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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e260721, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374676

RESUMO

Forest restoration is mainly based on plant-soil relationships and plant species with economic potential, but those between insects and other arthropods are also important to this reestablishment. The objective was to evaluate, during 24 months, the relationships between tending ants, Hemiptera phytophagous, predators and their distribution pattern (aggregated, random or uniform). The arthropods were sampled, stored and identified and their relationships and distribution patterns calculated with the BioDiversity-Pro software. The number of tending ants and phytophagous Hemiptera, Brachymyrmex sp. and Aethalion reticulatum, Cephalotes and Aleyrodidae were positively correlated. Tending ants were negatively correlated with Sternorrhyncha predators on A. auriculiformis saplings. The distribution of arthropods was aggregated, except for Teudis sp. and Cephalocoema sp., with a random pattern. The herbivores Stereoma anchoralis, Aethalion reticulatum and Tetragonisca angustula and the predators Brachymyrmex sp. and Dolichopodidae were the most abundant arthropods. The relationships between the arthropods studied on A. auriculiformis indicate that this plant, even introduced, is suitable for programs to recover degraded areas in the savannah.


A restauração florestal é baseada nas relações planta-solo e espécies vegetais com potencial econômico, mas aquelas entre insetos e outros artópodes são, também, importantes para esse processo. O objetivo foi avaliar as relações entre formigas, fitófagos Hemiptera e predadores e a distribuição (agregada, aleatória ou regular) de artrópodes, por 24 meses, em mudas de Acacia auriculiformis utilizadas na recuperação de áreas degradadas. Os artrópodes foram amostrados, armazenados e identificados e suas relações e padrões de distribuição calculados com o software BioDiversity-Pro. Os números de formigas cuidadoras se correlacionaram, positivamente, com os dos Hemiptera fitófagos Aethalion reticulatum, Brachymyrmex sp. e Cephalotes e Aleyrodidae. Insetos cuidadores de Hemiptera foram, negativamente, correlacionados com predadores Sternorrhyncha em plantas de A. auriculiformis. A distribuição dos artrópodes foi agregada, exceto Teudis sp. e Cephalocoema sp., com padrão aleatório. Aethalion reticulatum, Stereoma anchoralis e Tetragonisca angustula foram os herbívoros e Brachymyrmex sp. e Dolichopodidae os predadores mais abundantes. As relações entre os artrópodes estudados em A. auriculiformis indicam que esta planta, mesmo introduzida, é adequada para programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas no cerrado.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Aranhas , Pradaria , Acacia , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252088, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345543

RESUMO

Abstract Acacia mangium is a pioneer species with fast growth and frequently used in the recovery of degraded areas. The objectives were to evaluate insects and spiders, their ecological indices and interactions on A. mangium saplings in a tropical degraded area in recovering process. The experimental design was completely randomized with 24 replications, with treatments represented by the first and second years after A. mangium seedling planted. Numbers of leaves/branch, branches/sapling, and ground cover by A. mangium saplings, Hemiptera: Phenacoccus sp. and Pachycoris torridus; Hymenoptera: Tetragonisca angustula and Trigona spinipes, Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus sp. and Cephalotes sp.; Blattodea: Nasutitermes sp. and Neuroptera: Chrysoperla sp.; abundance, species richness of pollinating insects, tending ants, and the abundance of Sternorrhyncha predators were greatest in the second year after planting. Numbers of Hemiptera: Aethalium reticulatum, Hymenoptera: Camponotus sp., Cephalotes sp., Polybia sp., T. angustula, T. spinipes, tending ants, pollinating insects, Sternorrhyncha predators and species richness of tending ants were highest on A. mangium saplings with greatest numbers of leaves or branches. The increase in the population of arthropods with ground cover by A. mangium saplings age increase indicates the positive impact by this plant on the recovery process of degraded areas.


Resumo Acacia mangium é uma espécie pioneira, de rápido crescimento e utilizada na recuperação de áreas degradadas. Os objetivos foram avaliar insetos e aranhas, seus índices ecológicos e interações com plantas de A. mangium em área tropical degradada em processo de recuperação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 24 repetições, com os tratamentos representados pelos primeiro e segundo anos após a plantio de A. mangium. Os números de folhas/galhos, galhos/plantas e cobertura do solo por plantas de A. mangium, de Hemiptera: Phenacoccus sp. e Pachycoris torridus; Hymenoptera: Tetragonisca angustula e Trigona spinipes, Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus sp. e Cephalotes sp.; Blattodea: Nasutitermes sp. e Neuroptera: Chrysoperla sp.; a abundância, riqueza de espécies de insetos polinizadores, formigas cuidadoras e a abundância de predadores de Sternorrhyncha foram maiores no segundo ano após o plantio. Os números de Hemiptera: Aethalium reticulatum, Hymenoptera: Camponotus sp., Cephalotes sp., Polybia sp., T. angustula, T. spinipes, formigas cuidadoras, insetos polinizadores, predadores de Sternorrhyncha e a riqueza de espécies de formigas cuidadoras foram maiores em plantas de A. mangium com maior altura e número de folhas ou galhos. O aumento populacional de artrópodes e da cobertura do solo com o processo de envelhecimento das plantas de A. mangium indicam impacto positivo dessa planta na recuperação de áreas degradadas.


