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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130745, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404004

RESUMO

The subject of the present research is the evaluation of health-promoting properties caused by the presence of some vitamins as well as the antioxidative potential of the honeybee drone brood homogenate (DBH). The study used 139 homogenate samples obtained from various apiaries and collected over 3 years, three times during each beekeeping season. Samples differed in terms of varroa infestation, stage of brood development, location of the apiary, and the degree of environmental contamination. The content of ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, all-trans-retinol, and coenzyme Q10 in the tested samples was determined through the application of HPLC/DAD/UV and LC/QQQ/MS methods. The antioxidant potential of samples was assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH methods.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Varroidae , Animais , Criação de Abelhas , Abelhas , Fenóis , Vitaminas
2.
Food Chem ; 368: 130808, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419793

RESUMO

As stingless bee honey (SBH) is gaining in popularity in the Malaysian market, it is now prone to adulteration. The higher price of SBH compared to floral honey has led to the use of unusual adulterants such as vinegar and even floral honey to mimic the unique taste and appearance of SBH. Since the current AOAC 998.12 method fails to detect these adulterants as their δ13C values are in the range for C3 plants, untargeted 1H NMR metabolomics was proposed. Principal component analysis of SBH 1H NMR fingerprints was able to distinguish authentic SBHs from adulterated ones down to 1% adulteration level for selected adulterants. Discriminant analysis showed promising results in distinguishing the preliminary datasets of authentic SBHs from the adulterated ones, including discriminating SBHs adulterated with different adulterants derived from C3 and C4 plants. Hence, to assure any emerging adulterant can be detected, all 1H NMR regions should be considered.


Assuntos
Mel , Animais , Abelhas , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Mel/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metabolômica , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética
3.
Food Chem ; 366: 130597, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314935

RESUMO

We investigated the effect of bee species identity and harvesting methods on the chemical composition and antiradical activity of 53 honey samples, produced by six stingless bee species in western Kenya (Kakamega forest). Our results illustrate that none of the assayed parameters significantly varied between the honey samples harvested by "punching holes" (n = 25) and "squeezing" (n = 28) methods. By contrast, species identity drove significant differences in the assayed parameters. Positive correlations between the antiradical activity and the phytochemicals (phenols and flavonoids) were observed, and honeys from Liotrigona sp. exhibited the highest amounts of phenols (214 mg GAE/100 g), flavonoids (73.0 mg QE/100 g) and antiradical activity (76.2%). The physicochemical analyses confirm the need to establish separate stingless bee honey standards for moisture, free acidity, invertase, electrical conductivity, and HMF, as these parameters significantly diverged from the set limits for Apis mellifera honey.


Assuntos
Mel , Himenópteros , Animais , Abelhas , Flavonoides , Quênia , Simpatria
4.
Food Chem ; 367: 130652, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388629

RESUMO

Stingless Bees (SB) honey is a product used for different purposes, and it is worth highlighting the presence of metallic species, which can have a nutritional or toxic effect, depending on the metal present and/or the amount ingested. Therefore, the objective of this work was to quickly determine Fe, Mn, Mg and Ca in SB honey, using slurry sampling and FAAS of 88 honey samples from different regions of Brazil. The concentrations varied from < LOD to 364 µg g-1 (Ca). The order for average concentration in the samples was Ca > Mg > Mn > Fe. Through the principal component analysis, it was verified that the SB honey analyzed in the present study has higher contents of the evaluated metals than the honey of the species Apis mellifera and SB honey from other Brazilian states. Theoretical calculation demonstrated that there is a little contribution of SB honey to human diet in relation to the metals, being more significative for Mn.


Assuntos
Mel , Animais , Abelhas , Brasil
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150041, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500270

RESUMO

Legacy landmines in post-conflict areas are a non-discriminatory lethal hazard and can still be triggered decades after the conflict has ended. Efforts to detect these explosive devices are expensive, time-consuming, and dangerous to humans and animals involved. While methods such as metal detectors and sniffer dogs have successfully been used in humanitarian demining, more tools are required for both site surveying and accurate mine detection. Honeybees have emerged in recent years as efficient bioaccumulation and biomonitoring animals. The system reported here uses two complementary landmine detection methods: passive sampling and active search. Passive sampling aims to confirm the presence of explosive materials in a mine-suspected area by the analysis of explosive material brought back to the colony on honeybee bodies returning from foraging trips. Analysis is performed by light-emitting chemical sensors detecting explosives thermally desorbed from a preconcentrator strip. The active search is intended to be able to pinpoint the place where individual landmines are most likely to be present. Used together, both methods are anticipated to be useful in an end-to-end process for area surveying, suspected hazardous area reduction, and post-clearing internal and external quality control in humanitarian demining.


