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1.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-6, 2023. graf, ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765589

RESUMO

The study was undertaken from September 2018 to April 2019 to determine the prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in human beings living in six districts of Karachi. Suspected persons were screened for the disease and positive cases were identified on the basis of skin lesions and blood samples. Samples were observed by mounting their smear. A total of 207 subjects of different ages and sex groups were investigated, however, only 192 (92%) of the suspected cases were found to have the disease 64% of cases were male which were significantly high (p<0.05), than female 36%. The lesion was more frequently detected among the youth ages of 21-30 years (31%) as compared to other groups. In both sexes, legs were found to be more infected (25% male + 20% female) followed by arms (20% male + 0% female) and face (15% male +11% female). The mixed body parts had shown the lowest infections such as (4% in males + 5%) in females. In conclusion, the highest and lowest leishmaniasis infections were observed in District West (23% male + 9% female) followed by District East (15% male + 7% female), District Malir (11% male+ 4% female), District Central (7% male + 5% female), District Korangi (4% male + 7% female) and District South (4% male + 4% female) respectively.(AU)


O estudo foi realizado de setembro de 2018 a abril de 2019 para determinar a prevalência de leishmaniose tegumentar em seres humanos que vivem em seis distritos de Karachi. Pessoas suspeitas foram rastreadas para a doença e os casos positivos foram identificados com base em lesões de pele e amostras de sangue. As amostras foram observadas montando seu esfregaço. Um total de 207 indivíduos de diferentes idades e grupos sexuais foi investigado, no entanto apenas 192 (92%) dos casos suspeitos foram encontrados para ter a doença; 64% dos casos eram do sexo masculino, que foram significativamente elevados (p < 0,05), e do sexo feminino 36%. A lesão foi detectada com maior frequência entre os jovens de 21 a 30 anos (31%) em comparação com os outros grupos. Em ambos os sexos, as pernas estavam mais infectadas (25% homens + 20% mulheres), seguidas pelos braços (20% homens + 0% mulheres) e rosto (15% homens + 11% mulheres). As partes mistas do corpo mostraram as infecções mais baixas (4% homens + 5% mulheres). Em conclusão, as infecções de leishmaniose mais altas e mais baixas foram observadas no Distrito Oeste (23% homens + 9% mulheres) seguido pelo Distrito Leste (15% homens + 7% mulheres), Distrito Malir (11% homens + 4% mulheres), Distrito Central (7% homens + 5% mulheres), Distrito Korangi (4% homens + 7% mulheres) e Distrito Sul (4% homens + 4% mulheres), respectivamente.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Leishmaniose Cutânea/sangue , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Prevalência
2.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-4, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765585

RESUMO

The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.(AU)


A covid-19 é uma doença viral contagiosa, que surgiu pela primeira vez em Wuhan, China, em dezembro de 2019, e deixou o mundo todo em alerta. A taxa de mortalidade na maioria dos principais países da Ásia, com referência especial ao Paquistão, foi enfocada. De 26 de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, o total de casos confirmados e a taxa de mortalidade foram medidos por meio da Wikipedia e de periódicos notáveis. O Irã é o único país com maior número de mortes (5,73%), seguido pela Indonésia (3,77%), enquanto a Arábia Saudita mostra o menor número de mortes, 1,39%. No Paquistão, o primeiro caso foi confirmado em 26 de fevereiro de 2020. O nCov-19 está intimamente relacionado à síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS), daí o nome SARS COV-2. Esse vírus é responsável por mais de 33,9 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo em 20 de setembro de 2020. O número de novos casos está aumentando de tempos em tempos. A província de Sindh, no Paquistão, registrou o maior número de casos até 20 de setembro de 2020, em comparação com outras partes do país, e tem o maior número de mortes, seguida por Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Por causa do contato pessoa a pessoa, a doença está se espalhando rapidamente. Indivíduos que já foram diagnosticados com outras doenças, como câncer ou diabetes, etc. são mais vulneráveis. O nCOV-19 é o mais contagioso devido ao seu modo de transmissão. Ainda não há vacina disponível para o tratamento da doença causada pelo nCoV-2019. Portanto, a única opção para controlar essa pandemia é a adoção de medidas preventivas eficazes.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248281, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350304

RESUMO

Abstract The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.


