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1.
Cureus ; 14(7): e26536, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35936175

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: School children are a means to reach and sensitize the community on the prevention of seasonal diseases such as malaria and dengue. The current study aims to determine the impact of school-based educational interventions on the knowledge of students toward the prevention and control of malaria and dengue in higher secondary schools. METHODS: This pre- and post-intervention study was conducted in three higher secondary schools in Zone IV, North Chennai, from September to December 2021. A total of 284 students in the age group of 13-17 years participated in the study. School-based educational interventions were delivered through PowerPoint-assisted lectures, participatory group activities, and demonstration of mosquito larvae and their control. The impact of the interventions as the change in knowledge level was analyzed using McNemar's test, with a p-value of <0.05. RESULTS:  Educational interventions led to the improvement in knowledge about malaria symptoms, such as fever (43.7% to 76.1%; p<0.001), chills (45.1% to 82.4%; p<0.001), and headache (46.1% to 86.6%; p<0.001), and the knowledge of Aedes mosquito bites as the cause of dengue transmission enhanced (41.9% to 92.2%; p<0.001). Similarly, there was an increase in knowledge on the identification of vector mosquito breeding sites inside the house (11.9% to 67.9%; p<0.001) and outside the house (10.9% to 69.7%; p<0.001) and mosquito net usage (21.5% to 76.1%; p<0.001) after the interventions. CONCLUSION: School-based educational interventions had a significant impact on enhancing the knowledge on the prevention and control of malaria and dengue among school children. Involving school children can strengthen existing malaria and dengue prevention and control strategies in endemic areas.

2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 961342, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937234

RESUMO

Introduction: The main purpose of this study was to investigate children's swimming competence in primary schools of districts in Vojvodina, Serbia. Methods: Included subjects were primary school students from first to eighth grade (N = 2,778; male = 1,454, female = 1,324; age = 10.73 ± 2.1 years). We used Swimming Competence Questionnaire to acquire and analyze their swimming experience, non-fatal aquatic events, and demographics. For the statistical analysis, logistic regression and hierarchical multiple regression were used to evaluate if the factors and SC and NFAE were associated. The analyses were carried out by using SPSS® software version 24.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). Results: Families with more income and education generally have children with more swimming competence, experience, knowledge, and skills related to water safety. First step in analysis revealed that gender (ß = 0.05, p < 0.01), education level (ß = 0.06, p < 0.01) age (ß = 0.171, p < 0.01), and family income (ß = 0.04, p < 0.01) were significant swimming competence (SC) predictors (R2 = 0.04). Age (OR = 1.15, p < 0.01) was the only significant predictor in Step 1 predicting non-fatal aquatic events (NFAE). In Step 2, variables associated with SC were swimming location (ΔR2 = 0.06, p < 0.01), swimming experience (ΔR2 = 0.16, p < 0.01), swimming accessibility (ΔR2 = 0.05, p < 0.01), and learning experience (ΔR2 = 0.03, p < 0.01) (total R2 = 0.26 to 0.47, p < 0.01). Only a minority of participants reported that they could not swim further than 5 meters using general stroke (37.15%). Conclusion: National education trainers programs must be prioritized with the primary strategy of transferring knowledge to swimming and water safety. Families with lower income must be included without exceptions. This is perhaps a key factor in preventing NFAE, increasing SC, and increasing water safety.