Assuntos
Substâncias Explosivas , Animais , Abelhas , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Biológico , Cães , Manejo de Espécimes , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131948, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426277

RESUMO

Bee health is declining on a global scale, yet the exact causes and their interactions responsible for the decline remain unknown. To more objectively study bee health, recently biomarkers have been proposed as an essential tool, because they can be rapidly quantified and standardized, serving as a comparable measure across bee species and varying environments. Here, we used a systems biology approach to draw associations between endogenous and exogenous chemical profiles, with pesticide exposure, or the abundance of the 21 most common honey bee diseases. From the analysis we identified chemical biomarkers for both pesticide exposure and bee diseases along with the mechanistic biological pathways that may influence disease onset and progression. We found a total of 2352 chemical features, from 30 different hives, sampled from seven different locations. Of these, a total of 1088 significant associations were found that could serve as chemical biomarker profiles for predicting both pesticide exposure and the presence of diseases in a bee colony. In almost all cases we found novel external environmental exposures within the top seven associations with bee diseases and pesticide exposures, with the majority having previously unknown connections to bee health. We highlight the exposure-outcome paradigm and its ability to identify previously uncategorized interactions from different environmental exposures associated with bee diseases, pesticides, mechanisms, and potential synergistic interactions of these that are responsible for honey bee health decline.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Praguicidas , Animais , Abelhas , Biomarcadores , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade
7.
Food Chem ; 370: 131031, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509153

RESUMO

To determine whether high spraying concentrations of Zn sources increase the Zn concentration in waxy corn (Zea mays L. var. ceratina Kulesh) seeds without compromising agronomic performance, field experiments were conducted between 2018 and 2020. Excess ZnSO4 application caused foliar burn, barren ear tip, and grain yield loss. ZnEDTA and Glycine-chelated Zn (ZnGly) caused less foliar burn, but Glycine-mixed Zn caused more foliar burn than ZnSO4. The seed Zn concentration increased with spraying Zn concentration. ZnEDTA (≤0.8%) had a higher threshold concentration than ZnGly (≤0.4%). Nevertheless, Zn biofortification efficacy did not significantly differ between 0.4% ZnGly and 0.8% ZnEDTA, and the grain Zn recovery rate of 0.4% ZnGly was much higher than that of 0.8% ZnEDTA. Additionally, dual-isotope labelling tests confirmed that 15N-glycine and 68Zn in ZnGly interacted. In the future, chelating technology is essential for developing new Zn fertilizers to optimize Zn biofortification efficacy.


Assuntos
Biofortificação , Sulfato de Zinco , Animais , Abelhas , Glicina/toxicidade , Ceras , Zea mays , Zinco
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149934, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525715

RESUMO

Insect pollination is a crucial component of our ecosystems and biodiversity, but our reliance on this ecosystem service has much broader implications. We depend on these pollination services to produce materials and food. But insect pollinators, especially bees, are in strong decline due to a plethora of factors, least of which are environmental abiotic stressors like climate change. The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is the world's most managed solitary bee and is particularly vulnerable to changes in temperature. This species spends up to ten months overwintering while being exposed to the lowest temperatures of winters and the hottest temperatures of late summer. This results in usage of energy reserves prematurely and asynchronous spring emergence with their food resource. To understand the stress response of these bees and potentially boost their performance, we applied a hormetic framework where bees were exposure to different doses of anoxia (the absence of oxygen) to trigger hormesis; a low-dose stimulatory response known to lower damage and improve performance. We used hormesis on immature bees as a post-winter treatment with the goal of improving springtime performance in adults. One hour of anoxia had no negative effect on adult springtime emergence and bees were quick to recover. These bees were more active than untreated bees, as resistant to starvation, and as long-lived. Higher exposure to anoxia (3 h) was found to be mildly hormetic and 6-h exposures were detrimental. Anoxia hormesis did not represent a significant cost on the energy reserve of overwintering bees but we found that the age at which anoxia is applied will affect the effectiveness of treatment. Our data suggest that anoxia hormesis is a viable intervention to improve springtime performance in overwintering bees.


