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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078412

RESUMO

Emergency management research is used to deal with the increasing number of extreme weather threats in urban areas. This paper uses causal analysis based on systems theory (CAST) to review the subway water ingress accident and the government's emergency management actions in Zhengzhou, Henan Province, during the heavy rainstorm disaster on 20 July 2021. The aims of this article are to establish safety control structures at both the enterprise level and the government level, and to systematically analyze the problems in emergency management in Zhengzhou City. Our analysis found that the construction of disaster prevention facilities restricted emergency management. Therefore, we suggest that enterprises and governments not only pay attention to emergency management, but also to the construction of disaster prevention facilities. This article also points out that the system of chief executive responsibility that is implemented in China is becoming a double-edged sword in emergency management. Our study makes recommendations for enhancing the capacities of emergency management, points out the shortcomings of the existing emergency management structure, and provides knowledge gained for future emergency management research.


Assuntos
Desastres , Ferrovias , Acidentes , China , Cidades
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(17)2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080966

RESUMO

The incidence of maritime accidents can be significantly reduced by identifying the deck officer's fatigue levels. The development of car driver fatigue detectors has employing electroencephalogram (EEG)-based technologies in recent years and made it possible to swiftly and accurately determine the level of a driver's fatigue. However, individual variability and the sensitivity of EEG signals reduce the detection precision. Recently, another type of video-based technology for detecting driver fatigue by recording changes in the drivers' eye characteristics has also been explored. In order to improve the classification performance of EEG-based approaches, this paper introduces the ADTIDO (Automatic Detect the TIred Deck Officers) algorithm, an EEG-based classification method of deck officers' fatigue level, which combines a video-based approach to record the officer's eye closure time for each time window. This paper uses a Discrete Wavelet Transformer (DWT) and decomposes the EEG signals into six sub-signals, from which we extract various EEG-based features, e.g., MAV, SD, and RMS. Unlike the traditional video-based method of calculating the Eyelid Closure Degree (ECD), this paper then obtains the ECD values from the EEG signals. The ECD-EEG fusion features are then created and used as the inputs for a classifier by combining the ECD and EEG feature sets. In addition, the present work develops the definition of "fatigue" at the individual level based on the real-time operational reaction time of the deck officer. To verify the efficacy of this research, the authors conducted their trials by using the EEG signals gathered from 21 subjects. It was found that Bidirectional Gated Recurrent Unit (Bi-GRU) networks outperform other classifiers, reaching a classification accuracy of 90.19 percent, 1.89 percent greater than that of only using EEG features as inputs. By combining the ADTIDO channel findings, the classification accuracy of deck officers' fatigue levels finally reaches 95.74 percent.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Eletroencefalografia , Acidentes , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Fadiga/diagnóstico , Humanos
3.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 7492409, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36072491

RESUMO

The industrialization of metropolis urban areas with dry and steppe climates raise substantial environmental contamination, particularly in the water domain. This research investigated the awareness levels of business students toward drinking water quality and safety. We further explored the knowledge of the business students regarding drinking water issues and remedies. Eighty-four percent of respondents were happy with the quality of their drinking water, according to the findings. Approximately 66% of respondents paid special or rather high attention to drinking water quality and contamination incidents, particularly regarding possible harm to the human body and health, impact scope, and accident reasons. Few respondents reported to the health department or phoned the water safety department; 47.5% of respondents resolved drinking water issues independently. Age and education level did not play a significant role in the degree of public satisfaction with water quality or the public's perception of water pollution incidents; however, business students in Samundri were more satisfied with their drinking water quality, and residents of Faisalabad Sadar were more aware of drinking water contamination incidents than residents in areas without such a network. Respondents with higher levels of education were more aware of water quality and pollution incidents than those with lower levels of education. The steppe climate, diverse human activities, and industrialization led to water pollution. The current research findings may provide fundamental data for efficient water management in the most populated and industrialized regions.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Acidentes , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudantes , Qualidade da Água
4.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 3751028, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36072496