Assuntos
Afogamento , Natação , Criança , Afogamento/epidemiologia , Afogamento/prevenção & controle , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Natação/educação , Água
3.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 224: 105513, 2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914332

RESUMO

A growing body of research suggests that mathematical anxiety (MA) seriously affects an individual's math achievement. However, few studies have focused on the cognitive mechanisms of MA in elementary school children. Based on attention control theory (ACT), this research aimed to explore the cognitive mechanism of MA in elementary school children using two studies. In Study 1, the dual-task paradigm of number memory and computation span was used to investigate the difference in processing efficiency between the high-mathematical anxiety (HMA) group and the low-mathematical anxiety (LMA) group. In total, 59 students with HMA and 54 students with LMA participated in Study 1. The results showed that students with HMA had lower processing efficiency in dealing with high-load math tasks. To further investigate the underlying mechanism of low processing efficiency for students with HMA, Study 2 explored the attention bias toward math-related stimuli of students with HMA using the Posner paradigm. In total, 48 students with HMA and 49 students with LMA participated in Study 2. The results showed that math trials put children with HMA in a state of heightened vigilance in general, which might be related to the low processing efficiency in dealing with high-load math tasks. These findings support the ACT and further reveal the mechanism of MA in elementary school children from a cognitive perspective.

4.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 477, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STHs) are the major public health problem in the world especially in school age children. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the burden of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni among Ambesame primary school children, North-West Ethiopia. METHOD: A cross sectional study was carried out at Ambasame primary school children from March to May, 2019. Study participants were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Socio-demographic characteristics and other factors were collected using structured questionnaire. Moreover, stool samples were examined microscopically using wet mount and formol ether concentration techniques. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Logistic regression analysis was done to investigate the association between dependent and independent variables. P-value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULT: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 117(31.2%). The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthes and S.mansoni was 110 (29.3%) using formol ether concentration technique. The most predominant parasite was S. mansoni (10.7%), followed by hookworm (5.6%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that, helminthic infection was associated with children less than 7 years of age (P-value = 0.019, AOR = 3.29, 95% CI (1.21-8.91)); fathers who are able to read and write (P-value< 0.001, AOR = 5.4, 95% CI (2.37-12.33)); absence of latrine (P-value = 0.016, AOR = 12.96, 95% CI (1.60-104.87)) and untrimmed nail (P-value = 0.043, AOR = 2.09, 95% CI (1.02-4.27)). CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the prevalence of intestinal helminthes among Ambasame primary school children was relatively high. The lower educational status of father, absence of latrine and untrimmed finger nail showed statistically significant association with intestinal helminthic infection. This indicates the school community, health offices and other stakeholders should plan a strategy to tackle problems associated with sanitary condition. Furthermore, Health policy makers, healthcare workers and health extension workers should enhance their effort of awareness creation for school children, parents, school community about personal hygiene, environmental sanitation, intestinal parasites transmission, prevention and control. Moreover, mass deworming of school children and periodic screening for parasitic infection should be done.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Esquistossomose mansoni , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Éteres , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Formaldeído , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Solo/parasitologia
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 926571, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910935

RESUMO

Background: Bangladesh faces a double burden of malnutrition, with a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity among children parallel to existing undernutrition. Objective: The current study was designed to assess the determinants of double burden of malnutrition among urban school children from Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,690 students from 14 schools in Dhaka city from January to June 2018. Anthropometric measurements were taken during school hours, and self-administered questionnaires were sent to the parents. We performed multi-level multiple logistic regression analyses to assess the determinants of underweight, overweight, and obesity. Findings: The prevalence of overweight (33%) and obesity (23%) was highest among children and adolescents from high tuition schools but the prevalence of underweight (4%) was lowest compared to those from low (underweight 19%, overweight 17%, and obesity 6%) and medium (underweight 18%, overweight 15%, and obesity 6%) tuition schools. Children from high-tuition schools had higher odds of being overweight/ obese (AOR: 2.92; 95% CI: 1.90, 4.49). Parental NCDs and overweight were negatively associated with underweight but positively associated with overweight and obesity among children. Lack of physical activity inside schools was positively associated (AOR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.55) with overweight and obesity among school children. Conclusion: Our results point to opportunities in and outside schools to address the rising prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity among urban school children.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , População Urbana
6.
Work ; 2022 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carrying a properly weighted schoolbag is an important factor in preventing the occurrence of muscular skeletal disorder in early school age children. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this cross- sectional observational study was to examine the schoolbag weight and to determine the percentage of children were carrying overloaded schoolbag. METHODS: The study group included pupils from five primary public schools in Wroclaw, Poland. Anthropometrical measurements such body weight (BW) and height were conducted on 650 children (51.1% of boys). Children's age, gender, Cole's Index was juxtaposed with schoolbag weight. The mean age of the examined students was 8.7±0.8 years (range 7 to 10 years). RESULTS: The mean schoolbags weight was 3.7±0.92 kg, which represented 13.0±3.8% of pupils' BW. The percentage of pupils carry the schoolbags weighing more than 10% of their BW was 77.9% . More than a quarter of Polish children carry school backpack above 15% of their BW. The majority (96.8%) had schoolbags which may be carried on both shoulders. A significant negative correlation was observed between relative schoolbag weight and Cole's Index (rho = -0.44, p <  0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The problem of overloaded schoolbags among elementary school children was frequent. Pupils ought to be educated in the proper packing of their school backpacks. Additionally, parents and teachers should pay attention regarding the contents carried by children in their respective schoolbags.