Assuntos
Diapausa , Ecossistema , Animais , Abelhas , Hormese , Hipóxia , Sobrevivência
9.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 413-425, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634363

RESUMO

Beebread from serpentine localities in Albania and Bulgaria were characterized based on their pollen and chemical element content (macroelements K, Ca, Mg, P and microelements Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Zn) aiming to (1) evaluate the effect of serpentine soil on the quality of beebread; (2) compare elemental concentrations in samples from serpentine areas in Albania and Bulgaria; and (3) compare the differences in pollen spectra. Chemical element content was determined using microwave digestion of beebread samples followed by ICP-OES measurements. The analytical procedure developed was validated by added/found method. Analytical figures of merit of analytical method proposed were presented. The melissopalynological analysis was applied for pollen characterization. The results demonstrate clear difference in the pollen spectra between the two sets of samples, confirming differences in local serpentine flora in both countries, but specific pollen type is difficult to be suggested. The pollen content is related to the flowering period, climatic conditions, and bees forage preferences. The samples vary in their elemental concentrations depending on the pollen type and year of collection. The highest average concentrations found for K, Ca, Mg, and P are close to values reported in the literature. However, elevated concentrations observed for Ni, Cr, Mn, and Fe in beebread, especially from Albania, are in line with the serpentine characteristics of studied areas. The concentrations of Cd and Pb for all beebread samples are below permissible limits. The results should be taken into consideration in future specific food safety regulations at national and international level.


Assuntos
Pólen , Oligoelementos , Albânia , Animais , Abelhas , Bulgária , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Pólen/química , Solo , Oligoelementos/análise
10.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 81(4): 899-908, Oct.-Dec. 2021. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-762601

RESUMO

Experiments were performed investigating citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) as a repellent to honeybee Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Egypt, it was conducted in laboratory in the Department of Entomology and Pesticides Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, to check long-term survival of honeybee when exposed to different nano insecticides alone or combined with citronella at the same examination box for each. In this study, we used a modeling approach regarding survival data of caged worker bees under chronic exposure to four insecticides (Chloropyrophos, Nano-chloropyrophos Imidacloprid, Nano-Imidacloprid) each of them was supplemented in a box alone and in combination with citronella. Having three replicates and five concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm). Laboratory bioassay of these insecticides showed that chloropyrophos and nano chloropyrophos were the most toxic at their high dose (500 ppm) with LT50 of 120.98 and 122.02 followed by 132.14 and 136.5 minutes for Imidacloprid and Nano-Imidacloprid, respectively. No consumption occurred by bees to mixed sugar syrup with insecticides in all treatments when citronella was added. These data highly recommended that adding citronella is very effective when nicotinoid pesticides are used to longevity honeybee life and keep bee safe.(AU)


Foram realizados experimentos para investigar a citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) como repelente de abelhas Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) no Egito, conduzidos no laboratório do Departamento de Entomologia e Ciência de Pesticidas, da Faculdade de Agricultura, da Universidade do Cairo, e verificar a sobrevivência a longo prazo das abelhas quando expostas a diferentes nanoinseticidas isoladamente ou combinados com citronela na mesma caixa de exame para cada um. Neste estudo, usamos uma abordagem de modelagem em relação aos dados de sobrevivência de abelhas operárias enjauladas sob exposição crônica a quatro inseticidas (clorpirifós, nanoclorpirifós, imidacloprida e nanoimidacloprida), e cada um deles foi suplementado em uma caixa e em combinação com citronela, tendo três repetições e cinco concentrações (100, 200, 300, 400 e 500 ppm). O bioensaio em laboratório desses inseticidas mostrou que clorpirifós e nanoclorpirifós foram os mais tóxicos em altas doses (500 ppm) com LT50 de 120,98 e 122,02, seguidos por 132,14 e 136,5 minutos para imidacloprida e nanoimidacloprida, respectivamente. Não houve consumo pelas abelhas do xarope de açúcar misto com inseticidas em todos os tratamentos quando a citronela foi adicionada. Esses dados recomendam a adição de citronela, sendo muito eficaz quando pesticidas nicotinoides são utilizados para longevidade das abelhas e para mantê-las seguras.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cymbopogon , Abelhas , Inseticidas , Repelentes de Insetos
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 785, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755261