Assuntos
Animais , Aranhas , Acacia , Insetos , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253218, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355863

RESUMO

Abstract Indices are used to help on decision-making. This study aims to develop and test an index, which can determine the loss (e.g., herbivorous insects) and solution (e.g., natural enemies) sources. They will be classified according to their importance regarding the ability to damage or to reduce the source of damage to the system when the final production is unknown. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs, and it is adequate to evaluate a new index. The formula was: Percentage of the Importance Indice-Production Unknown (% I.I.-PU) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. The loss sources Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and Tettigoniidae, and solution sources Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae), and Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) showed the highest % I.I.-PU on leaves of A. auriculiformis saplings. The number of Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was reduced per number of Salticidae; that of A. reticulatum that of Uspachus sp.; and that of Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) that of P. termitarius on A. auriculiformis saplings. However, the number of Aleyrodidae was increased per number of Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and that of A. reticulatum that of Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on A. auriculiformis saplings. The A. reticulatum damage was reduced per number of Uspachus sp., but the Aleyrodidae damage was increased per number of Cephalotes sp., totaling 23.81% of increase by insect damages on A. auriculiformis saplings. Here I show and test the % I.I.-PU. It is an new index that can detect the loss or solution sources on a system when production is unknown. It can be applied in some knowledge areas.


Resumo Índices são usados para ajudar na tomada de decisões. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver e testar um índice capaz de determinar fontes de perda (ex.: insetos herbívoros) e de solução (ex.: inimigos naturais). Eles serão classificados de acordo com sua importância quanto a habilidade de danificar ou reduzir danos no sistema, quando a produção final é desconhecida. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), uma espécie pioneira não nativa do Brasil com rápido crescimento e rusticidade, usada em programas de restauração, é adequada para avaliar um novo índice. A fórmula foi: Porcentagem de Índice de Importância-Produção Desconhecida (% I.I.-PD) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. As fontes de perda Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) e Tettigoniidae, e as fontes de solução Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae) e Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) apresentaram maiores % I.I.-PD nas folhas das mudas de A. auriculiformis. O número de Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) foi reduzido pelo número de Salticidae; o de A. reticulatum pelo de Uspachus sp.; e o de Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) pelo de P. termitarius em mudas de A. auriculiformis. Entretanto, o número de Aleyrodidae foi aumentado pelo número de Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) e o de A. reticulatum pelo de Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em mudas de A. auriculiformis. O dano de A. reticulatum foi reduzido pelo número de Uspachus sp., mas o dano de Aleyrodidae foi aumentado pelo número de Cephalotes sp., totalizando 23,81% de aumento de danos em mudas de A. auriculiformis. Aqui eu apresento e testo o % I.I.-PD. Ele é um novo índice capaz de detectar fontes de perda e de solução no sistema quando não se conhece a produção final. Ele pode ser aplicado em algumas áreas do conhecimento.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Besouros , Acacia , Hemípteros , Insetos
4.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-10, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765549

RESUMO

Acacia mangium (Willd., 1806) (Fabales: Fabaceae) is a fast growing, rustic, pioneer species, with potential to fix nitrogen, and for programs to recover degraded areas. The objective was to evaluate the distribution and the functional diversity of interactions and the K-dominance of arthropod groups on A. mangium saplings. The number of individuals of eleven species of phytophagous insects, three bee species, and fourteen natural enemy species were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of this plant. Abundance, diversity and species richness of phytophagous insects and natural enemies, and abundance and species richness of pollinators were highest on the adaxial A. mangium leaf surface. The distribution of five species of sap-sucking hemipterans and six of protocooperating ants (Hymenoptera), with positive interaction between these groups, and three bee species (Hymenoptera) were aggregated on leaves of A. mangium saplings. Aethalion reticulatum (L.) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) and Bemisia sp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); Brachymyrmex sp. and Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); and Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were the most dominant phytophagous insects, natural enemies, and pollinators, respectively, on A. mangium leaves. Knowledge of preferred leaf surfaces could help integrated pest management programs.(AU)


Acacia mangium (Willd., 1806) (Fabales: Fabaceae) é uma planta pioneira com rápido crescimento, rusticidade, potencial nitrificador e importante em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo foi avaliar a distribuição e a diversidade funcional das interações e a dominância-K de grupos de artrópodes em árvores jovens de A. mangium. Os números de indivíduos de onze espécies de insetos fitófagos, três de abelhas e quatorze de inimigos naturais foram maiores na superfície adaxial de folhas dessa planta. A abundância, diversidade e riqueza de espécies de insetos fitófagos e inimigos naturais, e a abundância e riqueza de espécies de polinizadores foram maiores na face adaxial de folhas de A. mangium. A distribuição de cinco espécies de hemípteros sugadores de seiva e seis de formigas protocooperantes (Hymenoptera), com interação positiva entre esses grupos, e três de abelhas (Hymenoptera) foi agregada em folhas de plantas jovens de A. mangium. Aethalion reticulatum (L.) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) e Bemisia sp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); Brachymyrmex sp. e Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); e Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foram os insetos fitófagos, inimigos naturais e polinizadores mais dominantes, respectivamente, em folhas de A. mangium. A definição da superfície foliar preferida pode auxiliar programas de manejo integrado de pragas.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Acacia/parasitologia , Hemípteros , Himenópteros , Abelhas
5.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765536