7.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(8): 3040-3044, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918969

RESUMO

Purpose: Novel coronavirus has brought huge changes in lifestyle, especially among children. Reports indicate that the prevalence of refractive errors among children has increased due to home confinement. Hence, this study was done to understand the current status of refractive errors among children from public schools in southern India. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted as part of school eye screening conducted between September and October 2021. Children between 14 and 17 years of age from public schools underwent a three-phased comprehensive eye examination. Children identified with refractive errors and an equal proportion of children without any refractive errors underwent a survey on outdoor activities. Prevalence estimates and 95% confidence interval were calculated. Chi-square tests and regression analysis were used to understand the association between refractive error and other variables. Results: From the data of 3,850 (90.69%) children, the prevalence of vision impairment, refractive errors, and myopia in at least one eye was found to be 12.83% (n = 494), 21.51% (n = 828), and 19.53% (n = 752), respectively. The average myopic spherical equivalent error was found to be -2.17 ± 1.11D (range:-0.50 D to -14.00 D). Almost 96.82% of girls had less than 3 h of outdoor activities. Refractive errors were 7.42 and 2.77 times more (95% CI: 3.51-15.70), P < 0.001) among children who had outdoor activities less than 3 h per day and sleep less than 7 h per day. Conclusion: Comparing to previous studies from North Indian and South Indian public schools, this study reports a three- to six-fold rise in myopia post-home confinement among public school children from India.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Miopia , Erros de Refração , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia
8.
Parasitol Int ; 91: 102638, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926695