Resumo A covid-19 é uma doença viral contagiosa, que surgiu pela primeira vez em Wuhan, China, em dezembro de 2019, e deixou o mundo todo em alerta. A taxa de mortalidade na maioria dos principais países da Ásia, com referência especial ao Paquistão, foi enfocada. De 26 de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, o total de casos confirmados e a taxa de mortalidade foram medidos por meio da Wikipedia e de periódicos notáveis. O Irã é o único país com maior número de mortes (5,73%), seguido pela Indonésia (3,77%), enquanto a Arábia Saudita mostra o menor número de mortes, 1,39%. No Paquistão, o primeiro caso foi confirmado em 26 de fevereiro de 2020. O nCov-19 está intimamente relacionado à síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS), daí o nome SARS COV-2. Esse vírus é responsável por mais de 33,9 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo em 20 de setembro de 2020. O número de novos casos está aumentando de tempos em tempos. A província de Sindh, no Paquistão, registrou o maior número de casos até 20 de setembro de 2020, em comparação com outras partes do país, e tem o maior número de mortes, seguida por Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Por causa do contato pessoa a pessoa, a doença está se espalhando rapidamente. Indivíduos que já foram diagnosticados com outras doenças, como câncer ou diabetes, etc. são mais vulneráveis. O nCOV-19 é o mais contagioso devido ao seu modo de transmissão. Ainda não há vacina disponível para o tratamento da doença causada pelo nCoV-2019. Portanto, a única opção para controlar essa pandemia é a adoção de medidas preventivas eficazes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19 , Paquistão/epidemiologia , China , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Trop Doct ; : 494755221116723, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912514

RESUMO

Visceral larva migrans (VLM) is a systemic zoonotic parasitic disease caused by migration of the second stage larva through viscera of humans. Despite being a foremost public health problem in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) such as India, larva migrans remains an untended zoonosis. Here, we report two cases of VLM who presented with fever and abdominal pain for a prolonged duration. On further investigation, marked peripheral eosinophilia with multiple confluent necrotizing eosinophilic granulomas were identified on histopathological examination of the liver.

5.
Res Microbiol ; : 103981, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926730

RESUMO

In the recent decades, there has been increased interest in the study on social interactions of pathogenic bacteria and biofilm-forming microbes. Leptospira is a zoonotic pathogen that causes human leptospirosis. Biofilm formation by pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira has been documented in various biotic and abiotic environments. Biofilm supports cell growth and protects them from a variety of environmental stress. Pathogenic bacterial biofilm might increase the virulence and pathogenesis. However, research on the social behaviour and biofilm production by Leptospira is limited. This review discusses the interplay between the different species in the biofilm formation of saprophytic and pathogenic Leptospira and potential future applications.

6.
Vet Res Forum ; 13(2): 169-176, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919852

RESUMO

Piglets suffer from diarrhea caused by the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and can be carriers of the bacteria, with public health consequences in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to study the prevalence of STEC O157 in feces of 465 piglets and 54 food mixes from backyard systems, the antimicrobial susceptibility of STEC and the frequency of genes encoding extended-spectrum ß-lactamases. The E. coli was isolated from 75.90 % of the evaluated feces. The STEC strains were identified in 33.11% of the sampled population and in 43.60% of the piglets carrying E. coli. Among STEC strains, the stx1 gene was the most frequent (22.30%). The rfbO157 gene was amplified in 47.40% of the STEC strains. High frequencies of STEC strains were not susceptible to ampicillin, carbenicillin and tetracycline. The blaTEM gene (52) was the most frequent among strains not susceptible to ampicillin. Class 1 integrons were the most frequent in those strains. Of the identified STEC strains, 48.70% were considered as multi-drug resistant and 1.90% were considered extensively drug resistant. In the supplied food, STEC O157 strains were identified in 25.00% of the STEC strains. We conclude that the piglets from backyard systems are carriers of STEC O157 strains not susceptible to common antibiotics, including penicillins and tetracyclines. In addition, supplied food is a source of this type of pathogenic bacteria. Through their direct contact with humans, the piglets and food represent a potential source of bacterial dissemination capable of producing gastrointestinal infections in humans.