RESUMO

After the reform and opening up, China has developed into a world factory due to the bias of Chinese policies, the need for urban development, and the limitations of science and technology. As a world factory, on the one hand, it expanded the scale of China's economy, raised the level of science and technology, and improved the standard of people's daily life. On the other hand, China's technology level was backward at the beginning of the reform and opening-up period, and the world countries in a competitive relationship could not give China a high-end technology level. Most of the developed countries only transferred their rough industries to China, which led to the "three highs and one low" pattern of China's economic development. The efficiency of resource utilization is very low, which not only wastes resources but also causes great deterioration of the environment. Based on China's environmental development problems, this article summarizes and analyses the relationship between economic development and environmental pollution through the perspective of EKC curve research. Then, using the data of economic growth target published by government work report of 230 prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2014 collected by hand, the constraint of economic growth target is described from three dimensions. In particular, the study of economic growth target constraints is extended in terms of the portrayal of the characteristics of soft and hard constraints of economic growth targets. Finally, combining with the normative research method, feasible countermeasures are proposed for developed cities as well as less developed cities, providing new insights for the coordinated development of the urban environment and economy in China.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental , Acidentes , China , Cidades , Humanos
5.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052593

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulphide poisoning is an acute poisoning event that occurs frequently in summer. A case of acute hydrogen sulphide poisoning in a confined space in August 2018 was investigated and clinical data were analyzed. This is a typical case of acute hydrogen sulfide gas poisoning in a confined space. The main cause of the accident is the lack of occupational protection and illegal rescue. Among the 5 patients, 3 died, 1 patient had long-term sequelae of nervous system damage such as cortical blindness, and 1 patient was cured.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Gás , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Intoxicação , Acidentes , Acidentes de Trabalho , Espaços Confinados , Humanos
6.
South Med J ; 115(9): 674-680, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to evaluate the characteristics of off-highway vehicle (OHV) crashes correlated with neurological injury and accident severity in the pediatric population in El Paso, Texas. METHODS: A retrospective review of 213 patients who were victims of an OHV crash attended at a regional Level I trauma center from 2012 to 2020 was performed. OHVs were defined as vehicles designated for use outside public roads. Neurological outcomes included any traumatic brain injury (TBI) or a brain hemorrhage/hematoma. Severe injury was defined as a Glasgow Coma Scale less than 8, a length of stay longer than 7 days, a Pediatric Trauma Score lower than 8, and requiring pediatric intensive care unit admission. Bivariate and multivariate analyses by logistic regression models were conducted to determine the factors related to the neurological outcomes and accident severity. RESULTS: Of 213 OHV crash patients, 104 (48.8%) had TBI and 22 (10.3%) had brain hemorrhages or hematomas. Risk analyses demonstrated that children younger than age 6 years and occupants of recreational OHVs have a significantly higher risk of severe injuries. Off-highway motorcycles and all-terrain vehicles were risk factors for TBI, whereas helmets were a protective factor. CONCLUSIONS: OHVs are associated with both TBIs and severe injuries. Stricter laws requiring helmets and forbidding children younger than 6 to ride are required, as modifying these factors could reduce the incidence of OHV crashes and their complications.


Assuntos
Veículos Off-Road , Acidentes , Acidentes de Trânsito , Criança , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Humanos , Motocicletas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Texas/epidemiologia
8.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 4699471, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36148421

RESUMO

In this study, while aiming at the prevention of fire accidents in underground commercial streets, an underground commercial street is selected as a research object, and the building fire is numerically simulated using the PyroSim software. Fire simulation scenarios are divided according to different fire zones by analyzing the temperature, carbon monoxide (CO) concentration, and visibility in the smoke layer inside a building. The available safe evacuation time is calculated according to the critical fire hazard judgment conditions. We found that the time when the flue gas temperature and CO concentration reached the critical value in the fire site was longer than the time when the visibility reached the critical value reducing or even avoiding the spread of smoke from the fire area to the evacuation stairs can provide effective help for crowd evacuation. Finally, the safety of the building is evaluated, and fire prevention countermeasures are defined based on the actual situation and fire numerical simulation results to reduce fire incidence, casualties, and economic losses.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono , Incêndios , Acidentes , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Simulação por Computador , Incêndios/prevenção & controle , Fumaça/análise
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(16)2022 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36015831