RESUMO

This study performed a cross-sectional investigation on the prevalence of Entamoeba complex infection comprising Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii and their associated risk factors among the Orang Asli school children in three districts in Perak, Malaysia. Stool samples collected from 544 school children aged between 7 and 12 years old were examined through the nested multiplex PCR assay. The univariate and multivariate regression analyses were then carried out to determine the risk factor associated with Entamoeba complex infection. The overall prevalence of Entamoeba complex infections (E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii) was 21.3% (116/544). Most positive school children were infected with E. moshkovskii (10.7%; 58/544), followed by E. dispar (9.0%; 49/544) and E. histolytica (5.0%; 27/544). Not washing their hands after using the toilet was identified as the only significant risk factor for E. histolytica. The significant risk factors associated with E. moshkovskii infection included children within the age of 10-12 years old, with high BMI, living with working and non-educated mothers, no toilet in the house, not washing their hands after using the toilet, and fever. On the other hand, drinking water from the river, well, and rain was associated with a decreased risk of E. dispar infection. In conclusion, this study showed a high prevalence of Entamoeba spp. infections among the Orang Asli school children in Perak, Malaysia. Addressing the identified risk factors coupled with a holistic approach in breaking the transmission of Entamoeba complex can help improve their quality of life.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with a stronger sense of coherence (SOC) often show healthier behaviors. As parents, especially mothers, are behavioral role models for their children, this study aimed to explore the role of the mothers' SOC in prediction of the risk of dental caries in a sample of children aged 11-12 years old. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with 173 mother-child pairs enrolled by multi-stage sampling from four public schools in Torbat-e-Heydarieh, Iran. The data were obtained, using a demographic-health information sheet and the SOC-13 scale. Dental examinations of children were performed using the decay, missing and filled teeth index for primary (dmft) and permanent teeth (DMFT). Poisson regression analyses estimated the role of the mothers' SOC in predicting the relative risk (RR) of children's dental caries. RESULTS: Mean dmft and DMFT were 3.4 ± 3.1 and 2.7 ± 2.9 respectively (medium severity). After controlling for demographic and health variables in regression models, greater maternal SOC indicated a protective effect against dental caries in primary (RR: 0.96; 95% CI:0.96-0-97) and permanent teeth (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.95-0.97) of their children. CONCLUSIONS: With greater maternal SOC, the risk of children's dental caries decreased. Whilst this relationship was not as strong as in previous studies in other countries, it can be a platform for further research and perhaps planning to identify children who are at a greater risk of dental caries before starting dental examinations in schools.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805623

RESUMO

Knowledge is needed about effective tools that reach public health objectives focused on reducing the intake of sugar-rich foods and drinks. The purpose of this study was to assess the parental acceptability, use and motivational potential of intervention components developed in the randomized family-based trial 'Are you too sweet?' aimed at reducing the intake of sugar-rich foods and drinks among children (5-7 y). Intervention components included guidance on sugar-rich foods and drinks at a school health nurse consultation, a box with home-use materials and a digital platform. The methods used were a questionnaire among intervention families (n = 83) and semi-structured interviews with parents in selected intervention families (n = 24). Results showed the good acceptability and usefulness of the components, with reported frequencies of use of materials ranging from 48% to 94% and a high satisfaction rate with the school health nurse consultation. Personalized feedback and guidance from the school health nurse seemed to be a motivational trigger, and components that were compatible with existing practices were most frequently used. However, the components were not considered engaging by all families. Overall, intervention components were well received and hold the potential for enhancing parental knowledge and parenting practices regarding limiting the intake of sugar-rich foods and drinks.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Açúcares , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
11.
Child Obes ; 2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35881859

RESUMO

Background: The "fat but fit" paradigm suggests that high fitness levels counteract the negative consequences of obesity on cardiometabolic risk, nevertheless, this paradigm has been less studied in children. Objectives: To analyze the relationship between "fat but fit" categories and cardiometabolic risk factors in school children, and to examine whether the intensity of physical activity (PA) is related with the fat but fit (FF) category in which the child is classified. Methods: We analyzed the baseline measurements of 312 school children aged 9-11 years involved in the clinical trial MOVI-daFit!, including adiposity parameters (BMI, waist circumference, and body fat mass percentage), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), blood pressure parameters, PA, and biochemical parameters (blood lipid profile, insulin, C-reactive protein, and glycosylated hemoglobin). Results: The cluster analysis of body fat mass percentage and VO2 max estimate z-scores agreed with the four categories of the "fat but fit" paradigm: fat unfit (FU), unfat unfit (UU), FF, and unfat fit (UF). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) models indicated that children in the FF and UF clusters had better levels of biochemical parameters [high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides (TG), TG/HDL-c, insulin], vigorous PA amount and metabolic syndrome (MetS) index than their peers in the FU and UU cluster categories (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results reinforce the "fat but fit" paradigm proving that CRF levels can counteract the effect of obesity on some cardiometabolic risk factors (HDL-c, TG, TG/HDL-c, insulin, PA, and MetS) in school children. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03236337.