RESUMO

Pollen metabarcoding is emerging as a powerful tool for ecological research and offers unprecedented scale in citizen science projects for environmental monitoring via honey bees. Biases in metabarcoding can be introduced at any stage of sample processing and preservation is at the forefront of the pipeline. While in metabarcoding studies pollen has been preserved at - 20 °C (FRZ), this is not the best method for citizen scientists. Herein, we compared this method with ethanol (EtOH), silica gel (SG) and room temperature (RT) for preservation of pollen collected from hives in Austria and Denmark. After ~ 4 months of storage, DNAs were extracted with a food kit, and their quality and concentration measured. Most DNA extracts exhibited 260/280 absorbance ratios close to the optimal 1.8, with RT samples from Austria performing slightly worse than FRZ and SG samples (P < 0.027). Statistical differences were also detected for DNA concentration, with EtOH samples producing lower yields than RT and FRZ samples in both countries and SG in Austria (P < 0.042). Yet, qualitative and quantitative assessments of floral composition obtained using high-throughput sequencing with the ITS2 barcode gave non-significant effects of preservation methods on richness, relative abundance and Shannon diversity, in both countries. While freezing and ethanol are commonly employed for archiving tissue for molecular applications, desiccation is cheaper and easier to use regarding both storage and transportation. Since SG is less dependent on ambient humidity and less prone to contamination than RT, we recommend SG for preserving pollen for metabarcoding. SG is straightforward for laymen to use and hence robust for widespread application in citizen science studies.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Mel , Animais , Abelhas , Viés , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pólen
12.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 179: 104975, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802525

RESUMO

Pesticides are one of the main causes of colony losses globally, posing a huge threat to the beekeeping industry. The fungicide carbendazim is commonly used on many crops worldwide, but the effects of fungicides on honey bees have received less attention than those of insecticides. Previous studies have shown that sublethal doses of carbendazim hinder growth and development and may destabilize and impede the development of honey bee colonies. The metabolome closely reflects brain activity at the functional level, allowing the effects of compounds such as fungicides to be investigated. Here, we established a model of carbendazim-treated honey bees, Apis mellifera, and used metabolomic approaches to better understand the effect of carbendazim on bee metabolic profiles. The results showed that 112 metabolites were significantly affected in carbendazim-treated bees compared to the control. Metabolites associated with energy and amino acid metabolism showed high abundance and were enriched for a wide range of pathways. In addition, the down-regulation of Aflatoxin B1exo-8,9-epoxide-GSH and glycerol diphosphate showed that carbenazim may affect the detoxification and immune system of honey bees. These results provide new insights into the interaction between fungicides and honey bees.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Abelhas , Benzimidazóis , Carbamatos/toxicidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Inseticidas/toxicidade
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 4): e20200591, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730615

RESUMO

We investigated ten honey samples from the Discovery Coast of Bahia, Brazil, to confirm the three predominant flower sources indicated by regional beekeepers: Brazilian peppertree - Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi; eucalyptus - Eucalyptus L'Hér. spp.; and velame - Croton L. spp.. The honeys were collected in five Southern Bahia municipalities - Belmonte, Eunápolis, Guaratinga, Itabela and Porto Seguro. The samples underwent acetolysis and, after slides mounting, the pollen types were identified and counted to determine the frequency classes. The pollen spectra revealed 31 pollen types in 27 genera and 17 families. The palynological analysis confirmed the predominant eucalyptus flower source indicated for four honey samples from Belmonte, Eunápolis, Itabela and Porto Seguro. Three honey samples previously indicated with predominant eucalyptus and velame flower sources had no predominant pollen. Eucalyptus predominated as the main flower source for another three samples previously indicated by beekeepers as Brazilian peppertree and velame. We conclude that regional honeys marketed as having a predominant flower source may have distinct botanical origin. This demands further research aimed at reviewing which bee plants provide resources for monofloral, bifloral and plurifloral honeys in the Bahian Discovery Coast.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Croton , Eucalyptus , Mel , Animais , Abelhas , Flores , Mel/análise , Pólen
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782373

RESUMO

In India, bee stings are very common, seen mainly in farmers and honey collectors. Usually, it presents with local reactions and anaphylaxis. It rarely requires urgent hospitalisation. Other major complications seen are acute renal failure, intravascular coagulation, rhabdomyolysis and acute pulmonary oedema. Stroke as a presentation is uncommon. We report a case of a 45-year-old man presenting with right-sided hemiplegia and aphasia due to multiple bee stings. Diffusion MRI showed left middle cerebral artery territory hyperacute infarct.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Venenos de Abelha , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Animais , Abelhas , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/etiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
15.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 78(3): 317-321, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617712