7.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 933462, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937297

RESUMO

Fasciola hepatica is reported as a trematode of great importance, causing fasciolosis, one of the most neglected zoonotic parasitic diseases in the world. In Brazil, potential losses of around US$ 210 million per year were calculated, with bovine fasciolosis alone. The State of Santa Catarina is located in the South Region of Brazil, with a herd of more than 4 million ruminants. The Serrana Mesoregion, historically free of fasciolosis, is composed of 30 municipalities, which have a consolidated agricultural tradition, mainly in extensive ruminant livestock. The objective of the present work was to investigate the occurrence and distribution of autochthonous cases of bovine fasciolosis in the region. For this, different analyzes were carried out in rural properties from eight municipalities, and in three slaughterhouses under the State Inspection Service (SIE), which received animals from all the Serrana Mesoregion. The rural properties were randomly selected, and up to 20 fecal samples were collected from random cattle older than 1 year, for analysis by coproparasitological sedimentation test. The traceability records of the positives were checked, for identifying autochthonous cases. Additionally, the tracking data of cattle slaughtered between the years of 2018 and 2021, which presented liver condemnations, were analyzed for defining autochthonous cases of bovine fasciolosis. In total, there were fecal samplings in 106 farms, with 1,927 tested cattle. From these, 178 (9.2%) were positive and autochthonous, but the overall result did not reflect the heterogeneity found between the evaluated municipalities. During the analyzed period, 11,556 cattle were slaughtered, with 1,744 (15.1%) liver condemnations due to fasciolosis in animals that never left the Serrana Mesoregion. The present study confirmed the presence of autochthonous cases of bovine fasciolosis in municipalities of the Serrana Mesoregion, and verified a high rate of positivity in animals slaughtered in the regional slaughterhouses. When the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in vivo was compared with the postmortem positivity index in five municipalities, the results disagreed in four municipalities (p-value < 0.05), emphasizing the need for field investigation for the better understanding of the distribution and frequency of the parasitosis.

8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 932137, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937697

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease affecting all vertebrates. It is caused by species of the genus Leptospira, among which are the highly pathogenic L. interrogans. Different mammals can be either resistant or susceptible to the disease which can present a large variety of symptoms. Humans are mostly asymptomatic after infection but can have in some cases symptoms varying from a flu-like syndrome to more severe forms such as Weil's disease, potentially leading to multiorgan failure and death. Similarly, cattle, pigs, and horses can suffer from acute forms of the disease, including morbidity, abortion, and uveitis. On the other hand, mice and rats are resistant to leptospirosis despite chronical colonization of the kidneys, excreting leptospires in urine and contributing to the transmission of the bacteria. To this date, the immune mechanisms that determine the severity of the infection and that confer susceptibility to leptospirosis remain enigmatic. To our interest, differential immune sensing of leptospires through the activation of or escape from pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) has recently been described. In this review, we will summarize these findings that suggest that in various hosts, leptospires differentially escape recognition by some Toll-like and NOD-like receptors, including TLR4, TLR5, and NOD1, although TLR2 and NLRP3 responses are conserved independently of the host. Overall, we hypothesize that these innate immune mechanisms could play a role in determining host susceptibility to leptospirosis and suggest a central, yet complex, role for TLR4.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has been identified as the cause of the COVID-19, which caused a global pandemic. It is a pathogen that causes respiratory disease and can easily navigate the interspecies barrier. A significant number of COVID-19 cases in animals have been reported worldwide, including but not limited to animals in farms, captivity, and household pets. Thus, assessing the affected population and anticipating 'at risk' population becomes essential. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to emphasize the zoonotic potential of SARS- CoV-2 and discuss the One Health aspects of the disease. CONTENT: This is a narrative review of recently published studies on animals infected with SARS-CoV-2, both experimental and natural. The elucidation of the mechanism of infection by binding SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to the ACE-2 receptor cells in humans has led to bioinformatic analysis that has identified a few other susceptible species in silico. While infections in animals have been extensively reported, no intermediary host has yet been identified for this disease. The articles collected in this review have been grouped into four categories; experimental inoculations, infection in wild animals, infection in farm animals and infection in pet animals, along with a review of literature in each category. The risk of infection transmission between humans and animals and vice versa and the importance of the One Health approach has been discussed at length in this article.

11.
Vet Microbiol ; 273: 109524, 2022 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933975

RESUMO

Streptococcus canis is a multi-host pathogen that causes disease of varying severity in a wide range of mammals, including humans. Dogs and cats appear to be the primary hosts and may play a role in transmitting infection to humans. The broader epidemiology of S. canis, however, is still poorly understood, as are its virulence mechanisms, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and population structure. In this review we gather existing knowledge on S. canis, describing its epidemiology in animals and humans and present information on virulence factors, classification schemes and AMR prevalence. We describe the main ecological niches of S. canis in companion animals, discuss potential risk factors for infection in humans and propose a multi-host transmission cycle. We show that current knowledge on S. canis virulence determinants is limited and sometimes contradictory. We illustrate the different typing systems proposed to classify S. canis. We also report the range of known AMR phenotypes and the emergence of new mechanisms of resistance. Finally, we discuss the zoonotic potential of S. canis, highlighting the need for further evidence in this area. Streptococcus canis may be regarded as a neglected pathogen of one health concern. Further research is needed for its better understanding and effective control.