RESUMO

Fertilization with dehydrated sewage sludge can speed up the recovery process of degraded areas due to nutrients concentration, favoring the development of pioneer plants such as Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Beth (Fabales: Fabaceae) and the emergence of insects. This study aimed the evaluation of chewing, pollinating insects, predators, their ecological indices and relationships on A. auriculiformis plants fertilized with dehydrated sewage sludge. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments (with and without dehydrated sewage sludge) and 24 repetitions. The prevalence of chewing insects Parasyphraea sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Nasutitermes sp. (Blattodea: Termitidae), and Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, 1813) (Orthoptera: Romaleidae), defoliation, and ecological indices of abundance of Coleoptera and Orthoptera were observed on fertilized A. auriculiformis. Acacia auriculiformis plants, with a superior number of branches/tree, revealed greater abundance of Coleoptera and Orthoptera, species richness of pollinating insects, defoliation, numbers of Parasyphraea sp. and T. collaris. The ones with larger leaves/branches displayed greater abundance of species richness of Coleoptera and Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Therefore, the use of A. auriculiformis plants, fertilized with dehydrated sewage sludge, is promising in the recovery of degraded areas due to the ecological indices increase of chewing and pollinators insects and spiders in the analyzed area.(AU)


A fertilização com lodo de esgoto desidratado pode acelerar o processo de recuperação de áreas degradadas devido à concentração de nutrientes, favorecendo o desenvolvimento de plantas pioneiras tais como Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Beth (Fabales: Fabaceae) e de seus insetos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os insetos mastigadores, polinizadores e predadores e seus índices e relações ecológicas em plantas de A. auriculiformis fertilizadas com lodo de esgoto desidratado, em área degradada, durante 24 meses. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizados com dois tratamentos (com e sem adubação com lodo de esgoto desidratado) e 24 repetições (uma repetição = uma planta). O maior número de insetos mastigadores Parasyphraea sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Nasutitermes sp. (Blattodea: Termitidae) e Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, 1813) (Orthoptera: Romaleidae), de desfolha, e do índice ecológico abundância de Coleoptera e de Orthoptera foram maiores em plantas de A. auriculiformis fertilizadas do que nas não fertilizadas com lodo de esgoto desidratado. Plantas de A. auriculiformis, com maior quantidade de galhos/árvore, apresentaram maiores abundâncias de Coleoptera e Orthoptera, riqueza de espécies de insetos polinizadores, desfolha e números de Parasyphraea sp. e T. collaris, e as com maior folhas/galho os de riqueza de espécies de Coleoptera e Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Por tanto, a utilização de A. auriculiformis, adubada com lodo de esgoto desidratado, é promissora na recuperação de áreas degradadas devido ao aumento dos índices ecológicos de insetos mastigadores, polinizadores e aranhas na área.


Assuntos
Animais , Acacia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Acacia/fisiologia , Gafanhotos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Baratas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lodos Ativados/análise
6.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765438

RESUMO

Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs. Our goal was to assess during a 24-month survey the pattern of arthropods (phytophagous insects, bees, spiders, and predator insects) on the leaf surfaces of A. auriculiformis saplings. Fourteen species of phytophagous, two of bees and eleven of predators were most abundant on the adaxial surface. The values of the ecological indexes (abundance, diversity, and species richness) and the rarefaction, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous, bees and arthropod predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of A. auriculiformis. The k-dominance and abundance of Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (both leaf surfaces), the native stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (both leaf surfaces) and the ant Brachymyrmex sp. (adaxial surface) and Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (abaxial surface) were the highest between the taxonomic groups of phytophagous, bees, and predators, respectively on A. auriculiformis saplings. The ecological indexes and rarefaction, abundance, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous insects, bees, and predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface. The preference of phytophagous insects for the adaxial leaf surface is probably due to the lower effort required to move on this surface. Understanding the arthropod preferences between leaf surfaces may help to develop sampling and pest management plans for the most abundant phytophagous insects on A. auriculiformis saplings. Also, knowledge on the preference pattern of bees and predators may be used to favour their conservation.(AU)


Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), espécie pioneira com rápido crescimento e rusticidade, é utilizada em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante 24 meses, o padrão de distribuição de artrópodes (insetos fitófagos, abelhas, aranhas e insetos predadores) nas superfícies foliares de A. auriculiformis. Quatorze espécies de fitófagos, duas de abelhas e onze de predadores foram mais abundantes na superfície adaxial. Índices ecológicos (abundância, diversidade e riqueza de espécies) e curvas de rarefação e dominância-k de fitófagos, abelhas e artrópodes predadores foram maiores na face adaxial de folhas de A. auriculiformis. A dominância-k e a abundância de Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (ambas as superfícies foliares), da abelha nativa sem ferrão Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (ambas as superfícies foliares) e das formigas Brachymyrmex sp. (superfície adaxial) e Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (superfície abaxial) foram as maiores entre os grupos taxonômicos de fitófagos polinizadores e predadores, respectivamente, em plantas jovens de A. auriculiformis. A abundância, diversidade e riqueza e as curvas de rarefação e dominância-k de artrópodes fitófagos, abelhas e predadores foram maiores nas superfícies adaxiais das folhas dessa árvore. A preferência pela superfície adaxial da folha se deve, provavelmente, ao menor esforço para se movimentarem na mesma. Compreender as preferências dos artrópodes pelas superfícies foliares pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento de planos de amostragem e manejo de pragas em A. auriculiformis. Além disso, o conhecimento da distribuição de abelhas e predadores pode favorecer a conservação desses insetos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Acacia , Artrópodes/classificação , Artrópodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Pragas/métodos
7.
Food Chem ; 399: 134005, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037692

RESUMO

Mature honeys that brew naturally in the hive develop distinct bioactive components, and thus carry a higher premium due to their superior quality. However, how to identify mature honeys remains difficult. Trace oligosaccharides are a likely source of biomarkers to indicate maturity. Here, we profiled trace oligosaccharides in acacia honey by GC-MS and used a metabolomics strategy to screen oligosaccharides that distinguish honeys with different maturities. Turanose content increased gradually in acacia honey samples and was closely related to the days stored in the hive (p < 0.05). To accurately quantify turanose, a UPLC-ELSD method was developed. Using the established method, honeys with ≥1.20 g/100 g of turanose could be classified as mature acacia honey. Based on the preliminary study, 500 commercial acacia honeys were analyzed, and only 77.2 % of these samples had a satisfactory level of turanose. This work offers a potential method to evaluate the quality of honeys.


Assuntos
Acacia , Mel , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Mel/análise , Metabolômica , Oligossacarídeos
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245536, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339403

RESUMO

Abstract Acacia mangium (Willd., 1806) (Fabales: Fabaceae) is a fast growing, rustic, pioneer species, with potential to fix nitrogen, and for programs to recover degraded areas. The objective was to evaluate the distribution and the functional diversity of interactions and the K-dominance of arthropod groups on A. mangium saplings. The number of individuals of eleven species of phytophagous insects, three bee species, and fourteen natural enemy species were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of this plant. Abundance, diversity and species richness of phytophagous insects and natural enemies, and abundance and species richness of pollinators were highest on the adaxial A. mangium leaf surface. The distribution of five species of sap-sucking hemipterans and six of protocooperating ants (Hymenoptera), with positive interaction between these groups, and three bee species (Hymenoptera) were aggregated on leaves of A. mangium saplings. Aethalion reticulatum (L.) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) and Bemisia sp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); Brachymyrmex sp. and Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); and Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were the most dominant phytophagous insects, natural enemies, and pollinators, respectively, on A. mangium leaves. Knowledge of preferred leaf surfaces could help integrated pest management programs.


Resumo Acacia mangium (Willd., 1806) (Fabales: Fabaceae) é uma planta pioneira com rápido crescimento, rusticidade, potencial nitrificador e importante em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo foi avaliar a distribuição e a diversidade funcional das interações e a dominância-K de grupos de artrópodes em árvores jovens de A. mangium. Os números de indivíduos de onze espécies de insetos fitófagos, três de abelhas e quatorze de inimigos naturais foram maiores na superfície adaxial de folhas dessa planta. A abundância, diversidade e riqueza de espécies de insetos fitófagos e inimigos naturais, e a abundância e riqueza de espécies de polinizadores foram maiores na face adaxial de folhas de A. mangium. A distribuição de cinco espécies de hemípteros sugadores de seiva e seis de formigas protocooperantes (Hymenoptera), com interação positiva entre esses grupos, e três de abelhas (Hymenoptera) foi agregada em folhas de plantas jovens de A. mangium. Aethalion reticulatum (L.) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) e Bemisia sp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); Brachymyrmex sp. e Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); e Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foram os insetos fitófagos, inimigos naturais e polinizadores mais dominantes, respectivamente, em folhas de A. mangium. A definição da superfície foliar preferida pode auxiliar programas de manejo integrado de pragas.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Artrópodes , Acacia , Fabaceae , Abelhas , Folhas de Planta
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248305, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339359

RESUMO

Abstract Fertilization with dehydrated sewage sludge can speed up the recovery process of degraded areas due to nutrients concentration, favoring the development of pioneer plants such as Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Beth (Fabales: Fabaceae) and the emergence of insects. This study aimed the evaluation of chewing, pollinating insects, predators, their ecological indices and relationships on A. auriculiformis plants fertilized with dehydrated sewage sludge. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments (with and without dehydrated sewage sludge) and 24 repetitions. The prevalence of chewing insects Parasyphraea sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Nasutitermes sp. (Blattodea: Termitidae), and Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, 1813) (Orthoptera: Romaleidae), defoliation, and ecological indices of abundance of Coleoptera and Orthoptera were observed on fertilized A. auriculiformis. Acacia auriculiformis plants, with a superior number of branches/tree, revealed greater abundance of Coleoptera and Orthoptera, species richness of pollinating insects, defoliation, numbers of Parasyphraea sp. and T. collaris. The ones with larger leaves/branches displayed greater abundance of species richness of Coleoptera and Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Therefore, the use of A. auriculiformis plants, fertilized with dehydrated sewage sludge, is promising in the recovery of degraded areas due to the ecological indices increase of chewing and pollinators insects and spiders in the analyzed area.