RESUMO

Introduction: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HHL), a severe hyperinflammatory syndrome caused by aberrant activation of macrophages and cytotoxic T cells, is clinically manifested as a febrile onset along with cytopenias, high ferritin serum level and splenomegaly. In adult patients, secondary causes of it should be looked for, such as autoimmune and infectious diseases and neoplasms. Prompt initiation of treatment is important due to the high mortality of this syndrome. Methods: A case of a 53-year-old patient diagnosed with HHL associated with T-cell lymphoma is presented as a sudden onset of several symptoms and signs of HHL, along with infectious complications. Results: Results: Once the diagnosis of HHL was made, treatment with Etoposide and Dexamethasone was started, and with the diagnosis of T-cell lymphoma established, chemotherapy treatment with a CHOEP scheme was started, with a favorable initial evolution. Main conclusion: As HHL is a rare entity associated with high mortality, initial suspicion must be high when facing an acute onset of fever, cytopenia and splenomegaly. Nonetheless, diagnosing HHL is challenging and often appear superimposed on multiple infectious diseases. The early initiation of treatmbent is important given the high mortality of this pathology


Assuntos
Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica , Linfoma de Células T , Animais , Abelhas
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 740, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674037

RESUMO

Honeybees have been used in Europe as environmental bioindicators for heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, their potential has been little explored in North America, especially between environments which have similar pollution levels. Many urban residents and stakeholders are concerned with air quality, mainly in regard to gradients of exposure to industrial pollution between deprived and privileged subpopulation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of honeybees as bioindicators to assess exposure to heavy metals and PAHs in Québec City, Canada, in different socioeconomic districts of Quebec City (deprivation index). Honeybees were sampled over a 5-month period (May to September) at six locations distributed in two urban areas that are distinct geomorphologically and socioeconomically (lower town socio-economically deprived and upper town socioeconomically privileged) and two control rural locations. Six PAHs were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), while four heavy metals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Arsenic was the only measured pollutant that showed a significant gradient of exposure between rural and urban environments, but also between the two urban areas. Furthermore, we were able to detect significant differences at certain sampling times for heavy metals and PAHs. Overall, the results show that honeybees are sensitive enough to detect differences between the differential urban environments of a city presumed to have similar pollution levels and therefore could be used when potential socio-environmental inequalities are present.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Animais , Abelhas , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 756, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Much of the complex anatomy of a holometabolous insect is built from disc-shaped epithelial structures found inside the larva, i.e., the imaginal discs, which undergo a rapid differentiation during metamorphosis. Imaginal discs-derived structures, like wings, are built through the action of genes under precise regulation. RESULTS: We analyzed 30 honeybee transcriptomes in the search for the gene expression needed for wings and thoracic dorsum construction from the larval wing discs primordia. Analyses were carried out before, during, and after the metamorphic molt and using worker and queen castes. Our RNA-seq libraries revealed 13,202 genes, representing 86.2% of the honeybee annotated genes. Gene Ontology analysis revealed functional terms that were caste-specific or shared by workers and queens. Genes expressed in wing discs and descendant structures showed differential expression profiles dynamics in premetamorphic, metamorphic and postmetamorphic developmental phases, and also between castes. At the metamorphic molt, when ecdysteroids peak, the wing buds of workers showed maximal gene upregulation comparatively to queens, thus underscoring differences in gene expression between castes at the height of the larval-pupal transition. Analysis of small RNA libraries of wing buds allowed us to build miRNA-mRNA interaction networks to predict the regulation of genes expressed during wing discs development. CONCLUSION: Together, these data reveal gene expression dynamics leading to wings and thoracic dorsum formation from the wing discs, besides highlighting caste-specific differences during wing discs metamorphosis.


