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1.
Front Psychol ; 14: 1063132, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36874835

RESUMO

Overimitation - the copying of another's unnecessary or irrelevant actions toward a goal - is largely considered to be uniquely human. Recent studies, however, have found evidence of this behavior in dogs. Humans seem to overimitate more or less depending on social factors, such as the cultural origin of the demonstrator. Like humans, dogs may have social motivations behind their overimitation, since they have been shown to copy irrelevant actions more from their caregivers than from strangers. By using priming methodology, this study aimed to investigate whether dogs' overimitation can be facilitated via the experimental manipulation of their attachment-based motivations. To test this, we invited caregivers to demonstrate goal-irrelevant and relevant actions to their dog, following either a dog-caregiver relationship prime, a dog-caregiver attention prime, or no prime. Our results showed no significant main effect of priming on copying behavior for either relevant or irrelevant actions, but we found a trend that unprimed dogs copied the least actions overall. Additionally, dogs copied their caregiver's relevant actions more often and more faithfully as the number of trials increased. Our final finding was that dogs were much more likely to copy irrelevant actions after (rather than before) already achieving the goal. This study discusses the social motivations behind dog imitative behavior, and has potential methodological implications regarding the influence of priming on dog behavioral studies.

2.
Front Vet Sci ; 10: 1129462, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36876002

RESUMO

Cricothyrotomy (CTT) has been recommended for use in the pre-hospital setting for military working dogs and Operational K9s during airway emergencies. Although the CTT can establish a patent airway for spontaneous ventilation, the ability to seal the airway and provide positive pressure ventilation (PPV) using tubes designed for humans has not been determined. Using various CTT tubes placed in cadaver dog airways, this study aimed to determine: (1) Whether the tube cuff could create a functional airway seal with safe intra-cuff pressures; (2) The magnitude of delivered tidal volume (TV) loss during a standard breath to assess the possibility of delivering an adequate tidal volume with a bag-valve device (BVM); (3) The best performing tubes for either test; (4) The reasons behind the findings using observations from upper airway endoscopy, dissection, and measurements. Cadaver dogs of similar weights to MWD and Operational K9 breeds had various CTT tubes placed including three from commercial kits, a standard endotracheal tube, and a tracheostomy tube. The minimum occlusive volume technique was used to inflate the tube cuff and a pressure ≤ 48 cm H2O with an adequate seal was considered successful. Individual TVs were calculated for each dog and added to the volume lost during delivery of a standard breath from an ICU ventilator. Endoscopy and airway dissection were performed to assess the relationship between tubes cuffs and the airway. The tubes from the CTT kits performed poorly with regards to producing an airway seal with the H&H tube failing to seal the airway all tests. Tracheal dimensions were significantly associated with successful airway sealing (P = 0.0004). Tidal volume loss could be compensated using a BVM in 34/35 tests with the H&H tube in cadaver 8 the only to fail. Tracheal airway sealing is influenced by airway anatomy when tube cuffs are inflated to a target pressure and larger tubes do not always provide a better seal. The CTT tubes tested have the potential to facilitate ventilation with a BVM under the conditions set in this study. The 8.0 mm endotracheal tube performed the best and the H&H the worst in both tests.

3.
Front Vet Sci ; 10: 1112604, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36908527

RESUMO

Many dogs experience stress when separated from their caregivers, as well as when traveling in vehicles. Pet owners employ various approaches to managing these issues, from training, to giving medications and supplements, often with mixed results. Cannabidiol (CBD) can alleviate stress and anxiety in humans but the effect it has on canine stress is less well-documented. The present study aimed to understand the impact of being left alone and traveling in a car on measures of canine stress, and establish whether a single dose of a tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-free CBD distillate could positively influence any measures of stress. In a blinded, parallel design study, a population of dogs were either left alone in a familiar room (n = 21) or underwent a short car journey (n = 19). A range of physiological and behavioral measures were collected pre, during and post-test. Significant changes in several stress-related measures (serum cortisol, mean ear temperature, heart rate, heart rate variability, whining and a stressed/anxious behavioral factor) were observed from baseline to test, with the car journey test paradigm eliciting a more pronounced stress response overall. The mitigating effect of CBD treatment varied by measure and test, with some indicating a significant reduction in canine stress compared to the placebo group. Additional research is required to fully understand the complex effect of CBD on canine wellbeing.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1121177, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36910182