Resumo A fertilização com lodo de esgoto desidratado pode acelerar o processo de recuperação de áreas degradadas devido à concentração de nutrientes, favorecendo o desenvolvimento de plantas pioneiras tais como Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Beth (Fabales: Fabaceae) e de seus insetos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os insetos mastigadores, polinizadores e predadores e seus índices e relações ecológicas em plantas de A. auriculiformis fertilizadas com lodo de esgoto desidratado, em área degradada, durante 24 meses. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizados com dois tratamentos (com e sem adubação com lodo de esgoto desidratado) e 24 repetições (uma repetição = uma planta). O maior número de insetos mastigadores Parasyphraea sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Nasutitermes sp. (Blattodea: Termitidae) e Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, 1813) (Orthoptera: Romaleidae), de desfolha, e do índice ecológico abundância de Coleoptera e de Orthoptera foram maiores em plantas de A. auriculiformis fertilizadas do que nas não fertilizadas com lodo de esgoto desidratado. Plantas de A. auriculiformis, com maior quantidade de galhos/árvore, apresentaram maiores abundâncias de Coleoptera e Orthoptera, riqueza de espécies de insetos polinizadores, desfolha e números de Parasyphraea sp. e T. collaris, e as com maior folhas/galho os de riqueza de espécies de Coleoptera e Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Por tanto, a utilização de A. auriculiformis, adubada com lodo de esgoto desidratado, é promissora na recuperação de áreas degradadas devido ao aumento dos índices ecológicos de insetos mastigadores, polinizadores e aranhas na área.


Assuntos
Animais , Acacia , Fabaceae , Esgotos , Fertilização , Insetos
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243651, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285608

RESUMO

Abstract Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs. Our goal was to assess during a 24-month survey the pattern of arthropods (phytophagous insects, bees, spiders, and predator insects) on the leaf surfaces of A. auriculiformis saplings. Fourteen species of phytophagous, two of bees and eleven of predators were most abundant on the adaxial surface. The values of the ecological indexes (abundance, diversity, and species richness) and the rarefaction, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous, bees and arthropod predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of A. auriculiformis. The k-dominance and abundance of Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (both leaf surfaces), the native stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (both leaf surfaces) and the ant Brachymyrmex sp. (adaxial surface) and Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (abaxial surface) were the highest between the taxonomic groups of phytophagous, bees, and predators, respectively on A. auriculiformis saplings. The ecological indexes and rarefaction, abundance, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous insects, bees, and predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface. The preference of phytophagous insects for the adaxial leaf surface is probably due to the lower effort required to move on this surface. Understanding the arthropod preferences between leaf surfaces may help to develop sampling and pest management plans for the most abundant phytophagous insects on A. auriculiformis saplings. Also, knowledge on the preference pattern of bees and predators may be used to favour their conservation.


Resumo Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), espécie pioneira com rápido crescimento e rusticidade, é utilizada em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante 24 meses, o padrão de distribuição de artrópodes (insetos fitófagos, abelhas, aranhas e insetos predadores) nas superfícies foliares de A. auriculiformis. Quatorze espécies de fitófagos, duas de abelhas e onze de predadores foram mais abundantes na superfície adaxial. Índices ecológicos (abundância, diversidade e riqueza de espécies) e curvas de rarefação e dominância-k de fitófagos, abelhas e artrópodes predadores foram maiores na face adaxial de folhas de A. auriculiformis. A dominância-k e a abundância de Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (ambas as superfícies foliares), da abelha nativa sem ferrão Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (ambas as superfícies foliares) e das formigas Brachymyrmex sp. (superfície adaxial) e Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (superfície abaxial) foram as maiores entre os grupos taxonômicos de fitófagos polinizadores e predadores, respectivamente, em plantas jovens de A. auriculiformis. A abundância, diversidade e riqueza e as curvas de rarefação e dominância-k de artrópodes fitófagos, abelhas e predadores foram maiores nas superfícies adaxiais das folhas dessa árvore. A preferência pela superfície adaxial da folha se deve, provavelmente, ao menor esforço para se movimentarem na mesma. Compreender as preferências dos artrópodes pelas superfícies foliares pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento de planos de amostragem e manejo de pragas em A. auriculiformis. Além disso, o conhecimento da distribuição de abelhas e predadores pode favorecer a conservação desses insetos.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Artrópodes , Acacia , Abelhas , Folhas de Planta , Insetos
11.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13765, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065082