RESUMO

The increasing number of accidents arising from falling objects from the façade of tall buildings has attracted much attention globally. To regulators, a preventive approach based on a mandatory periodic façade inspection has been deemed as a necessary measure to maintain the functionality and integrity of the façade of tall buildings. Researchers worldwide have been working towards a predictive approach to allow for the assessment of the likely failure during some future period, by measuring the condition of the façade to detect latent defects and anomalies. The methods proposed include laser scanning, image-based sensing and infrared thermography to support the automatic façade visual inspection. This paper aims to review and analyse the state-of-the-art literature on the automated inspection of building façades, with emphasis on the detection and maintenance management of latent defects and anomalies for falling objects from tall buildings. A step-by-step holistic method is leveraged to retrieve the available literature from databases, followed by the analyses of relevant articles in different long-standing research themes. The types and characteristics of façade falling objects, legislations, practices and the effectiveness of various inspection techniques are discussed. Various diagnostic, inspection and analytical methods which support façade inspection and maintenance are analysed with discussion on the potential future research in this field.


Assuntos
Acidentes
11.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 65(4): 61-63, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947413

RESUMO

Electrical injury is quite rare in forensic practice, and situational examinations for this type of injury are even rarer. A case of an electrical injury is presented where the circumstances of the death and the conditions of injury were not obvious. As part of the commissioned examination, a repeated review of the accident scene and an examination of the alleged injuring object were conducted, which facilitated reconstruction of conditions and circumstances of the electric injury.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Eletricidade , Medicina Legal , Acidentes , Traumatismos por Eletricidade/complicações , Traumatismos por Eletricidade/diagnóstico , Humanos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954988

RESUMO

The safety situation of hazardous materials (hazmat) accidents during road transportation in China is severe and very serious accidents occurred frequently. Such accidents not only have a huge impact on the environment but also have serious consequences for people and the economy, such as fires and explosions. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the characteristics and laws of road transport accidents of hazmat systematically. This paper investigated 2777 hazmat transportation accidents in China from 2013 to 2019 to identify the characteristics, consequences, and causes of the accident. The results show that August (10.05%) and December (9.76%) are the peak periods of hazmat transportation accidents, while most hazmat transportation accidents occurred in the early morning (6:00-9:00 a.m.) and at noon (9:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m.) hours. For the geographical location, the accidents mainly occurred in the east China (34.35%) and the northwest China areas (14.87%). The main types of hazmat transportation accidents were rollover (35.36%), rear-end (22.58%), and collision (14.87%), where the probability of a major leak was high. The most common hazmat transportation accidents involve gas (17.79%), flammable liquid (56.07%), and corrosive substance (12.28%). The most common consequences of the hazmat transportation accidents were leakage (80.34%), followed by fire release (8.32%) and explosion release (2.34%). Human factor (26.74%) is the main cause of hazmat transportation accidents. These findings could help hazmat transportation managers and planners develop appropriate measures for improving hazmat transportation safety.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas , Meios de Transporte , Acidentes , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Probabilidade
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955035

RESUMO

Housing is a critical enabler of a dignified life, civic participation and the achievement of human rights. Providing appropriate housing for people who experience neurotrauma as a result of road or workplace injury, with both the assistive technology and human support required, continues however to be a policy and practice challenge. Australian and New Zealand motor accident, disability and injury insurers have high and enduring liability in this area, and their under-researched perspectives are needed to strengthen the evidence base for policy and practice development. This qualitative study utilised focus group methodology with representatives from government injury and disability insurers across Australia and New Zealand (n = 8). The study aimed to identify (a) issues and trends; (b) factors for decision making; and (c) service impacts relating to housing and support for people with disability and high daily support needs. Thematic analysis generated results across four key areas: influences on the decision to fund housing and/or support; identifying 'good' housing solutions; evaluating cost-benefit of housing and support investments; and developing future investment in housing and support. Findings such as those regarding decision-making, and investment, attest to the value of capturing the perspectives of this key group of stakeholders to assist to envision better housing and support for people with disability.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Habitação , Acidentes , Austrália , Humanos , Seguradoras , Nova Zelândia
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 182: 113976, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921735