RESUMO

Introduction: Porcine circovirus 4 (PCV4) was discovered in 2019 and then proved to be pathogenic to piglets. Nevertheless, few studies were currently available about PCV4 infection in species other than pigs and there is no information about the prevalence of PCV4 in dogs. Methods: To fill this gap, 264 dog samples were collected from animal hospitals in the Southwest of China from 2021 to 2022 and screened for PCV4. Moreover, the complete genome of one PCV4 strain (SCABTC-Dog2022) were obtained successfully and shared a high identity (97.9-99.0%) with other PCV4 strains derived from pigs, dairy cows, raccoon dogs and foxes. The SCABTC-Dog2022 were analyzed together with 51 reference sequences. Results and Discussion: The detected results showed a low percentage of PCV-4 DNA (1.14%, 3/264), indicating that PCV4 could be identified in dogs in southwest China. Phylogenetic tree showed that SCABTC-Dog2022 strain derived from dog were clustered in a closed relative and geographically coherent branch with other PCV4 strains collected from four provinces (Sichuan, Fujian, Hunan and Inner Mongolia) of China. To our knowledge, it is the first detection of PCV4 in dogs globally. The association between PCV4 status and clinical syndromes in dogs deserves additional investigations.

5.
J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg ; 28(1): 80-81, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36910288

RESUMO

Dog bite injuries are common in children. They are a major cause of morbidity and mortality involving commonly the extremities, head, and neck. Injuries to the torso represent only 10% of injuries. Visceral injury by a dog bite in children is a rare clinical scenario with very few cases reported. We present a 2-year-old female child who suffered a severe dog bite injury causing colonic perforation.

6.
Food Sci Biotechnol ; 32(4): 489-496, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36911324

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of the single-cell hemoprotein (heme-SCP) source on animals, a dog-treat (100 g for each dog) harboring 0.2% heme-SCP was manufactured and fed to seven pet dogs (< 10 kg) in a randomized manner (irrespective of owner's feeding style, dogs' health conditions, and staple diets), and the feces before and after the dog-treat diet were analyzed to define the structure of the microbiota. The total bacterial species of the seven dogs showed no difference (564-584), although the bacterial compositions varied significantly. The Firmicutes phylum increased (54.7-73.7%), showing differential species composition before and after heme-SCP intake. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Fusobacteria decreased (5.4-3.8%, 32.9-16.8%, and 6.3-3.6%, respectively), which agreed with the previous observation of deliberate feeding. Therefore, it is conceivable that heme-SCP as a prebiotic can shape the gut microbiota regardless of the administration method. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10068-022-01195-9.

7.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1123366, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36911660

RESUMO

The dog is valued as a companion animal and increasingly recognized as a model for human disorders. Given the importance of T cells in health and disease, comprehensive knowledge of canine T cells can contribute to our understanding of pathogenesis mechanisms and inform the development of new treatment strategies. However, the diversity of canine T cells is still poorly understood mainly due to the lack of species-reactive antibodies for use in flow cytometry. The aim of this study was to generate a detailed atlas of peripheral blood TCRαß+ T cells of healthy dogs using single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNAseq) combined with immune repertoire sequencing. A total of 22 TCRαß+ T cell clusters were identified, which were classified into three major groups: CD4-dominant (11 clusters), CD8A-dominant (8 clusters), and CD4/CD8A-mixed (3 clusters). Based on differential gene expression, distinct differentiation states (naïve, effector, memory, exhausted) and lineages (e.g. CD4 T helper and regulatory T cells) could be distinguished. Importantly, several T cell populations were identified, which have not been described in dogs before. Of particular note, our data provide first evidence for the existence of canine mucosa-associated invariant T cell (MAIT)-like cells, representing one of three newly identified FCER1G+ innate-like CD8A+ T cell populations in the peripheral blood of healthy dogs. In conclusion, using scRNAseq combined with immune repertoire sequencing we were able to resolve canine TCRαß+ T cell populations at unprecedented resolution. The peripheral blood TCRαß+ T cell atlas of healthy dogs generated here represents an important reference data set for future studies and is of relevance for identifying new targets for T cell-specific therapies.


Assuntos
Células T Invariantes Associadas à Mucosa , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta , Cães , Animais , Humanos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Transcriptoma , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Diferenciação Celular
8.
Vet Med Sci ; 2023 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36867640

RESUMO

A 9-year-old castrated male Kaninchen dachshund dog weighing 4.18 kg was referred to our institution and presented with occasional vomiting and dysphagia. The radiographic examination revealed a long radiopaque foreign body located throughout the thoracic oesophagus. Endoscopic removal was attempted using laparoscopic forceps but was unsuccessful as the foreign body was too large to be grasped. A gastrotomy was therefore performed, and long paean forceps were gently and blindly inserted into the cardia of the stomach. The bone foreign body was grasped with the long paean forceps under fluoroscopy and withdrawn from the oesophagus while checking with an endoscope. A gastrotomy approach using long forceps, endoscopy and fluoroscopy should be considered for removal of oesophageal foreign bodies from patients in which an endoscopic approach has been unsuccessful.

