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1.
PeerJ ; 11: e14696, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721779

RESUMO

Background: Bee colony sound is a continuous, low-frequency buzzing sound that varies with the environment or the colony's behavior and is considered meaningful. Bees use sounds to communicate within the hive, and bee colony sounds investigation can reveal helpful information about the circumstances in the colony. Therefore, one crucial step in analyzing bee colony sounds is to extract appropriate acoustic feature. Methods: This article uses VGGish (a visual geometry group-like audio classification model) embedding and Mel-frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) generated from three bee colony sound datasets, to train four machine learning algorithms to determine which acoustic feature performs better in bee colony sound recognition. Results: The results showed that VGGish embedding performs better than or on par with MFCC in all three datasets.


Assuntos
Acústica , Som , Abelhas , Animais , Algoritmos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Reconhecimento Psicológico
2.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 545, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36726015

RESUMO

Understanding the structural diversity of honeybee-infecting viruses is critical to maintain pollinator health and manage the spread of diseases in ecology and agriculture. We determine cryo-EM structures of T = 4 and T = 3 capsids of virus-like particles (VLPs) of Lake Sinai virus (LSV) 2 and delta-N48 LSV1, belonging to tetraviruses, at resolutions of 2.3-2.6 Å in various pH environments. Structural analysis shows that the LSV2 capsid protein (CP) structural features, particularly the protruding domain and C-arm, differ from those of other tetraviruses. The anchor loop on the central ß-barrel domain interacts with the neighboring subunit to stabilize homo-trimeric capsomeres during assembly. Delta-N48 LSV1 CP interacts with ssRNA via the rigid helix α1', α1'-α1 loop, ß-barrel domain, and C-arm. Cryo-EM reconstructions, combined with X-ray crystallographic and small-angle scattering analyses, indicate that pH affects capsid conformations by regulating reversible dynamic particle motions and sizes of LSV2 VLPs. C-arms exist in all LSV2 and delta-N48 LSV1 VLPs across varied pH conditions, indicating that autoproteolysis cleavage is not required for LSV maturation. The observed linear domino-scaffold structures of various lengths, made up of trapezoid-shape capsomeres, provide a basis for icosahedral T = 4 and T = 3 architecture assemblies. These findings advance understanding of honeybee-infecting viruses that can cause Colony Collapse Disorder.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo , Vírus de RNA , Abelhas , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Capsídeo/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Conformação Molecular , Montagem de Vírus
3.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 46(2): 348-353, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36724964

RESUMO

Royal jelly (RJ), an essential food for the queen honeybee, has a variety of biological activities. Although RJ exerts preventive effects on various lifestyle-related diseases, such as osteoporosis and obesity, no study evaluated the effect of RJ on the development of osteoarthritis (OA), the most common degenerative joint disease. Here, we showed that daily oral administration of raw RJ significantly prevented OA development in vivo following surgically-induced knee joint instability in mice. Furthermore, in vitro experiments using chondrocytes, revealed that raw RJ significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines and enzymes critical for the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Similar results were observed after treatment with 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid, the most abundant and unique fatty acid in raw RJ. Our results suggest that oral supplementation with RJ would benefit the maintenance of joint health and prophylaxis against OA, possibly by suppressing the activity of inflammatory cytokines and ECM-degrading enzymes.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Osteoartrite , Animais , Abelhas , Camundongos , Ácidos Graxos/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais
4.
J Adv Res ; 44: 1-11, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725182

