopedical procedures and surgical interventions. These cellular therapies are often referred to as orthobiologics and are derived from patient's own tissues, like blood, bone marrow, and adipose tissue to prepare platelet-rich plasma (PRP), bone marrow concentrate (BMC), and adipose tissue concentrate (ATC), respectively. In this article, we emphasize and discuss the physiologic variability of autologous prepared BMC and ATC for the delivery of mesenchymal stem cells to support tissue repair processes.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Humanos , Medula Óssea , Tecido Adiposo
14.
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am ; 34(1): 63-70, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410891

RESUMO

Orthobiologics have shown immense treatment potential in many medical fields including sports medicine, musculoskeletal disorders, and pain management. As with the case of any medical procedures and treatments, there are potential side effects or caveats that physicians and patients should be cognizant of. Nevertheless, the use of orthobiologics does not seem to have consistent severe side effects and do not have increased risks with transmissible disease, immune-modulated reactions, or oncologic processes.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Medicina Esportiva , Humanos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/terapia
15.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 4): 114779, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370816

RESUMO

Evidence indicates that individual or groups of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are associated with risk of breast cancer (BC). Epidemiological studies of PBDEs and BC progression are scarce. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between PBDE burdens in adipose tissues and prognostic biomarkers of BC as well as progression-free survival (PFS) of patients for the first time. The concentrations of 14 PBDE congeners in breast adipose tissues of 183 cases from the eastern area of southern China were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic regression models for the associations between PBDE levels and prognostic biomarkers. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were conducted to identify the correlations between PBDEs and PFS. The results showed that BDE-99 and 190 levels were positively associated with clinical stage and N stage respectively (OR = 2.61 [1.26-5.40], OR = 2.78 [1.04-7.46]). Concentrations of BDE-28 and BDE-183 were negatively associated with the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) (OR = 0.30 [0.11-0.81]; 0.39 [0.15-0.99]) and progesterone receptor (PR) (OR = 0.36 [0.14-0.92]; 0.37 [0.15-0.91]), and increased BDE-47 was associated with lower human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression (OR = 0.44 [0.23-0.86]). Adipose levels of BDE-71, 99, 138, 153, 154 and total PBDEs were positively associated with p53 expression (all P < 0.05). Finally, BDE-47, 99 and 183 were considered as independent prognostic factors for shorter PFS in the Cox models (adjusted hazard ratios = 3.14 [1.26-7.82]; 2.25 [1.03-4.94]; 2.60 [1.08-6.25], respectively). The recurrence risk and prognosis of BC may be closely bound to the body burdens of certain PBDE congeners. Further epidemiological and experimental studies are needed for confirmation.

16.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 4): 114809, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403647

RESUMO

Although several studies have examined the relationship between organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk, no data are available concerning the association between OCPs concentrations in periprostatic adipose tissue (PPAT), which reflects cumulative exposure, and PCa aggressiveness. Moreover, no previous study has compared OCPs exposure in two distinct ethno-geographical populations. The objectives were to analyze OCPs in PPAT of PCa patients from either Mainland France or French West Indies in correlation with features of tumor aggressiveness, after adjusting for potential confounders such age, BMI, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of PPAT. PPAT was analyzed in 160 patients (110 Caucasians and 50 African-Caribbeans), 80 with an indolent tumor (ISUP group 1 + pT2), and 80 with an aggressive tumor (ISUP group more than 3 + pT3). The concentrations of 29 OCPs were measured in PPAT concomitantly with the characterization of PUFA content. Exposure patterns of OCPs differed according to the ethno-geographical origin. Most OCPs were found at higher concentration in Caucasian patients, whereas pp'-DDE content was twice as high in African-Caribbeans. Chlordecone was only detected in PPAT from African-Caribbean patients. Most OCP concentrations were positively correlated with age, and some with BMI. After adjusting for age, BMI, and PUFA composition of PPAT, no significant association was found between OCPs content and risk of aggressive disease, except of mirex which appeared inversely associated with aggressive features of PCa in Caucasian patients. These results highlight a significant ethno-geographic variation in internal exposure to OCPs, which likely reflects differences in consumption patterns. The inverse relationship observed between mirex concentration and markers of PCa aggressiveness need to be further investigated.

17.
Front Nutr ; 9: 1019259, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36451736

RESUMO

Black beans (BB) are an important source of a range of plant bioactive compounds including polyphenols, particularly anthocyanins. Several studies support that consumption of BB is associated with health benefits, including prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, molecular mechanisms underlying the potential health properties of BB on adipose tissue (AT) are still largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate multi-genomic effects of BB intake and identify regulatory networks potentially mediating T2DM on AT. Male Wistar diabetic rats consumed an anthocyanin-rich black bean extract for 5 weeks. Global gene expression from AT, protein coding and non-coding RNA profiles were determined using RNAseq. Biological function analyses were performed using a variety of bioinformatic tools. The evaluation of global gene expression profiles exhibited significant change following BB consumption with 406 significantly differentially expressed genes, 33 miRNA and 39 lncRNA and 3 snRNA. Functional analyses indicated that these genes play an important role in regulation of PI3K signaling, NIN/NF-kB signaling, insulin secretion, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) organization. Interestingly, transcription factors such as GATA2, or POU2AF1 demonstrated to modulate their activity by BB extract by direct interaction with polyphenol metabolites, or by interactions with cell signaling proteins, like PKB, AKT or PI3K, that could control transcription factor activity and as a result impact on adipogenesis regulation. Therefore, the constant consumption of an anthocyanin-rich black bean extract may have anti-diabetic protective effects by modulating gene expression, resulting in a promising alternative for T2DM patients.

