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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6689, 2022 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461346

RESUMO

Circulating adiponectin shows some relationships with the occurrence of cardiometabolic diseases and osteoporotic fracture, but little is known about their causal associations. This two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study aims to explore the causal roles of circulating adiponectin in cardiometabolic diseases and osteoporotic fracture. We used 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with circulating adiponectin as the instrumental variables. Inverse variance weighted, weighted median and MR-Egger regression methods were applied to study the causal associations. The results found that high circulating adiponectin was causally associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (beta-estimate: -0.030, 95% CI: -0.048 to -0.011, SE: 0.009, P-value = 0.002) and may be the risk factor of coronary artery disease (beta-estimate: 0.012, 95% CI: 0.001 to 0.023, SE: 0.006, P-value = 0.030). No causal associations were seen between circulating adiponectin and other outcomes including heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cerebral ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage or osteoporotic fracture. This study found the potential causal roles of high circulating adiponectin in reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and increased risk of coronary artery disease, which may help prevent and treat these two diseases.


Assuntos
Adiponectina , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Adiponectina/sangue , Adiponectina/genética , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fraturas por Osteoporose/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
2.
Horm Res Paediatr ; 95(1): 43-50, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35172300

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pediatric obesity and diabetes has increased over the last several decades. While the role of common adipokines on metabolic parameters has been well studied in adults, the relationship of novel adipokines and hepatokines in pediatric type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is not well understood. This study assessed novel adipokines C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRP1 and CTRP9), and hepatokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in youth with T1D and T2D diabetes. METHODS: Participants (n = 80) with T1D (n = 40) enrolled in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium (PDC) T1D NeOn registry, and T2D (n = 40) from the PDC T2D registry. Cross-sectional analysis compared adipokines (CTRP1, CTRP9, FGF21) between T1D and T2D, and regression models assessed adipokine relationship with clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 14.9 ± 2 years, and 50% were female. T2D participants had a shorter diabetes duration (p = 0.0009), higher weight (p < 0.0001), and BMI (p < 0.0001) than T1D participants. CTRP9 levels were higher in T1D (13,903.6 vs. 3,608.5 pg/mL, p = 0.04) than T2D, and FGF21 levels were higher in T2D (113.1 vs. 70.6 pg/mL, p = 0.03) than T1D, with no differences in CTRP1. In regression analysis of T1D, CTRP9 was positively associated with C-peptide (p = 0.006), and FGF21 was positively associated with hemoglobin A1c (p = 0.04). In T2D, CTRP1 was positively associated with HbA1c (p < 0.001) and glucose (p = 0.004), even after controlling for age, sex, and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: CTRP9 levels are higher in youth with T1D compared to T2D, and FGF21 levels are higher in youth with T2D than T1D. Novel adipokines are related to metabolic homeostasis in the inflammatory milieu of pediatric diabetes.


Assuntos
Adiponectina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Proteínas , Adipocinas , Adiponectina/sangue , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas/análise
3.
J Diabetes Res ; 2022: 7153238, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35103244

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adipose tissue (AT) expandability may be facilitated by adiponectin and suppressed by orosomucoid, and reduced AT expandability may be associated with first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that orosomucoid may be associated not only with adiponectin and adipose tissue insulin resistance but also with a family history of type 2 diabetes (FHD). Research Design and Methods. Anthropometric and metabolic variables, adipokines, and measures of inflammatory and insulin resistance were cross-sectionally investigated in 153 young normal weight Japanese women. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify the most important determinants of orosomucoid. RESULTS: Orosomucoid was higher in women with positive (n = 57) compared to women with negative FHD and was associated positively with FHD (both p = 0.01). Orosomucoid also showed positive associations with fasting glucose (p < 0.001), free fatty acids (p = 0.001), and HbA1c (p = 0.007), whereas there was no association with fasting insulin and serum lipids. In addition, orosomucoid was associated inversely with adiponectin (p = 0.02) and positively with adipose tissue-insulin resistance index (AT-IR, the product of fasting insulin and free fatty acids; p = 0.001) but not with homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, leptin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. In multivariate analyses, AT-IR (standardized ß, 0.22; p = 0.003), serum adiponectin (standardized ß, -0.163; p = 0.032), FHD+ (standardized ß, 0.178; p = 0.029), and HbA1c (standardized ß, 0.213; p = 0.005) emerged as independent determinants of orosomucoid and explained 15.2% of its variability. CONCLUSIONS: These results are the first to demonstrate that orosomucoid is associated not only with adipose tissue-insulin resistance and adiponectin but also with FHD.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Orosomucoide/análise , Adiponectina/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/análise , Insulina/biossíntese , Insulina/sangue , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Anamnese/métodos , Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orosomucoide/metabolismo
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2092, 2022 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35136158