9.
Vet World ; 16(1): 154-160, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36855344

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Anemia is an important factor in surviving chronic kidney disease (CKD). Anemia in CKD is associated with various factors, such as inadequate production of erythropoietin and the availability of iron and its binding protein. Reduced total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) and iron concentrations may be related to their urinary loss along with proteinuria. This study aimed to determine the urinary loss of iron and transferrin (TF) in relation to the degree of proteinuria. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 37 dogs with CKD. Dogs were divided according to the severity of proteinuria into two groups based on the mean of urinary protein-creatinine (UPC) ratio into UPC ratio <4 and UPC ratio >4. The hematocrit (HCT), blood chemistries, plasma iron, plasma TF, UPC ratio, urinary iron per creatinine ratio (U-Iron/CR), and urinary TF per creatinine ratio (U-TF/CR) were evaluated. Results: Anemia was associated with the severity of renal impairment as demonstrated by reduction of HCT when staging of CKD was higher. Dogs with UPC ratio >4 had higher urinary loss of both U-Iron/CR (p < 0.01) and U-TF/CR (p < 0.001) with lower plasma TIBC (p < 0.001). The UPC ratio was positively correlated with both U-Iron/CR (r = 0.710, p < 0.001) and U-TF/CR (r = 0.730, p < 0.001) but negatively with TIBC (r = -0.462, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Proteinuria was associated with urinary loss of both iron and TF which may contribute to anemia in CKD.

10.
Vet World ; 16(1): 12-17, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36855362

RESUMO

Background and Aim: The behavioral mechanism of stray dog occurrence is associated with domestication process. This study aimed to investigate the population and demographic relationship of stray dogs from our ecological habitat. We tested whether baited enclosure method could be used as an operant conditioning treat-ment to activate habituation behavior in stray dogs. Materials and Methods: The first investigation determined the population and demographic characteristics of stray dogs in the metropolitan city of Bangkok using the mark and recapture procedure. In the second investigation, a large cage equipped with a digital camera was used as the feeding and habituation area. Food was provided at four corners for 2 h. The approach behaviors and eating patterns were recorded during this period for 7 days. Results: The average number of stray dogs calculated within each cluster was 24 ± 6 dogs. For the natural small habitat, the density of stray dogs was 662 dogs per km2. This indicated that the number of dogs is underestimated using the mark and recapture procedure because of undetected puppies and shifts in the sex ratio in adult dogs. In the second investigation, we demonstrated that food was a potent positive reinforcer for stray dogs. The average onset of cage entry after offering the food was 17 min. The onset of cage entry and the reduction in the first meal duration suggested that the habituation process could be achieved within 1 week. Conclusion: The results revealed the possibility of using a large cage as a novel enclosure for food offered as the positive reinforcer for TNR program trapping procedures. We suggest that this humane trapping procedure could be used to activate habituation behavior in stray dogs.

11.
Toxicon ; : 107086, 2023 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36914100

RESUMO

In July 2018 three dogs died after visiting the Wolastoq (Saint John River) near Fredericton, New Brunswick, in Atlantic Canada. All showed signs of toxicosis, and necropsies revealed non-specific pulmonary edema and multiple microscopic brain hemorrhages. Liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analysis of vomitus and stomach contents as well as water and biota from the mortality sites confirmed the presence of anatoxins (ATXs), a class of potent neurotoxic alkaloids. The highest levels were measured in a dried benthic cyanobacterial mat that two of the dogs had been eating before falling ill and in a vomitus sample collected from one of the dogs. Concentrations of 357 and 785 mg/kg for anatoxin-a and dihydroanatoxin-a, respectively, were measured in the vomitus. Known anatoxin-producing species of Microcoleus were tentatively identified using microscopy and confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The ATX synthetase gene, anaC, was detected in the samples and isolates. The pathology and experimental results confirmed the role of ATXs in these dog mortalities. Further research is required to understand drivers for toxic cyanobacteria in the Wolastoq and to develop methodology for assessing occurrence.