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Host shift of parasites may have devastating effects on the novel hosts. One remarkable example is that of the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, which has shifted its host from Eastern honey bees (Apis cerana) to Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) and posed a global threat to apiculture. OBJECTIVES: To identify the genetic factors underlying the reproduction of host-shifted V. destructor on the new host. METHODS: Genome sequencing was conducted to construct the phylogeny of the host-shifted and non-shifted mites and to screen for genomic signatures that differentiated them. Artificial infestation experiment was conducted to compare the reproductive difference between the mites, and transcriptome sequencing was conducted to find differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during the reproduction process. RESULTS: The host-shifted and non-shifted V. destructor mites constituted two genetically distinct lineages, with 15,362 high-FST SNPs identified between them. Oogenesis was upregulated in host-shifted mites on the new host A. mellifera relative to non-shifted mites. The transcriptomes of the host-shifted and non-shifted mites differed significantly as early as 1h post-infestation. The DEGs were associated with nine genes carrying nonsynonymous high-FST SNPs, including mGluR2-like, Lamb2-like and Vitellogenin 6-like, which were also differentially expressed, and eIF4G, CG5800, Dap160 and Sas10, which were located in the center of the networks regulating the DEGs based on protein-protein interaction analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The annotated functions of these genes were all associated with oogenesis. These genes appear to be the key genetic determinants of the oogenesis of host-shifted mites on the new host. Further study of these candidate genes will help elucidate the key mechanism underlying the success of host shifts of V. destructor.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Varroidae , Animais , Abelhas/genética , Varroidae/genética , Genoma , Parasitos/genética , Genômica , Oogênese/genética
5.
Microbiome ; 11(1): 6, 2023 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The economic and environmental value of honeybees has been severely challenged in recent years by the collapse of their colonies worldwide, often caused by outbreaks of infectious diseases. However, our understanding of the diversity, prevalence, and transmission of honeybee viruses is largely obscure due to a lack of large-scale and longitudinal genomic surveillance on a global scale. RESULTS: We report the meta-transcriptomic sequencing of nearly 2000 samples of the two most important economic and widely maintained honeybee species, as well as an associated ectoparasite mite, collected across China during 2016-2019. We document the natural diversity and evolution of honeybee viruses in China, providing evidence that multiple viruses commonly co-circulate within individual bee colonies. We also expanded the genomic data for 12 important honeybee viruses and revealed novel genetic variants and lineages associated with China. We identified more than 23 novel viruses from the honeybee and mite viromes, with some exhibiting ongoing replication in their respective hosts. Together, these data provide additional support to the idea that mites are an important reservoir and spill-over host for honeybee viruses. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that honeybee viruses are more widespread, prevalent, and genetically diverse than previously realized. The information provided is important in mitigating viral infectious diseases in honeybees, in turn helping to maintain sustainable productive agriculture on a global scale. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Varroidae , Vírus , Abelhas , Animais , Prevalência , Genômica , China/epidemiologia
6.
Ecol Lett ; 26(2): 323-334, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592334

RESUMO

Climate change may disrupt plant-pollinator mutualisms by generating phenological asynchronies and by altering traits that shape interaction costs and benefits. Our knowledge is limited to studies that manipulate only one partner or focus on either phenological or trait-based mismatches. We assembled communities of three annual plants and a solitary bee prior to flowering and emergence to test how springtime warming affects phenologies, traits, interactions and reproductive output. Warming advanced community-level flowering onset, peak and end but did not alter bee emergence. Warmed plant communities produced fewer and smaller flowers with less, more-concentrated nectar, reducing attractiveness, and warmed bees were more generalized in their foraging, reducing their effectiveness. Plant-bee interactions were less frequent, shorter and peaked earlier under warming. As a result, warmed plants produced fewer, lighter seeds, indicating pollinator-mediated fitness costs. Climate change will perturb plant-pollinator mutualisms, causing wide-ranging effects on partner species and diminishing the ecosystem service they provide.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Polinização , Abelhas , Animais , Reprodução , Néctar de Plantas , Flores , Plantas
7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1162, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670153

RESUMO

As essential pollinators of ecosystems and agriculture, honey bees (Apis mellifera) are host to a variety of pathogens that result in colony loss. Two highly prevalent larval diseases are European foulbrood (EFB) attributed to the bacterium Melissococcus plutonius, and Varroosis wherein larvae can be afflicted by one or more paralytic viruses. Here we used high-throughput sequencing and qPCR to detail microbial succession of larval development from six diseased, and one disease-free apiary. The disease-free larval microbiome revealed a variety of disease-associated bacteria in early larval instars, but later developmental stages were dominated by beneficial symbionts. Microbial succession associated with EFB pathology differed by apiary, characterized by associations with various gram-positive bacteria. At one apiary, diseased larvae were uniquely described as "melting and deflated", symptoms associated with Varroosis. We found that Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV) levels were significantly associated with these symptoms, and various gram-negative bacteria became opportunistic in the guts of ABPV afflicted larvae. Perhaps contributing to disease progression, the ABPV associated microbiome was significantly depleted of gram-positive bacteria, a likely result of recent antibiotic application. Our results contribute to the understanding of brood disease diagnosis and treatment, a growing problem for beekeeping and agriculture worldwide.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Ecossistema , Abelhas , Animais , Larva/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Criação de Abelhas
8.
Biol Lett ; 19(1): 20220416, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651030