12.
Children (Basel) ; 9(7)2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35884022

RESUMO

The playground is perhaps the one area where school children feel like they can roam free, and public playgrounds provide many learning opportunities through different types of play. A cross-sectional descriptive study is presented with the objective of studying playground safety and the play behavior of primary school children at a park in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand. The total number of playground equipment pieces was 22, the sample group of children was 362 children, and the data were collected using a playground safety survey and an observation form on playground play behavior. Data were collected from 2017 to 2018 and were analyzed using descriptive statistics including frequency, average, and standard deviation. The research showed that: (1) the most common defects of playground equipment included the material selection, the distance of the stair steps, and the height of the playground equipment; (2) the lack of awareness of children in terms of using the playground equipment safely; and (3) the three top risks in the play behavior of children were not checking equipment or toys before play, playing on the equipment over-adventurously, and playing on the equipment carelessly with friends. Related government agencies should provide support and management for playground areas and playground equipment by continuously implementing equipment checks, improvements, and repairs.

13.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 892005, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35846287

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: As the worldwide secular trends are toward earlier puberty, identification of contributing factors for precocious puberty is critical. We aimed to identify and optimize contributing factors responsible for onset of precocious puberty via machine learning/deep learning algorithms in girls. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed among girls aged 6-16 years from 26 schools in Beijing based on a cluster sampling method. Information was gleaned online via questionnaires. Machine/deep learning algorithms were performed using Python language (v3.7.6) on PyCharm platform. Results: Of 11308 students enrolled, there are 5527 girls, and 408 of them had experienced precocious puberty. Training 13 machine learning algorithms revealed that gradient boosting machine (GBM) performed best in predicting precocious puberty. By comparison, six top factors including maternal age at menarche, paternal body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio, maternal BMI, screen time, and physical activity were sufficient in prediction performance, with accuracy of 0.9530, precision of 0.9818, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.7861. The performance of the top six factors was further validated by deep learning sequential model, with accuracy reaching 92.9%. Conclusions: We identified six important factors from both parents and girls that can help predict the onset of precocious puberty among Chinese girls.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Puberdade Precoce , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Puberdade Precoce/diagnóstico , Puberdade Precoce/epidemiologia
14.
Front Psychol ; 13: 882913, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35846704

RESUMO

Representational momentum (RM) is a well-known phenomenon that occurs when a moving object vanishes suddenly and the memory of its final or vanishing position is displaced forward in the direction of its motion. Many studies have shown evidence of various perceptual and cognitive characteristics of RM in various daily aspects, sports, development, and aging. Here we examined the longitudinal developmental changes in the displacement magnitudes of RM among younger (5-year-old) and older (6-year-old) nursery school children for pointing and judging tasks. In our experiments, the children were asked to point at by their finger (pointing task) and judge the spatial location (judging task) of the vanishing point of a moving stimulus. Our results showed that the mean magnitudes of RM significantly decreased from 5- to 6-year-old children for the pointing and judging tasks, although the mean magnitude of RM was significantly greater in the 5-year-old children for the pointing task but not for the judging task. We further examined the developmental changes in RM for a wide range of ages based on data from the present study (5-year-old children) and our previous study (7- and 11-year-old children and 22-year-old adults). This ad hoc examination showed that the magnitude of RM was significantly greater in 5-year-old children than in adults for the pointing and judging tasks. Our findings suggest that the magnitude of RM was significantly greater in young children than in adults and significantly decreased in young children through adults for the pointing and judging tasks.