RESUMO

Extracts of Acacia and Quebracho have been used as a feed additive in ruminant diets; the effects, however, have been varied. This study used a meta-analysis approach to evaluate the use of those extracts on nutrient utilization, performance, and methane production of ruminants. A database was developed from 37 published papers comprising 152 dietary treatments. The result showed that a higher concentration of tannins was associated with a decrease (p < 0.05) in nutrient intake and digestibility. An increasing tannin concentration was negatively correlated with ammonia, acetic acid, and the ratio of acetic to propionic acid. Methane production decreased (p < 0.01) with the increasing tannin concentration. Nitrogen (N) balance parameters were not affected by the tannin concentrations, but fecal N excretion increased (p < 0.01) as the tannin concentration increased. The relationships between the Acacia and Quebracho and the changes in organic matter intake, milk fat concentration, butyric acid, valeric acid, and methane production were significantly different. In conclusion, it is possible to use both condensed tannins (CT) extracts as a methane emission mitigation without impairing the ruminant performance. Furthermore, the Quebracho showed more pronounced to decrease ruminal protein degradation and lower methane emission than the Acacia.


Assuntos
Acacia , Taninos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Metano/metabolismo , Nutrientes/análise , Extratos Vegetais , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ruminantes/metabolismo
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15522, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109547

RESUMO

A continuous mode fixed-bed up-flow column adsorption analysis was conducted utilizing Acacia nilotica sawdust activated carbon (ASAC) as an adsorbent for the adsorption treatment of toxic Indigo Carmine Dye (ICD). The effect on the adsorption characteristics of ASAC of the influent ICD concentration, flow rate, and column bed depth has been investigated. According to the column study, the highest efficiency of ICD removal was approximately 79.01% at a preliminary concentration of 100 mg/L with a flow rate of 250 mL/h at a bed depth of 30 cm and adsorption power of 24.67 mg/g. The experimental work confirmed the dependency of break-through curves on dye concentration and flow rate for a given bed depth. Kinetic models were implemented by Thomas, Yoon-Nelson, and Bed-depth-service-time analysis along with error analysis to interpret experimental data for bed depth of 15 cm and 30 cm, ICD concentration of 100 mg/L and 200 mg/L and flow rate of 250 mL/h, and 500 mL/h. The analysis predicted the breakthrough curves using a regression basin. It indicated that all three models were comparable for the entire break-through curve depiction. The characteristic parameters determined by process design and error analysis revealed that the Thomas model was better followed by the BDST and Yoon-Nelson models in relating the procedure of ICD adsorption onto ASAC. B-E-T surface area and B-E-T pore volume of ASAC were 737.76 m2/g and 0.2583 cm3/g, respectively. S-E-M and X-R-D analysis reveal the micro-porous and amorphous nature of ASAC. F-T-I-R spectroscope indicate distinctive functional assemblies like -OH group, C-H bond, C-C bond, C-OH, and C-O groups on ASAC. It could be computed that the ASAC can be used efficiently as an alternative option for industrial wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Acacia , Carvão Vegetal , Adsorção , Carmim , Carvão Vegetal/química , Índigo Carmim
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 8441239, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36033555

RESUMO

Honey has recently been rediscovered as an antibacterial and wound-healing natural product. The medicinal properties of honey originate from the floral source used by bees. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Sudanese crude acacia bee honey and its solvent extracts regarding its biological activity and chemical characterization. To verify the nature of the antibacterial agent(s) of honey, sample (A) Sudanese crude unprocessed acacia bee honey obtained from west of Sudan (Nyala) during October 2019 was tested in vitro for antibacterial activity against 10 standard microorganisms Enterobacter aerogenes: ATCC: 13048, Enterococcus faecalis: ATCC: 29212, Escherichia coli: ATCC: 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae: ATCC: 700603, Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ATCC: 27853, Serratia marcescens: ATCC: 8100, Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC: 29213, Staphylococcus epidermidis: ATCC: 12228, Staphylococcus Methicillin Sensitive MSSA: ATCC: 29213, and Staphylococcus Methicillin-Resistant MRSA: ATCC: 23591. Extraction of honey sample was carried out by petroleum ether followed by ethyl acetate using liquid/liquid extraction technique, using separating funnels. All organic extracts in addition to their aqueous residue were tested in vitro for antibacterial activity against the10 standard microorganisms. Ethyl acetate extract was subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for chemical characterization. Sudanese crude unprocessed acacia honey showed inhibitory effects against the 10 standard microorganisms. Petroleum ether extract showed no antibacterial activity against the tested organisms, while its water residue exhibited remarkable activity. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited strong antibacterial activity against the tested organisms, while its aqueous residue showed no activity. Ethyl acetate extract subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) showed twenty-one chemical constituents. The GC-MS showed twenty-one chemical compounds, and phenolic compound was the highest concentration. Ethyl acetate extract exhibited strong antibacterial activity which can be formulated as topical dressing for wounds and burns. The usage of honey in a professional context should be taken into consideration while treating burns and wounds.