RESUMO

The majority of invasive species are best known for their effects as predators. However, many introduced predators may also be substantial reservoirs for pathogens. Honey bee-associated viruses are found in various arthropod species including invasive ants. We examined how the globally invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), which can reach high densities and infest beehives, is associated with pathogen dynamics in honey bees. Viral loads of deformed wing virus (DWV), which has been linked to millions of beehive deaths around the globe, and black queen cell virus significantly increased in bees when invasive ants were present. Microsporidian and trypanosomatid infections, which are more bee-specific, were not affected by ant invasion. The bee virome in autumn revealed that DWV was the predominant virus with the highest infection levels and that no ant-associated viruses were infecting bees. Viral spillback from ants could increase infections in bees. In addition, ant attacks could pose a significant stressor to bee colonies that may affect virus susceptibility. These viral dynamics are a hidden effect of ant pests, which could have a significant impact on disease emergence in this economically important pollinator. Our study highlights a perhaps overlooked effect of species invasions: changes in pathogen dynamics.


Assuntos
Vírus de RNA , Animais , Abelhas , Espécies Introduzidas
9.
Evolution ; 77(1): 264-275, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622224

RESUMO

The study of adaptation helps explain biodiversity and predict future evolution. Yet the process of adaptation can be difficult to observe due to limited phenotypic variation in contemporary populations. Furthermore, the scarcity of male fitness estimates has made it difficult to both understand adaptation and evaluate sexual conflict hypotheses. We addressed both issues in our study of two anther position traits in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum): anther exsertion (long filament - corolla tube lengths) and anther separation (long - short filament lengths). These traits affect pollination efficiency and are particularly interesting due to the unusually high correlations among their component traits. We measured selection through male and female fitness on wild radish plants from populations artificially selected to recreate ancestral variation in each anther trait. We found little evidence for conflicts between male and female function. We found strong evidence for stabilizing selection on anther exsertion and disruptive selection on anther separation, indicating positive and negative correlational selection on the component traits. Intermediate levels of exsertion are likely an adaptation to best contact small bees. The function of anther separation is less clear, but future studies might investigate pollen placement on pollinators and compare species possessing multiple stamen types.


Assuntos
Raphanus , Seleção Genética , Abelhas , Animais , Flores , Adaptação Fisiológica , Aclimatação , Pólen , Polinização
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(1): e1011061, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656843

RESUMO

Varroa destructor is a cosmopolitan pest and leading cause of colony loss of the European honey bee. Historically described as a competent vector of honey bee viruses, this arthropod vector is the cause of a global pandemic of Deformed wing virus, now endemic in honeybee populations in all Varroa-infested regions. Our work shows that viral spread is driven by Varroa actively switching from one adult bee to another as they feed. Assays using fluorescent microspheres were used to indicate the movement of fluids in both directions between host and vector when Varroa feed. Therefore, Varroa could be in either an infectious or naïve state dependent upon the disease status of their host. We tested this and confirmed that the relative risk of a Varroa feeding depended on their previous host's infectiousness. Varroa exhibit remarkable heterogeneity in their host-switching behavior, with some Varroa infrequently switching while others switch at least daily. As a result, relatively few of the most active Varroa parasitize the majority of bees. This multiple-feeding behavior has analogs in vectorial capacity models of other systems, where promiscuous feeding by individual vectors is a leading driver of vectorial capacity. We propose that the honeybee-Varroa relationship offers a unique opportunity to apply principles of vectorial capacity to a social organism, as virus transmission is both vectored and occurs through multiple host-to-host routes common to a crowded society.