12.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2023 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36916778

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prenatal and early-life dog exposure has been linked to reduced childhood allergy and asthma. A potential mechanism includes altered early immune development in response to changes in the gut microbiome among dog-exposed infants. We thus sought to determine whether infants born into homes with indoor dog(s) exhibit altered gut microbiome development. METHODS: Pregnant women living in homes with dogs or in pet-free homes were recruited in southeast Michigan. Infant stool samples were collected at intervals between 1 week and 18 months after birth and microbiome was assessed using 16S ribosomal sequencing. Perinatal maternal vaginal/rectal swabs and stool samples were sequenced from a limited number of mothers. Mixed effect adjusted models were used to assess stool microbial community trajectories comparing infants from dog-keeping versus pet-free homes with adjustment for relevant covariates. RESULTS: Infant gut microbial composition among vaginally born babies became less similar to the maternal vaginal/rectal microbiota and more similar to the maternal gut microbiota with age-related accumulation of bacterial species with advancing age. Stool samples from dog-exposed infants were microbially more diverse (p = .041) through age 18 months with enhanced diversity most apparent between 3 and 6 months of age. Statistically significant effects of dog exposure on ß-diversity metrics were restricted to formula-fed children. Across the sample collection period, dog exposure was associated with Fusobacterium genera enrichment, as well as enrichment of Collinsella, Ruminococcus, Clostridaceae and Lachnospiraceae OTUs. CONCLUSION: Prenatal/early-life dog exposure is associated with an altered gut microbiome during infancy and supports a potential mechanism explaining lessened atopy and asthma risk. Further research directly linking specific dog-attributable changes in the infant gut microbiome to the risk of allergic disorders is needed.

13.
Vet Dermatol ; 2023 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36938838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycerinated allergen extracts contain 50% glycerin, an excellent preservative. While glycerin is a recognised irritant in humans, the utility of glycerinated extracts for intradermal testing has not been validated in dogs. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE: To determine and compare the effects of glycerin on immediate cutaneous reactions to intradermal injections of histamine and saline in healthy dogs. ANIMALS: Eight healthy laboratory beagles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was designed as a randomised, blinded study. Intradermal injections of histamine (positive control) and saline (negative control) in aqueous and glycerinated (50%) forms were performed on the right thorax. Global wheal scores (GWS) at 20 min were evaluated by two independent investigators blinded to the interventions. RESULTS: There were no wheal and flare reactions observed after the intradermal injections of phenolated saline. By contrast, 50% glycerosaline injections induced erythema and induration in all dogs. Global wheal scores were significantly higher in aqueous histamine (Friedman test, p < 0.0001) and 50% glycerinated histamine (Friedman test, p = 0.0084) compared to phenolated saline controls. Interestingly, only aqueous histamine (Friedman test, p = 0.01) had significantly higher GWS than 50% glycerosaline injections, while no significant difference in GWS between 50% glycerinated histamine and 50% glycerosaline groups was observed (Friedman test, p = 0.59). CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study demonstrates that intradermal injection of 50% glycerosaline induces erythema and induration skin reactions in healthy dogs that can mimic positive reactions to allergenic extracts. Further dilutions of glycerinated positive and negative control solutions need to be optimised for intradermal testing in dogs.

14.
Parasitol Res ; 2023 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36939921

RESUMO

Dirofilaria repens is an expanding vector-borne zoonotic parasite of canines and other carnivores. Sub-clinically infected dogs constitute the most important reservoir of the parasite and the source of infection for its mosquito vectors. However, occurrence of D. repens infection in wild animals may contribute to the transmission of the parasite to humans and may explain the endemicity of filariae in newly invaded regions. The aim of the current study was to determine the occurrence of D. repens in 511 blood and spleen samples from seven species of wild carnivores (wolves, red foxes, Eurasian badgers, raccoons, raccoon dogs, stone martens, and pine martens) from different regions of Poland by means of a PCR protocol targeting the 12S rDNA gene. Dirofilaria repens-positive hosts were identified in seven of fourteen voivodeships in four of the seven regions of Poland: Masovia, Lesser Poland, Pomerania and Warmia-Masuria. The highest prevalence was found in Masovia region (8%), coinciding with the highest previously recorded prevalence in dogs in Central Poland. The DNA of Dirofilaria was detected in 16 samples of three species (total prevalence 3.13%). A low and similar percentage of positive samples (1.9%, 4.2% and 4.8%) was recorded among badgers, red foxes, and wolves, respectively. Dirofilaria repens-positive hosts were identified in seven of fourteen voivodships. Based on detection in different voivodeships, D. repens-positive animals were recorded in four out of the seven regions of Poland: in Masovia, Lesser Poland, Pomerania, and Warmia-Masuria. The highest prevalence of filariae was found in Masovia region (8%), reflecting the highest previously recorded prevalence in dogs (12-50%) in Central Poland. In summary, we conducted the first comprehensive study on the epidemiology of D. repens in seven species of wild hosts in all seven regions of Poland and identified the first case of D. repens infection in Eurasian badgers in Poland and the second in Europe.