15.
Int J Environ Health Res ; : 1-12, 2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35801677

RESUMO

The aim was to compare the emotional status and problem behavior of pre-school children according to their mother's occupational status in two groups before the pandemic and during the pandemic period. Mothers were asked to fill out a survey form containing sociodemographic characteristics, the Emotion Regulation Checklist (ERC) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) . Total ERC and Emotion Regulation Subscale scores were significantly higher and Lability-Negativity Subscale scores, conduct problems, peer relationship problems, internalising scores and total SDQ scores were significantly lower in the pandemic period group than in the pre-pandemic group. The occupational status of mothers in the PanP and Pre-Pan groups did not significantly differ in ERC scores, peer relationship problems scores, and prosocial behavior, whereas, internalization was lower during PanP and was associated with the mother's occupational status.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35811467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-concept plays a role as a mediator in the development and maintenance of internalizing symptoms but mechanisms through which the early presence of anxiety symptoms is associated with the subsequent development of depression is unknown. The aim of this longitudinal study was to analyze the mediating role of different areas of self-concept in the relationship between the early development of anxiety symptoms and the later appearance of depressive symptoms. METHODS: A longitudinal study with 3 time-points was conducted, including baseline, 2 months and 12 months from the baseline assessment. A total of 217 children aged 8-12 years participated. Mediation analyses were conducted using PROCESS Macro for SPSS. RESULTS: Academic self-concept (Time 2) mediated the relationship between Anxiety (Time 1) and Depression (Time 3) when controlling for children's sex and, age, baseline value of the mediator, anxiety (at Times 2 and 3), and depression (at Times 1 and 2). Children with self-reports of higher anxiety symptoms (Time 1) presented lower Academic self-concept (Time 2). Children who reported lower levels of Academic self-concept and Family self-concept (Time 2) were more likely to develop depressive symptoms (Time 3). CONCLUSIONS: Feeling competent in the school environment may be considered a protective factor against the development of depression in childhood. The identification of risk factors facilitates the development and implementation of preventive programs.

17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 655, 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although previous epidemiological studies have examined the potential risk factors that increase the likelihood of acquiring Helicobacter pylori infections, most of these analyses have utilized conventional statistical models, including logistic regression, and have not benefited from advanced machine learning techniques. OBJECTIVE: We examined H. pylori infection risk factors among school children using machine learning algorithms to identify important risk factors as well as to determine whether machine learning can be used to predict H. pylori infection status. METHODS: We applied feature selection and classification algorithms to data from a school-based cross-sectional survey in Ethiopia. The data set included 954 school children with 27 sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. We conducted five runs of tenfold cross-validation on the data. We combined the results of these runs for each combination of feature selection (e.g., Information Gain) and classification (e.g., Support Vector Machines) algorithms. RESULTS: The XGBoost classifier had the highest accuracy in predicting H. pylori infection status with an accuracy of 77%-a 13% improvement from the baseline accuracy of guessing the most frequent class (64% of the samples were H. Pylori negative.) K-Nearest Neighbors showed the worst performance across all classifiers. A similar performance was observed using the F1-score and area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) classifier evaluation metrics. Among all features, place of residence (with urban residence increasing risk) was the most common risk factor for H. pylori infection, regardless of the feature selection method choice. Additionally, our machine learning algorithms identified other important risk factors for H. pylori infection, such as; electricity usage in the home, toilet type, and waste disposal location. Using a 75% cutoff for robustness, machine learning identified five of the eight significant features found by traditional multivariate logistic regression. However, when a lower robustness threshold is used, machine learning approaches identified more H. pylori risk factors than multivariate logistic regression and suggested risk factors not detected by logistic regression. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that machine learning approaches are positioned to uncover H. pylori infection risk factors and predict H. pylori infection status. These approaches identify similar risk factors and predict infection with comparable accuracy to logistic regression, thus they could be used as an alternative method.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Algoritmos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Sch Nurs ; : 10598405221112443, 2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35822231

RESUMO

The coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic has affected both the private and public lives of people worldwide. Countries have chosen different strategies to reduce the spread of infection, including school closures and distance learning. This study aimed to describe school nurses' perceptions about the wellbeing of students during the Covid-19 pandemic in Sweden. Interviews in five focus groups and one individual were conducted with 17 school nurses in Sweden. The interviews were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. According to the school nurses' perceptions, students were concerned about spreading infection, becoming infected themselves, their academic performances, and longing for socialization. The change in the school situation involved a slower pace and less anxiety for some students, more or less physical activity, and an increase in screen time.