Assuntos
Discos Imaginais , Transcriptoma , Animais , Abelhas/genética , Humanos , Metamorfose Biológica/genética , Classe Social , Asas de Animais
18.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245536, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669792

RESUMO

Acacia mangium (Willd., 1806) (Fabales: Fabaceae) is a fast growing, rustic, pioneer species, with potential to fix nitrogen, and for programs to recover degraded areas. The objective was to evaluate the distribution and the functional diversity of interactions and the K-dominance of arthropod groups on A. mangium saplings. The number of individuals of eleven species of phytophagous insects, three bee species, and fourteen natural enemy species were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of this plant. Abundance, diversity and species richness of phytophagous insects and natural enemies, and abundance and species richness of pollinators were highest on the adaxial A. mangium leaf surface. The distribution of five species of sap-sucking hemipterans and six of protocooperating ants (Hymenoptera), with positive interaction between these groups, and three bee species (Hymenoptera) were aggregated on leaves of A. mangium saplings. Aethalion reticulatum (L.) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) and Bemisia sp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); Brachymyrmex sp. and Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); and Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were the most dominant phytophagous insects, natural enemies, and pollinators, respectively, on A. mangium leaves. Knowledge of preferred leaf surfaces could help integrated pest management programs.


Assuntos
Acacia , Formigas , Artrópodes , Fabaceae , Animais , Abelhas , Folhas de Planta
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640754

RESUMO

The study of human activity recognition (HAR) plays an important role in many areas such as healthcare, entertainment, sports, and smart homes. With the development of wearable electronics and wireless communication technologies, activity recognition using inertial sensors from ubiquitous smart mobile devices has drawn wide attention and become a research hotspot. Before recognition, the sensor signals are typically preprocessed and segmented, and then representative features are extracted and selected based on them. Considering the issues of limited resources of wearable devices and the curse of dimensionality, it is vital to generate the best feature combination which maximizes the performance and efficiency of the following mapping from feature subsets to activities. In this paper, we propose to integrate bee swarm optimization (BSO) with a deep Q-network to perform feature selection and present a hybrid feature selection methodology, BAROQUE, on basis of these two schemes. Following the wrapper approach, BAROQUE leverages the appealing properties from BSO and the multi-agent deep Q-network (DQN) to determine feature subsets and adopts a classifier to evaluate these solutions. In BAROQUE, the BSO is employed to strike a balance between exploitation and exploration for the search of feature space, while the DQN takes advantage of the merits of reinforcement learning to make the local search process more adaptive and more efficient. Extensive experiments were conducted on some benchmark datasets collected by smartphones or smartwatches, and the metrics were compared with those of BSO, DQN, and some other previously published methods. The results show that BAROQUE achieves an accuracy of 98.41% for the UCI-HAR dataset and takes less time to converge to a good solution than other methods, such as CFS, SFFS, and Relief-F, yielding quite promising results in terms of accuracy and efficiency.


Assuntos
Atividades Humanas , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Animais , Abelhas , Smartphone
20.
J Insect Sci ; 21(5)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636890

RESUMO

Hexamerins are members of the hemocyanin superfamily and play essential roles in providing amino acids and energy for the nonfeeding stages of insects. In this study, we cloned and analyzed the expression patterns of four hexamerin genes (hex 70a, hex 70b, hex 70c, and hex 110) at different worker development stages and queen diapause statuses in the bumble bee, Bombus terrestris. The results of this study showed that hex 110 has the longest open reading frame (ORF; 3,297 bp) compared to the ORFs of hex 70a (2,034 bp), hex 70b (2,067 bp), and hex 70c (2,055 bp). The putative translation product of Hex 70a, Hex 70b, Hex70c, and Hex 110 has 677, 688, 684, and 1,098aa with predicted molecular mass of 81.13, 79.69, 81.58, and 119 kDa. In the development stages of workers, the expression levels of hex 70a, hex 70b, and hex 70c increased gradually from the larval stage and exhibited high expression levels at the pink eyed and brown eyed pupae stage, whereas hex 110 exhibited the highest expression level at the larval period. Four hexamerin genes were highly expressed at the prediapause status of queen (P < 0.05), and compared to the eclosion queen, the lowest upregulation was 3.7-fold, and the highest upregulation was 1,742-fold. The expression levels of hex 70b, hex 70c, and hex 110 at diapause were significantly higher than those at postdiapause (P < 0.05). In conclusion, hexamerins may play important roles in queen diapause and metamorphosis of larval and pupal stages.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Animais , Abelhas/genética , Abelhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Abelhas/fisiologia , Diapausa/genética , Diapausa/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Metamorfose Biológica/genética , Metamorfose Biológica/fisiologia , Pupa/genética , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/fisiologia
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