Assuntos
Vírus de RNA , Varroidae , Abelhas , Animais , Vetores Artrópodes
11.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 211, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604438

RESUMO

An ovipositing insect evaluates the benefits and risks associated with the selection of an oviposition site for optimizing the fitness and survival of its offspring. The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), uses beehives as an oviposition site. During egg-laying, the gravid wax moth confronts two kinds of risks, namely, bees and conspecific larvae. While bees are known to attack the moth's offspring and remove them from the hive, the conspecific larvae compete for resources with the new offspring. To date, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the assessment of oviposition site by the greater wax moth, G. mellonella (L.). Here, we demonstrate that the wax moth uses two different sensory modalities to detect risks to its offspring in the hives of Apis cerena. Bees appear to be detected by the contact-chemoreception system of the gravid wax moth, while detection of conspecifics relies on the olfactory system. Hence, our findings suggest that two different sensory modalities are used to detect two different risks to the offspring and that the selection of oviposition sites by G. mellonella (L.) relies on the integration of inputs from both the olfactory and contact-chemoreception systems.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Feminino , Abelhas , Animais , Oviposição , Larva
12.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 186, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604491

RESUMO

Position within the social group has consequences on individual lifespans in diverse taxa. This is especially obvious in eusocial insects, where workers differ in both the tasks they perform and their aging rates. However, in eusocial wasps, bees and ants, the performed task usually depends strongly on age. As such, untangling the effects of social role and age on worker physiology is a key step towards understanding the coevolution of sociality and aging. We performed an experimental protocol that allowed a separate analysis of these two factors using four groups of black garden ant (Lasius niger) workers: young foragers, old foragers, young nest workers, and old nest workers. We highlighted age-related differences in the proteome and metabolome of workers that were primarily related to worker subcaste and only secondarily to age. The relative abundance of proteins and metabolites suggests an improved xenobiotic detoxification, and a fuel metabolism based more on lipid use than carbohydrate use in young ants, regardless of their social role. Regardless of age, proteins related to the digestive function were more abundant in nest workers than in foragers. Old foragers were mostly characterized by weak abundances of molecules with an antibiotic activity or involved in chemical communication. Finally, our results suggest that even in tiny insects, extended lifespan may require to mitigate cancer risks. This is consistent with results found in eusocial rodents and thus opens up the discussion of shared mechanisms among distant taxa and the influence of sociality on life history traits such as longevity.


Assuntos
Formigas , Abelhas , Animais , Formigas/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Fenótipo , Meio Social , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
13.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 19(1): 3, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Located in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (South-Kivu), Kalehe and Idjwi are two relatively unexplored territories with little to no research on edible insects even though anthropo-entomophagy practice is widespread. This study therefore aimed at exploring the biodiversity, perception, consumption, availability, host plants, harvesting techniques, and processing techniques of edible insects. METHODS: Data were collected through a field survey using three techniques, namely structured interviews, direct observations, and insect collection and taxonomy. A total of 260 respondents, 130 in each territory, were interviewed. The field survey focused on inventorying commonly edible insects as well as recording consumer preferences, preference factors, seasonal availability, host plants, harvesting techniques, and processing and preservation methods. Samples for taxonomic characterization were preserved in 70% alcohol. RESULTS: Nine edible insects, namely Ruspolia differens Serville 1838, Gryllotalpa Africana Palisot de Beauvois 1805, Locusta migratoria Linnaeus 1758, Macrotermes subhyalinus Rambur 1842, Gnathocera trivittata Swederus 1787, Rhynchophorus phoenicis Fabricius 1801, Vespula spp. Linnaeus 1758, Apis mellifera Linnaeus 1758, and Imbrasia oyemensis Rougeot 1955, were recorded as being consumed either as larvae, pupae, and adults. Ruspolia differens and M. subhyalinus were reported as the most preferred by consumers in the studied territories. A scatter plot of matrices and Pearson's correlations showed a negative correlation between preference based on taste, size, and shape, as well as perceived nutritional value. Their seasonal availability differs from one species to another and correlated with host plants availability. Harvesting techniques and processing and preservation methods depend on species, local knowledge, and practices. CONCLUSION: The huge edible insect diversity observed in Kalehe and Idjwi is evidence of anthropo-entomophagy practices in the area. In addition to being an important delicacy and traditional foods, edible insects can contribute to food, environmental, and financial security through local business opportunities. Households can rely on edible insects to meet their nutritional needs instead of conventional livestock. Indigenous practices and technologies used for harvesting, processing, and preserving edible insects must be improved to meet international standards to increase the market and capitalize on the economic potential of edible insects.