15.
Vet Comp Oncol ; 2023 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36905215

RESUMO

Cancer is a substantial global health problem both in humans and animals with a consistent increase in mortality and incidence rate. The commensal microbiota has been involved in the regulation of several physiological and pathological processes, both within the gastrointestinal system and at distant tissue locations. Cancer is not an exception, and different aspects of the microbiome have been described to have anti- or pro-tumour effects. Using new techniques, for example high-throughput DNA sequencing, microbial populations of the human body have been largely described and, in the last years, studies more focused on companions' animals have emerged. In general, the recent investigations of faecal microbial phylogeny and functional capacity of the canine and feline gut have shown similarities with human gut. In this translational study we will review and summarize the relation between the microbiota and cancer, in humans and companion animals, and compare their resemblance in the type of neoplasms already studied in veterinary medicine: multicentric and intestinal lymphoma, colorectal tumours, nasal neoplasia and mast cell tumours. In the context of One Health, microbiota and microbiome integrative studies may contribute to the understanding of the tumourigenesis process, besides offering an opportunity to develop new diagnostics and therapeutic biomarkers both for veterinary and human oncology.

16.
Front Allergy ; 4: 1133412, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36960093

RESUMO

Introduction: Pet lipocalins are respiratory allergens with a central hydrophobic ligand-binding cavity called a calyx. Molecules carried in the calyx by allergens are suggested to influence allergenicity, but little is known about the native ligands. Methods: To provide more information on prospective ligands, we report crystal structures, NMR, molecular dynamics, and florescence studies of a dog lipocalin allergen Can f 1 and its closely related (and cross-reactive) cat allergen Fel d 7. Results: Structural comparisons with reported lipocalins revealed that Can f 1 and Fel d 7 calyxes are open and positively charged while other dog lipocalin allergens are closed and negatively charged. We screened fatty acids as surrogate ligands, and found that Can f 1 and Fel d 7 bind multiple ligands with preferences for palmitic acid (16:0) among saturated fatty acids and oleic acid (18:1 cis-9) among unsaturated ones. NMR analysis of methyl probes reveals that conformational changes occur upon binding of pinolenic acid inside the calyx. Molecular dynamics simulation shows that the carboxylic group of fatty acids shuttles between two positively charged amino acids inside the Can f 1 and Fel d 7 calyx. Consistent with simulations, the stoichiometry of oleic acid-binding is 2:1 (fatty acid: protein) for Can f 1 and Fel d 7. Discussion: The results provide valuable insights into the determinants of selectivity and candidate ligands for pet lipocalin allergens Can f 1 and Fel d 7.

17.
Vet Comp Oncol ; 2023 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36907653

RESUMO

Canine cutaneous mast cell tumours (cMCTs) of the pinna have been associated with an aggressive biological behaviour, although data remain scarce. The knowledge acquired over the past years on histologic gradings, and the value of lymph node (LN) staging, may help in better characterizing this anatomical presentation. The first aim was to describe the frequency, location, and histologic appearance of LN metastases in cMCT of the pinna. A second aim was to evaluate prognosis. Medical records of dogs with cMCT of the pinna, that underwent tumour and sentinel (SLN) or regional LN (RLN) excision, were reviewed. The influence of potential prognostic variables on time to progression (TTP) and tumour-specific survival (TSS) was investigated. Thirty-nine dogs were included: 19 (48.7%) had Kiupel high-grade (K-HG) and 20 (51.3%) had low-grade (K-LG) MCTs. Eighteen (46.1%) dogs underwent SLN mapping: the superficial cervical LN was at least one of SLN in 17 (94.4%) cases. Twenty-two (56.4%) dogs had LN metastases; the superficial cervical LN was always involved. On multivariable analysis, only K-HG was associated with increased risk of progression (p = .043) and tumour-related death (p = .021). Median TTP and TSS were 270 and 370 days in K-HG, respectively; these were not reached in dogs with K-LG tumours (p < .01). cMCTs of the pinna are often K-HG and are also associated with a higher frequency of LN metastasis; however, we confirmed the independent prognostic value of histologic grading. A multimodal treatment may lead to favourable long-term outcome. Moreover, the superficial cervical LN is most often the SLN.