Assuntos
Acacia , Mel , Animais , Antibacterianos , Abelhas , Escherichia coli , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais , Staphylococcus aureus
14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 295: 119851, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988977

RESUMO

Complex coacervation is an encapsulation process involving two oppositely charged biopolymers. Since different compositions of gum arabic may affect its interaction with protein, we studied the complex coacervation of two types of gum arabic (GA) (Acacia senegal-GA1 and Acacia seyal-GA2) with soluble pea protein (SPP) through Zeta potential, turbidity, morphology, the secondary structure of SPP, UV/vis absorbance and thermodynamic parameters. The maximum formation of coacervates occurred at SPP:GA 3:1 (w/w) and pH 3.5-4.0 with changes in the secondary structure of SPP. GA1 combination resulted in higher binding constant, implying a stronger affinity between SPP and GA1. Entropy of 0.7 and 0.5 kJ/mol.K, and enthalpy of -151 and -95.5 kJ/mol were obtained for SPP:GA1 and SPP:GA2. The complex coacervation was spontaneous as proved by the negative values of the Gibbs free energy. GA1 resulted in stronger interactions with SPP, offering new alternatives for encapsulation of bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Acacia , Proteínas de Ervilha , Biopolímeros/química , Goma Arábica/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
15.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(9): 8439-8448, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934768

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study, two main research objectives were examined: (1) the cytotoxic and anticancer activities of the aqueous methanol extract from Acacia nilotica flowers on three human cancer cells, namely lung A549, breast MCF-7, and leukemia THP-1 cells, and (2) the genotoxic effects of A. nilotica extract and its influence on DNA damage induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in mice. METHODS: Mice were orally treated with A. nilotica extract (200, 500, and 800 mg/kg for 4 days) with or without MNU (80 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 24 h). RESULTS: In vitro experiments showed that A549 cells were the most sensitive to A. nilotica extract among the tested cell lines. A. nilotica extract inhibited A549 cell proliferation by blocking the cell cycle at the G2/M phase and accumulating apoptotic cells in the sub-G0/G1 phase in A549 cells. In vivo experiments showed that MNU induced positive and negative genotoxicity in bone marrow cells and spermatocytes, respectively. Negative genotoxicity was observed in A. nilotica extract-treated groups only. However, A. nilotica extract (800 mg/kg) remarkably increased comet tail formation in bone marrow cells. Unexpectedly, the absence of antigenotoxicity was observed in three cotreated groups with A. nilotica extract and MNU compared with the MNU-treated group. Astonishingly, cotreatment with MNU and A. nilotica extract at a dose above 200 mg/kg remarkably increased micronucleus and comet tail formation in bone marrow cells compared with the MNU-treated group. CONCLUSIONS: A. nilotica extract possessed anticancer activity with relative genotoxic effects at high doses.


Assuntos
Acacia , Antineoplásicos , Animais , Dano ao DNA , Flores , Humanos , Masculino , Metilnitrosoureia/toxicidade , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
16.
Food Res Int ; 159: 111596, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940792

RESUMO

Acacia s.l. is a newly revised genus whose plant species are quintessential in the pantropical, arid, and hunger-prone areas. They provide multiple ecosystem services and a range of edible products for humans. Their food uses are manifestly in the continuum of their medicinal applications, mirroring candidate materials to develop novel healthy food products. Yet, edible Acacia plant products have been overlooked, underresearched, and poorly disseminated for a very long time. This review inventories comprehensively edible products from native Acacia plants in Africa, America, and Asia, critically discusses their food potential for humans, identifies research gaps, and provides bases for further research. Interestingly, the seeds from Senegalia, the second-largest and refined Acacia segregate, appear to be the most promising food materials and are consequently highlighted.


Assuntos
Acacia , Fabaceae , África , Ecossistema , Humanos , Plantas Comestíveis , Sementes , Verduras
17.
Parasitol Res ; 121(10): 2901-2915, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972548

RESUMO

Infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi mite causes scabies in humans and mange in animals. Alternative methods for developing environmentally friendly and effective plant-based acaricides are now a priority. The purpose of this research was the in silico design and in vitro evaluation of the efficacy of ethanol extracts of Acacia nilotica and Psidium guajava plant leaves against S. scabiei. Chem-Draw ultra-software (v. 12.0.2.1076.2010) was used to draw 36 distinct compounds from these plants that were employed as ligands in docking tests against S. scabiei Aspartic protease (SsAP). With docking scores of - 6.50993 and - 6.16359, respectively, clionasterol (PubChem CID 457801) and mangiferin (PubChem CID 5281647) from A. nilotica inhibited the targeted protein SsAP, while only beta-sitosterol (PubChem CID 222284) from P. guajava interacted with the SsAP active site with a docking score of - 6.20532. Mortality in contact bioassay at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/ml was determined to calculate median lethal time (LT50) and median lethal concentration (LC50) values. Acacia nilotica extract had an LC50 value of 0.218 g/ml compared to P. guajava extract, which had an LC50 value of 0.829 g/ml at 6 h. These results suggest that A. nilotica extract is more effective in killing mites, and these plants may have novel acaricidal properties against S. scabiei. Further research should focus on A. nilotica as a potential substitute for clinically available acaricides against resistant mites.