Assuntos
Insetos Comestíveis , Abelhas , Animais , República Democrática do Congo , Insetos , Alimentos , Larva
14.
J Insect Sci ; 23(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36611021

RESUMO

Comprehensive decisions on the management of commercially produced bees, depend largely on associated knowledge of genetic diversity. In this study, we present novel microsatellite markers to support the breeding, management, and conservation of the blue orchard bee, Osmia lignaria Say (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Native to North America, O. lignaria has been trapped from wildlands and propagated on-crop and used to pollinate certain fruit, nut, and berry crops. Harnessing the O. lignaria genome assembly, we identified 59,632 candidate microsatellite loci in silico, of which 22 were tested using molecular techniques. Of the 22 loci, 12 loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), demonstrated no linkage disequilibrium (LD), and achieved low genotyping error in two Intermountain North American wild populations in Idaho and Utah, USA. We found no difference in population genetic diversity between the two populations, but there was evidence for low but significant population differentiation. Also, to determine if these markers amplify in other Osmia, we assessed 23 species across the clades apicata, bicornis, emarginata, and ribifloris. Nine loci amplified in three species/subspecies of apicata, 22 loci amplified in 11 species/subspecies of bicornis, 11 loci amplified in seven species/subspecies of emarginata, and 22 loci amplified in two species/subspecies of ribifloris. Further testing is necessary to determine the capacity of these microsatellite loci to characterize genetic diversity and structure under the assumption of HWE and LD for species beyond O. lignaria. These markers will inform the conservation and commercial use of trapped and managed O. lignaria and other Osmia species for both agricultural and nonagricultural systems.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Abelhas/genética , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Agricultura/métodos , Frutas , Utah , Repetições de Microssatélites
15.
Mol Med Rep ; 27(2)2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36660937

RESUMO

Honey is a complex mixture, containing ~180 compounds, produced by the Apis melifera bees, with promising antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Nevertheless, the mechanisms through which honey exerts its effects remain under investigation. Plant antioxidants are found in honey and other bee products exhibiting a high bioactivity and molecular diversity. The aim of the present study was to estimate the antioxidant capacity of honey collected from areas in Greece by small­scale producers by i) using in vitro cell free assays; and ii) by investigating the effects of honey varieties on the redox status of a liver cancer cell line (HepG2) using non­cytotoxic concentrations. The findings of the present study will allow for the identification of Greek honeys with promising antioxidant capacity. For this purpose, six types of honey with various floral origins were examined in cell­free assays followed by cell­based techniques using flow cytometric analysis and redox biomarker level determination in order to evaluate the potential alterations in the intracellular redox system. The results indicated various mechanisms of action that are dependent on the honey type, concentration dependency and high antioxidant capacity. The extended findings from the literature confirm the ability of raw honey to influence the redox status of HepG2 cells. Nevertheless additional investigations are required to elucidate their mechanisms of action in cell line models.


Assuntos
Mel , Abelhas , Animais , Mel/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Grécia , Oxirredução , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
16.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677772

RESUMO

Recently, functional foods have been a subject of great interest in dietetics owing not only to their nutritional value but rather their myriad of health benefits. Moreover, an increase in consumers' demands for such valuable foods warrants the development in not only production but rather tools of quality and nutrient assessment. Bee products, viz., pollen (BP) and bread, are normally harvested from the flowering plants with the aid of bees. BP is further subjected to a fermentation process in bee hives to produce the more valuable and bioavailable BB. Owing to their nutritional and medicinal properties, bee products are considered as an important food supplements rich in macro-, micro-, and phytonutrients. Bee products are rich in carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins, fatty acids, and minerals in addition to a myriad of phytonutrients such as phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, volatiles, and carotenoids. Moreover, unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs) of improved lipid profile such as linoleic, linolenic, and oleic were identified in BP and BB. This work aims to present a holistic overview of BP and BB in the context of their composition and analysis, and to highlight optimized extraction techniques to maximize their value and future applications in nutraceuticals.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Pão , Abelhas , Animais , Pão/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Pólen/química , Vitaminas/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise
17.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677892