12.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 262, 2022 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) that causes the chronic infectious disease- tuberculosis (TB), often presents with a complicated epidemiological pattern where the transmission chain may include humans, domestic animals and wildlife, including elephants. TB has been reported globally in both captive and wild elephants. The One Health approach might be the most effective way of understanding the shared MTC infection dynamics in captive and wild animals like Asian elephants. This systematic review accumulates evidence on occurrence, transmission pathways, and preventive measures of TB in elephants from a One Health perspective. RESULTS: The prevalence of TB reported in elephant populations ranges from 0 to 23.33% and high prevalence's are reported for elephants that are in close proximity to infected humans. The risk of elephant to human infection transmission increased significantly with exposure duration and contact with infected elephants. Some studies described the plausible TB transmission to captive elephants from other animals (wild and domestic), suggesting inter- and intra-species transmission. The results of this systematic review based on 27 relevant published works, suggest three overarching interrelated transmission pathways for M. tuberculosis infections in Asian elephants- i) humans and elephants, ii) other animals (wild or domestic) and elephants and iii) unclear sources of infection. CONCLUSIONS: The progress made with new TB diagnostic tools provides multiple methods to choose from. However, lack of harmonization of TB testing in elephants and their human contacts remains a challenge to prevent TB in those animals. Routine TB screening among elephants and caretakers by setting up an occupational health program for early diagnosis of infection through combined efforts of public health, veterinary medicine, and occupational health experts is suggested. This implies the need for a One Health approach to elephant TB control. This review reveals the need for more research on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex transmission pathways at the human-animal interface.


Assuntos
Elefantes , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Saúde Única , Tuberculose , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Elefantes/microbiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/veterinária
13.
Vet Res ; 53(1): 50, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799280

RESUMO

Humans can become infected with hepatitis E virus (HEV) by consumption of undercooked pork. To reduce the burden of HEV in humans, mitigation on pig farms is needed. HEV is found on most pig farms globally, yet within-farm seroprevalence estimates vary considerably. Understanding of the underlying variation in infection dynamics within and between farms currently lacks. Therefore, we investigated HEV infection dynamics by sampling 1711 batches of slaughter pigs from 208 Dutch farms over an 8-month period. Four farm types, conventional, organic, and two types with strict focus on biosecurity, were included. Sera were tested individually with an anti-HEV antibody ELISA and pooled per batch with PCR. All farms delivered seropositive pigs to slaughter, yet batches (resembling farm compartments) had varying results. By combining PCR and ELISA results, infection moment and extent per batch could be classified as low transmission, early, intermediate or late. Cluster analysis of batch infection moments per farm resulted in four clusters with distinct infection patterns. Cluster 1 farms delivered almost exclusively PCR negative, ELISA positive batches to slaughter (PCR-ELISA+), indicating relatively early age of HEV infection. Cluster 2 and 3 farms delivered 0.3 and 0.7 of batches with intermediate infection moment (PCR+ELISA+) respectively and only few batches with early infection. Cluster 4 farms delivered low transmission (PCR-ELISA-) and late infection (PCR+ELISA-) batches, demonstrating that those farms can prevent or delay HEV transmission to farm compartments. Farm type partly coincided with cluster assignment, indicating that biosecurity and management are related to age of HEV infection.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Envelhecimento , Fazendas , Hepatite E , Doenças dos Suínos , Suínos , Fatores Etários , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fazendas/normas , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/transmissão , Hepatite E/veterinária , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
14.
Gac Sanit ; 36 Suppl 1: S61-S67, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781151