18.
Vet Ophthalmol ; 2023 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36943897

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of multidirectional corneoconjunctival transposition (CCT) as a surgical treatment for large keratomalacia. METHOD: A prospective study including dogs and cats initially presenting with keratomalacia larger than 6 × 6 mm and affecting more than half of the corneal thickness. Signalment, concurrent eye diseases, ulcer size, bacterial culture and susceptibility testing results, follow-up, and outcome were recorded. The surgery consisted of harvesting of two or three opposite corneoconjunctival grafts, after removal of the malacic tissue using a square-edge keratectomy. The medical treatment consisted of administration of topical and systemic antibiotics, topical atropine, and N-acetylcysteine. Follow-up examinations were performed at D7, D14, D21, and D28, and then at various time points. The corneal clarity score (CCS) was recorded upon completion of the follow-up period. RESULTS: Seven dogs and five cats were included. Brachycephalic dogs were overrepresented, with no breed predisposition in cats. Concurrent eye diseases were corneal pigmentation in three dogs, hypopyon in two dogs, nictitating membrane wound in one dog, and corneal perforation in one cat. The size of the keratomalacia ranged from 6 × 6 to 9.5 × 11.5 mm. The short-term complications were suture dehiscence (two of 12) and progression of the keratomalacia (one of 12). The long-term complications were corneal pigmentation (10 of 12), corneal epithelial inclusion cyst (two of 12), and marginal synechiae (one of 12). All animals were sighted at the last follow-up. The median CCS was G3 (range G2-G4). CONCLUSION: Multidirectional CCT is an effective surgical treatment for large keratomalacia in dogs and cats.

19.
Eplasty ; 23: e13, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36919153

RESUMO

Background: In 2020, reduction mammoplasties and mastopexies comprised 34.2% of all breast surgeries performed by plastic surgeons. Various approaches for the skin incision of these procedures have been described. The vertical pattern has become an increasingly popular option due to its lower scar burden. However, it is prone to dog-ear formation along the caudal aspect of the incision. Herein, we describe 5 technical steps to eliminate the dog-ear in patients undergoing vertical mammoplasties. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who underwent vertical breast reduction and mastopexy between the years 2008 and 2020 performed by the senior author. The 5 steps employed in eliminating the dog-ear are delineated and depicted pictorially. Results: A total of 58 patients and 89 breasts were operated upon. A majority of 66.6% were Caucasian, 33.3% were African American, and 1 patient was of Hispanic descent. The mean age was 53.2 years (19-73 years), and average BMI was 31.5 kg/m2 (21.3-42.7 kg/m2). The average resection weights for reduction and mastopexy patients were 479 grams (100-1500 grams) and 58.1 grams (18-100 grams), respectively. Mean follow-up was 10.5 months (1-35 months). Only one patient developed a dog-ear (1.7%) in bilateral breasts (2.2%); however, the patient did not request a revision. Our revision rate over 13 years remained at 0%. Conclusions: Utilizing these 5 technical steps reduces the risk of dog-ear deformity and thereby diminishes the overall need for revisional surgery in patients undergoing short scar vertical mammoplasties.

20.
ALTEX ; 2023 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36888967

RESUMO

Progress in developing new tools, assays, and approaches to assess human hazard and health risk provides an opportunity to re-evaluate the necessity of dog studies for the safety evaluation of agrochemicals. A workshop was held where participants discussed the strengths and limitations of past use of dogs for pesticide evaluations and registrations. Opportunities were identified to support alternative approaches to answer human safety questions without performing the required 90-day dog study. Development of a decision tree for determining when the dog study might not be necessary to inform pesticide safety and risk assessment was proposed. Such a process will require global regulatory authority participation to lead to its acceptance. The identification of unique effects in dogs that are not identified in rodents will need further evaluation and determination of their relevance to humans. The establishment of in vitro and in silico approaches that can provide critical data on relative species sensitivity and human relevance will be an important tool to advance the decision process. Promising novel tools including in vitro comparative metabolism studies, in silico models, and high-throughput assays able to identify metabolites and mechanisms of action leading to development of adverse outcome pathways will need further development. To replace or eliminate the 90-day dog study, a collaborative, multidisciplinary, international effort that transcends organizations and regulatory agencies will be needed in order to develop guidance on when the study would not be necessary for human safety and risk assessment.

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