RESUMO

Bee pollen is frequently characterized as a natural source of bioactive components, such as phenolic compounds, which are responsible for its pharmaceutical potential and nutritional properties. In this study, we evaluated the bioactive compound contents of mono- and polyfloral bee pollen samples using spectroscopic and chromatographic methods and established links with their antioxidant and antitumor activity. The findings demonstrated that the botanical origin of bee pollen has a remarkable impact on its phenolic (3-17 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (0.5-3.2 mg QE/g) contents. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of 35 phenolic and 13 phenylamide compounds in bee pollen, while gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed its richness in volatiles, such as hydrocarbons, fatty acids, alcohols, ketones, etc. The concentration of bioactive compounds in each sample resulted in a substantial distinction in their antioxidant activity, DPPH (EC50: 0.3-0.7 mg/mL), ABTS (0.8-1.3 mM Trolox/mg), and reducing power (0.03-0.05 mg GAE/g), with the most bioactive pollens being the monofloral samples from Olea europaea and Ononis spinosa. Complementarily, some samples revealed a moderate effect on cervical carcinoma (GI50: 495 µg/mL) and breast adenocarcinoma (GI50: 734 µg/mL) cell lines. This may be associated with compounds such as quercetin-O-diglucoside and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside, which are present in pollens from Olea europaea and Coriandrum, respectively. Overall, the results highlighted the potentiality of bee pollen to serve health-promoting formulations in the future.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Flavonoides , Animais , Abelhas , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Massas , Fenóis/química , Pólen/química
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(5): e2211223120, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689649

RESUMO

The acute decline in global biodiversity includes not only the loss of rare species, but also the rapid collapse of common species across many different taxa. The loss of pollinating insects is of particular concern because of the ecological and economic values these species provide. The western bumble bee (Bombus occidentalis) was once common in western North America, but this species has become increasingly rare through much of its range. To understand potential mechanisms driving these declines, we used Bayesian occupancy models to investigate the effects of climate and land cover from 1998 to 2020, pesticide use from 2008 to 2014, and projected expected occupancy under three future scenarios. Using 14,457 surveys across 2.8 million km2 in the western United States, we found strong negative relationships between increasing temperature and drought on occupancy and identified neonicotinoids as the pesticides of greatest negative influence across our study region. The mean predicted occupancy declined by 57% from 1998 to 2020, ranging from 15 to 83% declines across 16 ecoregions. Even under the most optimistic scenario, we found continued declines in nearly half of the ecoregions by the 2050s and mean declines of 93% under the most severe scenario across all ecoregions. This assessment underscores the tenuous future of B. occidentalis and demonstrates the scale of stressors likely contributing to rapid loss of related pollinator species throughout the globe. Scaled-up, international species-monitoring schemes and improved integration of data from formal surveys and community science will substantively improve the understanding of stressors and bumble bee population trends.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Abelhas , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Biodiversidade , Insetos , Clima
19.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 66(1): 177-179, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656236

RESUMO

Bee stings usually result in mild allergic reactions; however, mass envenomation can cause severe complications such as rhabdomyolysis, hemolysis, shock, or multi-organ damage. Rhabdomyolysis can result in acute renal failure either by tubular obstruction by myoglobin casts or by direct cytotoxic injury. We present a case of a 12-year-old female child who presented with sudden onset anuria and hypertension following mass envenomation by bees. A renal biopsy was performed, the microscopic evaluation of which revealed tubular injury, with associated intratubular pigmented casts. The casts stained positive for myoglobin immunohistochemical stain, thus confirming a diagnosis of myoglobin cast nephropathy. The patient was given IV steroids and underwent seven sessions of hemodialysis, following which there was complete recovery of renal function.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Rabdomiólise , Animais , Feminino , Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Abelhas , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/complicações , Mioglobina , Nefrectomia , Rabdomiólise/diagnóstico , Rabdomiólise/etiologia , Criança
20.
Curr Biol ; 33(2): R44-R48, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693303

RESUMO

Intensive agriculture is reliant on pesticides to control crop pests, but these chemicals can have negative environmental consequences. This has resulted in repeated calls for pesticide risk assessments to be modified to better protect ecosystem services such as pollination. However, the pesticide licensing process is complex, and consequently there is often confusion between risk assessments where the environmental impact of pesticide use is considered, and risk management where licensing decisions are made. Using bees as a case study, we provide a roadmap for how pesticides are licensed for use in the European Union. By outlining the regulatory process, we highlight key data gaps that need to be addressed to generate a holistic approach to environmental risk assessment. Such an approach is vital to protect pollinators and wildlife more broadly from the unintended consequences of pesticide use.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Abelhas , Animais , Ecossistema , Agricultura/métodos , Meio Ambiente , Medição de Risco , Polinização
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