RESUMO

The new pandemic, COVID-19, highlighted the importance of the animal-human-environment interface in the emergence of zoonoses. The jump of the species barrier is considered a rare event although the number of emerging infectious diseases increased significantly in the second half of the 20th century. Most of them transmitted from wildlife to humans. Several elements can contribute to the emergence of zoonoses: human interaction on ecosystems, biodiversity loss, changes in land use, climate change, trade in or consumption of wildlife. There are different stages in the adaptation of an animal pathogen into a specialized human pathogen, varying from its presence in animals without human infection to a pathogen exclusive to humans. The history of zoonoses allows the identification of critical points for their control, as well as the identification of probable virus or bacteria involved in future pandemics. Concerning COVID-19, the knowledge of the possible reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2 contributed to decision-making during the pandemic. Therefore, and given the variety of scenarios that allow the jump of species barrier or the evolution of pathogens in a new host, One Health strategies for zoonosis emergence surveillance should be implemented.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Única , Animais , Animais Selvagens , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças , Ecossistema , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 924007, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35782144

RESUMO

Emerging infectious disease has become the center of attention since the outbreak of COVID-19. For the coronavirus, bats are suspected to be the origin of the pandemic. Consequently, the spotlight has fallen on zoonotic diseases, and the focus now expands to organisms other than viruses. Microsporidia is a single-cell organism that can infect a wide range of hosts such as insects, mammals, and humans. Its pathogenicity differs among species, and host immunological status plays an important role in infectivity and disease severity. Disseminated disease from microsporidiosis can be fatal, especially among patients with a defective immune system. Recently, there were two Trachipleistophora hominis, a microsporidia species which can survive in insects, case reports in Thailand, one patient had disseminated microsporidiosis. This review gathered data of disseminated microsporidiosis and T. hominis infections in humans covering the biological and clinical aspects. There was a total of 22 cases of disseminated microsporidiosis reports worldwide. Ten microsporidia species were identified. Maximum likelihood tree results showed some possible correlations with zoonotic transmissions. For T. hominis, there are currently eight case reports in humans, seven of which had Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. It is observed that risks are higher for the immunocompromised to acquire such infections, however, future studies should look into the entire life cycle, to identify the route of transmission and establish preventive measures, especially among the high-risk groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Microsporídios , Microsporidiose , Animais , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Mamíferos , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
16.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 908479, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35782546

RESUMO

Coxiellosis is a zoonosis in animals caused by Coxiella burnetii. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 920 (591 female and 329 male) randomly selected camels (Camelus dromedarius) of different age groups from 13 districts representative of the three different ecological zones in the Province Punjab, Pakistan to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of coxiellosis. The blood samples were collected and tested for anti-C. burnetti antibodies using indirect multispecies ELISA. Real-time PCR was used for the detection of C. burnetii DNA to determine the prevalence in heparinized blood pools. Out of 920 investigated camels, anti-C. burnetii antibodies were detected in 288 samples (31.3%) (95% CI: 28.3-34.4%). The highest (78.6%) and lowest (1.8%) seroprevalence were detected in Rahimyar Khan (southern Punjab) and in Jhang (central Punjab), respectively. Potential risk factors associated with seropositivity of the Q fever in camels included desert area (42.5%; OR = 2.78, 95% CI 1.12-3.21) summer season (35.7%; OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.31-3.2), sex (female) (39.1; OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.34-2.98), tick infestation (51.3%;OR = 2.81, 95% CI: 1.34-3.02), age (>10 years; 46.4%; OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 0.33-2.05) and herd size (38.5%; OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.76-1.54). Coxiella burnetii DNA was amplified in 12 (20%) and 1 (10%) of 60 ELISA-negative and 10 suspected camels, respectively. DNA could not be detected in ELISA positive blood pools. This study emphasizes the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of coxiellosis as well as its potential to spill over to animals and humans in contact with these camel herds.

17.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 899889, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35782560

RESUMO

CAIs (canine-assisted interventions) include "canine-assisted therapy" in which a therapist sets client-oriented goals, 'canine-assisted activities' with recreational goals for clients, and 'canine-assisted education/learning' in which teachers or coaches create learning goals for students or clients. CAIs vary in nearly every way; their only common trait is the involvement of dogs to respond to human need. However, the benefits of involving dogs are highly dependent on the animal's health and behavior. A dog exhibiting negative behavior or an unwell dog might pose a risk, especially for CAI target groups, specifically individuals with immunosuppression, chronic illness, children, elderly, etc. Therefore, positive animal welfare as preventative medicine to avoid incidents or transmission of zoonosis is an attractive hypothesis, with implications for human and animal, health and well-being. This review aims to summarize the current published knowledge regarding different aspects of welfare in CAIs and to discuss their relevance in the light of health and safety in CAI participants. As method for this study, a literature search was conducted (2001-2022) using the Prisma method, describing issues of dog welfare as defined in the Welfare Quality® approach. This welfare assessment tool includes 4 categories related to behavior, health, management, and environment; it was, therefore, applicable to CAIs. Results indicate that dogs working in CAIs are required to cope with diverse variables that can jeopardize their welfare. In conclusion, we propose regular welfare assessments for dogs in CAIs, which would also protect the quality of the CAI sessions and the clients' safety and well-being.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805427