RESUMO

We investigated an unexpected microplastic (MP) leakage event that occurred along the coastline of Yantai in January 2021. Sediment samples were collected from three zones on 9 beaches. MPs were identified with an average abundance of 247.6 ±â€¯125.6 items/m2 on 7 beaches. The total amount of MPs from the leak accident was estimated to be 1.50 × 107 items (514.67 kg). The MPs were identified as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and PP/PE blends using µ-FT-IR analysis. By utilizing a numerical model, the transmission process and potential source of MPs were demonstrated. The modeling results showed that the MPs might originate from the central and western part of the Bohai Sea and be driven to the beaches of Yantai by northwest wind and wind-induced surface current. However, due to the absence of direct evidence, the simulation results might only indicate the range of the leaking source, which was the movement trajectory of MPs.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Acidentes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Plásticos/análise , Polietileno/análise , Polipropilenos/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 182: 113994, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926437

RESUMO

Sri Lanka is positioned as an important hub for international shipping. The recent naval accidents of MT New Diamond (in 2020) and MV X-Press Pearl (in 2021) suggest that the country is at risk for future maritime environmental disasters. However, Sri Lanka still has no adequate planning and regulation at the national policy level. Therefore, the objective of the current study is to formulate a national policy and contingency plan to augment maritime safety. This paper proposed the framework for the integrated coastal zone management in Sri Lanka, based on the national acts and laws, existing regulations, and analysis of international experiences. The integrated coastal zone management framework is proposed into four hierarchical levels. The proposed framework establishes a permanent coordination and management system for environmental assessment and sustainability of the coastal zone. This article describes requirements for coastal zone management, reasons for failures during recent naval accidents, possible drawbacks of implementing an integrated coastal zone management framework in Sri Lanka, and ways to overcome these challenges.


Assuntos
Desastres , Acidentes , Sri Lanka
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011759

RESUMO

To better explain the cause of gas explosion accidents, based on the existing accident-causation theory, this paper proposes an accident-causation model of gas explosion accidents based on safety information transmission. Based on this, a new method for the prevention of gas explosion accidents can be developed. By analysing the connection between safety information transmission and the causal factors of gas explosion accidents, it is inferred that the loss of safety information transmission is the key factor leading to accidents. Safety information transmission is a process chain in which information is transmitted between the information source and information subject. This process involves the stages of information generation, conversion, perception, cognition, decision-making, and execution. Information loss is inevitable during the transmission process. When the information loss of the degree of safety affects the judgment of the information subject on the current situation and decision making, the possibility of accidents increases. Therefore, in this study, we constructed an accident-causation model for gas explosion accidents based on the three elements and six stages of safety information transmission. Subsequently, the DEMATEL-ISM method was used to quantitatively analyse the causes of gas explosion accidents. Through a multilevel hierarchical structure division of the accident causes, the cause, result, and root factors affecting accidents were identified, and countermeasures were proposed to provide a theoretical basis for the prevention of gas explosion accidents.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Explosões , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Causalidade
17.
Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot ; 29(3): 312-320, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35979821

RESUMO

Hazardous material road transportation is one of the most challenging procedures performed by large trucks and trailers. In this study, after examining and analyzing road hazardous material transportation accidents, occurred over 5 years in Iran, the contributing factors of road hazardous material transportation accidents were determined. Subsequently, the introduced factors were prioritized using fault tree analysis and the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. The results revealed that the frequency of accidents has significantly increased in recent years. It is shown that the three pivotal factors in road hazardous material transportation accidents were transport vehicle, packaging and loading of hazardous materials, and human factors. These findings provide an empirically supported theoretical basis for transportation corporations to take corrective and preventative measures to reduce the accident risks. A novel technique has been introduced for analyzing the causes of road hazardous material transportation accidents. Finally, the absence of hazardous material transportation companies in Iran is introduced as a critical reason for the higher frequency of such accidents in Iran compared to other countries.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Substâncias Perigosas , Acidentes , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Veículos Automotores , Meios de Transporte
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 183: 114039, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986952