18.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 995367, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36451918

RESUMO

Background: Over the past years, information about the crosstalk between the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and the cardiovascular system has emerged. Notably, in the context of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), EAT might have a potential role in the pathophysiology of ventricular structural changes and function, and the clinical evolution of patients. This study aims to assess the impact of EAT on morpho-functional changes in the left ventricle (LV) and the outcome of patients after an AMI. Methods: We studied prospectively admitted patients to our hospital with a first episode of AMI. All patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during admission. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was performed within 24-48 h after PCI, as well as blood samples to assess levels of galectin-3 (Gal-3). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was performed 5-7 days after PCI. Clinical follow-up was performed at 1 and 5 years after MI. Results: Mean age of our cohort (n = 41) was 57.5 ± 10 years, and 38 (93%) were male. Nine patients had normal BMI, 15 had overweight (BMI 25-30), and 17 were obese (BMI > 30). Twenty three patients (56%) had ≥ 4 mm thickness of EAT measured with echo. In these patients, baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after AMI was significantly lower, as well as global longitudinal strain. EAT thickness ≥ 4 m patients presented larger infarct size, higher extracellular volume, and higher T1 times than patients with EAT < 4 mm. As for Gal-3, the median was 16.5 ng/mL [12.7-25.2]. At five-year follow-up 5 patients had major cardiac events, and all of them had EAT ≥ 4 mm. Conclusions: Patients with EAT >4 mm have worse LVEF and GLS, larger infarct size and longer T1 values after a MI, and higher levels of Gal-3. EAT >4 mm was an independent predictor of MACE at 5-year follow-up. EAT thickness is a feasible, noninvasive, low-cost parameter that might provide important information regarding the chronic inflammatory process in the myocardium after an infarction.

19.
Eur Spine J ; 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36459201

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Increased fatty infiltration in paraspinal muscles has been recognized as a feature of muscle quality loss in people with Low Back Pain (LBP) and is highly associated with the severity of LBP and dysfunction. Reducing fatty infiltration has been recognized as a rehabilitation aim. An earlier systematic review published in 2014 revealed conflicting evidence for the reversibility of paraspinal muscle quality by means of exercise and no updates have been published since. A new systematic literature search is warranted. METHOD: Pubmed, CINAHL and Embase were searched from inception to July 2022. Randomized, non-randomized controlled trials (RCT and non-RCT) and single-arm trials were included if they reported the effect of exercise on paraspinal fatty infiltration in people with LBP. Effect sizes and statistical power were calculated for (1) exercise versus control, and (2) pre-post exercise changes. Available data from the RCTs were pooled via meta-analysis when appropriate. Otherwise, data were synthesized qualitatively. RESULTS: Two RCTs, one non-RCT and three single-arm trials met the selection criteria. Data were not pooled due to substantial clinical heterogeneity. Effect sizes from the RCTs revealed no significant difference for exercise versus control. One single-arm trial with high risk of bias demonstrated a significant pre-post difference with moderate effect size, but only at one (T12-L1) of the investigated levels. CONCLUSION: Moderate quality evidence is available that paraspinal fatty infiltration is not reversible with exercise in people with LBP. More larger RCT's are needed to draw firmer conclusions.

20.
Neuroimage Clin ; 36: 103239, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36451350

RESUMO

The menopause transition involves changes in oestrogens and adipose tissue distribution, which may influence female brain health post-menopause. Although increased central fat accumulation is linked to risk of cardiometabolic diseases, adipose tissue also serves as the primary biosynthesis site of oestrogens post-menopause. It is unclear whether different types of adipose tissue play diverging roles in female brain health post-menopause, and whether this depends on lifetime oestrogen exposure, which can have lasting effects on the brain and body even after menopause. Using the UK Biobank sample, we investigated associations between brain characteristics and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) in 10,251 post-menopausal females, and assessed whether the relationships varied depending on length of reproductive span (age at menarche to age at menopause). To parse the effects of common genetic variation, we computed polygenic scores for reproductive span. The results showed that higher VAT and ASAT were both associated with higher grey and white matter brain age, and greater white matter hyperintensity load. The associations varied positively with reproductive span, indicating more prominent associations between adipose tissue and brain measures in females with a longer reproductive span. The effects were in general small, but could not be fully explained by genetic variation or relevant confounders. Our findings indicate that associations between abdominal adipose tissue and brain health post-menopause may partly depend on individual differences in cumulative oestrogen exposure during reproductive years, emphasising the complexity of neural and endocrine ageing processes in females.

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