RESUMO

Emerging evidence accumulates regarding the benefits of animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) in facilitating pediatric cancer treatment and alleviating symptomatology through positive changes in the patients' emotional, mental, and even physical status. A major concern expressed by healthcare providers and parents in implementing AAIs in hospital settings is the transmission of disease from animals to patients. Immunocompromised children, such as pediatric cancer patients are at increased risk for pet-associated diseases. Furthermore, existing disparities among the racial and ethnic minority groups of pediatric cancer patients can potentially exacerbate their risk for zoonoses. This literature review highlights the most common human infections from therapy animals, connections to the race and ethnic background of pediatric oncology patients, as well as means of prevention. The discussion is limited to dogs, which are typically the most commonly used species in hospital-based animal-assisted therapy. The aim is to highlight specific preventive measures, precautions and recommendations that must be considered in hospitals' protocols and best practices, particularly given the plethora of benefits provided by AAI for pediatric cancer patients, staff and families.


Assuntos
Terapia Assistida com Animais , Neoplasias , Animais , Criança , Cães , Etnicidade , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Neoplasias/terapia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
19.
Food Waterborne Parasitol ; 28: e00167, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35812081

RESUMO

The finding of Trichinella in the Arctic was foreseen because captive polar bears and arctic foxes had been found infected during the first decades of the 20th century. Human trichinellosis outbreaks were reported to have taken place in 1944 in Franz Josef Archipelago and 1947 in Greenland, and previous outbreaks in Greenland also appeared to have been trichinellosis. Now, it is known that Trichinella parasites thrive in the Arctic and subarctic and pose a risk for public health. We collated the available information, which show that infection prevalences are high in many animal host species, and that outbreaks of human trichinellosis have been described also recently. The species diversity of Trichinella in the Arctic and subarctic is relatively high, and the circulation is in non-domestic cycles with transmission by predation, scavenging and cannibalism. There are also sporadic reports on the synanthropic species Trichinella spiralis in arctic wild mammals with little known or assumed contact to potential synanthropic cycles. In this paper, we summarize the knowledge on epidemiology of Trichinella parasites in the circumpolar Arctic and subarctic regions, and discuss the challenges and solutions for their control.

20.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 927185, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35812883

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. are the most critical parasites common between humans and cats. The close association of cats with humans in urban areas persuaded us to investigate the prevalence of these parasites in stray and household cats and their possible role in the owners' infection. Herein, 132 and 33 fecal samples of stray and household cats, respectively, and 33 blood samples of their owners were collected in Tehran, Iran. The prevalence of T. gondii was determined by targeting the B1 gene in the feces of stray and household cats and the blood of cat owners. Furthermore, genotypes of T. gondii were identified based on the multilocus genotyping of BTUB, GRA6, SAG3, and APICO loci. Toxocara spp. were detected by targeting the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of the ribosomal DNA of these parasites in the cats' feces and the humans' blood. Also, Toxocara IgG was assessed in the human serum samples. The B1 gene amplification showed that 15.2% of stray cats, 18.2% of household cats, and 51.5% of cat owners were infected with T. gondii. The multilocus sequence analysis revealed the predominance of genotype I of T. gondii in stray cats and genotype II of T. gondii in household cats and cat owners. The amplifying of ITS-2 revealed a high prevalence of T. cati infection (47.0%) in stray cats, whereas no infection was found in the feces of household cats or the serum of cat owners. Likewise, Toxocara IgG was not detected in the serum of humans. The lower prevalence of T. gondii in stray/household cats than in the cat owners indicates the limited impact of close contact with infected cats in human toxoplasmosis. However, the high prevalence of T. cati infection in stray cats can cause contamination of the environment by excreting eggs that may lead to infecting humans through soil or water. Therefore, public health education in urban management planning is necessary for routine urban cat deworming programs and for training the healthcare workers to prevent, control, and treat these infections.

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