RESUMO

The 2013 "Qingdao oil pipeline explosion" contaminated about 2.5 km of shoreline in the Jiaozhou Bay area and aroused widespread concern because of the serious casualties even though it was not the most severe oil-spill contamination in China. To evaluate the long-term impact, we collected thirty-three surface sediment samples after 3 years of the accident, with sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) detected. Spatial-temporal variation in PAHs revealed that a minimal impact might still be present after 3 years. Source analysis combined with a one-way ANOVA showed that pyrolytic sources were consistently predominant. The environmental impact was already minimal 3 years later and negligible thereafter. Although the cancer risk has decreased over the years, there has always been a potential hazard to human for specific occupation, with all of the risk values exceeded 10-6. This study offers a reference for assessing the long-term impact of oil spills in similar bay areas.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Acidentes , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Explosões , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273168, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35976893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skiing is a very popular sport worldwide, with increasing trends over the past decades. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of traumatic brain injury (TBI), especially in the elderly, after a ski accident, and to describe its short-term repercussions. METHODOLOGY: Patients were analyzed who were admitted to our neurotrauma center from 2012-2018 after a head trauma while skiing. Three different age groups were differentiated and analyzed for the severity of TBI depending on the initial Glasgow Coma Scale as the primary outcome and as secondary outcomes need and type of surgery, Glasgow Outcome Score, preexisting use of anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs, time to presentation, and pattern of brain injury. TBI severity was adjusted to the time to initial medical consultation. RESULTS: No significant difference in TBI severity was found when comparing the middle (>29-54) and older (≥54) age groups to the reference group <30 years (OR:0.45, p = 0.127; OR:0.46, p = 0.17). Acute subdural hemorrhage was present in 21.2% of the ≥55 group and 14.5% of the 30-54 age group, compared to 12.8% of the youngest group (p = <0.001). Overall, 39.4% of the patients in the ≥55 group and 8.1% of the 30-54 age group presented with chronic subdural hemorrhage, whereas none of the youngest patients did (p = <0.001). CONCLUSION: No differences were observed in terms of TBI severity between age groups after acute trauma. Nonetheless, a different pattern of head injury after TBI in older patients was demonstrated. Accordingly, the management differs for these TBIs compared to those of younger patients.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Esqui , Acidentes , Adulto , Idoso , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Hematoma Subdural , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suíça/epidemiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011904

RESUMO

Unsafe crew acts (UCAs) related to human errors are the main contributors to maritime accidents. The prediction of unsafe crew acts will provide an early warning for maritime accidents, which is significant to shipping companies. However, there exist gaps between the prediction models developed by researchers and those adopted by practitioners in human risk analysis (HRA) of the maritime industry. In addition, most research regarding human factors of maritime safety has concentrated on hazard identification or accident analysis, but not on early warning of UCAs. This paper proposes a Bayesian network (BN) version of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method to predict the probability of seafarers' unsafe acts. After the identification of performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that influence seafarers' unsafe acts during navigation, the developed prediction model, which integrates the practicability of SPAR-H and the forward and backward inference functions of BN, is adopted to evaluate the probabilistic risk of unsafe acts and PSFs. The model can also be used when the available information is insufficient. Case studies demonstrate the practicability of the model in quantitatively predicting unsafe crew acts. The method allows evaluating whether a seafarer is capable of fulfilling their responsibility and providing an early warning for decision-makers, thereby avoiding human errors and sequentially preventing maritime accidents. The method can also be considered as a starting point for applying the efforts of HRA researchers to the real world for practitioners.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Navios , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
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