Assuntos
Acacia , Acaricidas , Psidium , Escabiose , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sarcoptes scabiei
18.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 2): 113917, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931186

RESUMO

This study deals with the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAPnps) mediated by Acacia falcata leaf extract. Aggregates of needle-shaped crystalline nanostructures were confirmed by FE-SEM and TEM analysis. Well-defined rings in the SAED patterns corroborated the polycrystalline nature of the HAPnps. Individual elements present in the HAPnps were attested by the specific signals for Ca, P, and O in the EDS and XPS analyses. The distinct peaks observed in the XRD spectrum matched well with the HAP hexagonal patterns with a mean crystallite size of 55.04 nm. The FTIR study unveiled the coating of the nanoparticles with the biomolecules from Acacia falcata leaves. The suspension HAPnps exhibited polydispersity (0.446) and remarkable stability (zeta potential: - 31.9 mV) as evident from DLS studies. The pore diameter was 25.7 nm as obtained from BET analysis, suggesting their mesoporous nature. The HAPnps showed the cytotoxic effect on A549 lung and MDA-MB231 breast carcinoma cell lines, with an IC50 value of 55 µg/mL. The distortion of the cell membrane and cell morphology, along with the chromatin condensation and cell necrosis on treatment with HAPnps were detected under fluorescence microscopy post acridine orange/ethidium bromide dye staining. This study reports the anti-cancerous potential of non-drug-loaded plant-mediated HAPnps. Therefore, the HAPnps obtained in this investigation could play a vital role in the biomedical field of cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Acacia , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Durapatita , Mamíferos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prata/química
19.
Am J Bot ; 109(8): 1251-1261, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35791878

RESUMO

PREMISE: First-year seedlings (FYS) of tree species may be a critical demographic bottleneck in semi-arid, seasonally dry ecosystems such as savannas. Given the highly variable water availability and potentially strong FYS-grass competition for water, FYS water-use strategies may play a crucial role in FYS establishment in savannas and, ultimately, in tree-grass competition and coexistence. METHODS: We examined drought responses in FYS of two tree species that are dominant on opposite ends of an aridity gradient in Serengeti, Acacia (=Vachellia) tortilis and A. robusta. In a glasshouse experiment, gas exchange and whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant ) were measured as soil water potential (Ψsoil ) declined. Trajectory of the Ψleaf /Ψsoil relationship during drought elucidated the degree of iso/anisohydry. RESULTS: Both species were strongly anisohydric "water-spenders," allowing rapid wet-season C gain after pulses of moisture availability. Despite being equally vulnerable to declines in Kplant under severe drought, they differed in their rates of water use. Acacia tortilis, which occurs in the more arid regions, initially had greater Kmax , transpiration (E), and photosynthesis (Anet ) than A. robusta. CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrates an important mechanism of FYS establishment in savannas: Rather than investing in drought tolerance, savanna FYS maximize gas exchange during wet periods at the expense of desiccation during dry seasons. FYS establishment appears dependent on high C uptake during the pulses of water availability that characterize habitats dominated by these species. This study increases our understanding of species-scale plant ecophysiology and ecosystem-scale patterns of tree-grass coexistence.


Assuntos
Acacia , Acacia/fisiologia , Secas , Ecossistema , Folhas de Planta , Poaceae , Plântula , Solo , Árvores/fisiologia , Água/fisiologia
20.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 179, 2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cisplatin (CisPT) is a chemotherapeutic that outcome in adverse effects including neurotoxicity. We examined the efficacy of hydaspica ethyl acetate extract (AHE) against CisPT-prompted neurotoxicity. METHODS: Group I: Distilled water; Group II: CisPT (12 mg/kg b.w. i.p) on the 13th day of treatment. Group III: received AHE (400 mg/kg b.w) orally for 16 days. Group IV and V received 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w AHE orally for 16 days while CisPT injection on day 13, respectively. Group VI: received Silymarin (100 mg/kg b.w) orally for 16 days and CP (12 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) on day 13. TNF-α, IL6, brain acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), oxidative trauma markers, genotoxicity, antioxidant enzymes, and morphological alterations in cerebral hemispheres were inspected. RESULTS: AHE administration before CisPT considerably reduced both tissue TNF-α and IL 6 expressions compared to CisPT treated group in a dose-dependent manner. AHE treatment (400 mg/kg b.w) significantly ameliorated brain AChE activity. Brain tissue MDA, H2O2, and NO content were markedly (p < 0.001) elevated after CisPT inoculation while a noticeable (p < 0.001) diminution was observed in AHE treatment groups. AHE treatment significantly (p < 0.001) improved brain antioxidant defense in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AHE efficiently recused CisPT to induce DNA damage in brain tissue as revealed by ladder assay and DNA fragmentation patterns. Histopathological findings revealed severe neurodegenerations in CisPT treated group, however, AHE treatment noticeably precluded morphological alterations and neuron damages induced by CisPT. CONCLUSION: A. hydaspica AHE extract may be provided as a prospective adjuvant that precludes CisPT-induced neurotoxicity due to its radical scavenging and antioxidant potential.


Assuntos
Acacia , Acetatos , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Encéfalo , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Citocinas , Dano ao DNA , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Roedores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
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