19.
Nutr J ; 21(1): 45, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food and nutrition literacy is a key factor in shaping healthy dietary behaviors and may result in decreasing decrease the prevalence of overweight. Empirical research on food and nutrition literacy and its outcomes is limited, especially among children and adolescents. Thus, this study investigates the link between Food and Nutrition Literacy (FNLIT) with eating behaviors, academic performance, and overweight in 10-12 years old students in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: This study was performed through two phases: 1) Proposing a conceptual model of the relationship between FNLIT and its determinants and outcomes, based on the existing evidence and previous models, and 2) Testing the proposed FNLIT model through a cross-sectional study on 803 primary school students (419 boys and 384 girls, from 34 public and 10 private primary schools), aged 10-12 years using structural equation modeling. Demographic, socio-economic, and household food security characteristics were collected by interviewing the students and their mothers/caregivers using a questionnaire. FNLIT was measured by a self-administered, locally designed, and validated questionnaire. RESULTS: The fit indices suggested a reasonably adequate fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ2/df = 2.03, p < 0.001, goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.90, adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI) = 0.88, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.91, incremental fit index (IFI) = 0.91, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.04, standardized root mean residual (SRMR) = 0.06). SES was directly and positively related to FNLIT and its subscale in students. FNLIT score had a positive direct (non-mediated) relationship with healthy eating behavior and academic performance. This pattern was strongly reversed in unhealthy eating behavior. There was a full mediation relationship between FNLIT and overweight/obesity via healthy eating behaviors. SES predicted academic performance partially through the mediating effect of Food Label Literacy (FLL). The results indicated that despite the direct relationship between SES and academic performance, an indirect but negative relationship existed with food insecurity. The finding also revealed the fully mediating role of Food Choice Literacy (FCL) in the relationship between demographic factors and healthy eating behaviors. Our study also found that Interactive Food and Nutrition Literacy (IFNL) protected unhealthy eating behaviors, and FCL predicted healthy eating behaviors in children. CONCLUSION: Our study draws attention to FNLIT, especially the skills domain, including IFNL, FCL, and FLL, as the most important determinant of healthy eating behavior, academic performance, and weight status in school-age children reduces social inequalities in children's development. To ensure an adequate level of FNLIT, educators should assess and plan to enhance food literacy skills in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Sobrepeso , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Análise de Classes Latentes , Alfabetização , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Estudantes
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805285

RESUMO

Emotional competence (EC) is a key component of children's psychological, cognitive, and social development, and it is a central element of learning. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing a psycho-educational group intervention aimed at improving children's emotional competence (EC), quality of integration and scholastic skills. A total of 229 children (123 females; M Age = 7.22 years; SD = 0.97 years) completed the Pictures of Facial Affect (POFA), the Drawn Stories Technique, the Classroom Drawing, and the Colored Progressive Matrices. The total sample was randomly divided into an intervention group (N = 116) who took part in psycho-educational activities and a control (no-intervention) group (N = 84). Both groups were tested at baseline, before the intervention started, and at the end of the intervention (4 months from baseline). Results from mixed-model ANOVA revealed a significant main effect for POFA score over time (F = 6.24, p = 0.01) and an interaction effect between POFA and group (F = 4.82, p = 0.03). No significant main effect was found for classroom drawing over time (F = 0.81, p > 0.05) or for quality of integration and group intervention. These findings support the importance of developing psycho-educational programmes in school for promotion of emotional health for preventing not only the onset of problematic behaviours at school such as bullying but also the development of clinical conditions linked to difficulties in emotional recognition, expression, and regulation such as alexithymia.


Assuntos
Bullying , Emoções , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas
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