RESUMO

The association and potential role of the protein hormone adiponectin in autoimmune diseases causing musculoskeletal disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), are controversial. Conflicting results may arise from the influences of confounding factors linked to genetic backgrounds, disease stage, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and patients' metabolic characteristics. Here, we examined serum level of adiponectin and its relationship with disease activity score 28 with erythrocytes sedimentation rate (DAS28[ESR]) and Sharp score in a treatment-naïve Han Chinese RA population. This cross-sectional study enrolled 125 RA patients. Serum level of total adiponectin was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Other important clinical and laboratory parameters were collected from the hospital database. DAS28(ESR) was calculated according to the equation previously published. Sharp score was evaluated based on hands radiographs by an independent radiologist. The correlation between serum adiponectin level and DAS28(ESR) or the Sharp score was investigated by univariate and multivariable linear regression analyses, respectively. Multiple imputation by chained equations was used to account for missing data. Univariate analyses showed a significant positive correlation between DAS28(ESR) and age or C-reactive protein (CRP) (both p = 0.003), while serum adiponectin level was negatively correlated with DAS28(ESR) (p = 0.015). The negative correlation between adiponectin level and DAS28(ESR) remained true in multivariable analyses adjusted for confounders. In addition, the univariate analyses revealed positive correlations of Sharp score to disease duration (p < 0.001), CRP (p = 0.023) and ESR (p < 0.001). In the multivariable model adjusted for confounders, adiponectin was negatively correlated with Sharp score (p = 0.013). In this single-institution cross-sectional study, serum adiponectin level in treatment-naive RA patients is negatively correlated with DAS28(ESR) and the Sharp score after adjustment for prominent identified confounders. Serum adiponectin may be potentially useful for assessing disease activity and radiographic progression of RA.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 5389162, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35082930

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) has become popular in recent years, and cognitive decline is a common complication. Adiponectin is a common protein hormone involved in the course of many diseases, but its relationship with SCI has not yet been elucidated. The purpose of our prospective study is to explore whether adiponectin can be used as a biomarker of cognitive decline in SCI. METHODS: A total of 64 healthy volunteers and 92 patients with acute SCI were recruited by us. Serum adiponectin levels, demographic data (age and gender), lifestyle (smoking and drinking), medical history (diabetes and hypertension), and clinical baseline data (low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and fasting blood glucose) were recorded. Three months after enrollment, we used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to evaluate cognitive function. Based on a quarter of the serum adiponectin levels, SCI patients were divided into 4 groups, and the differences in their MoCA scores were compared. In addition, we used multivariate linear regression to predict the risk factors of the MoCA score. RESULTS: The serum adiponectin level (6.1 ± 1.1 µg/ml) of SCI patients was significantly lower than that of the healthy control group (6.7 ± 0.9 µg/ml), and there was a significant difference between the two (p < 0.001). The group with higher serum adiponectin levels after 3 months of spinal cord injury had higher MoCA scores. Multivariate regression analysis showed that serum adiponectin level is a protective factor for cognitive function after SCI (ß = 0.210, p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: Serum adiponectin levels can be used as an independent predictor of cognitive function in patients with acute SCI.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 9943250, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35087911

RESUMO

METHOD: In the present study, 126 patients, 90 cases in the WML group and 36 cases in the control group, were analyzed to explore the relationship between adiponectin and WMLs. All patients underwent an MRI scan to assess whether white matter lesions happened. And the serum levels of adiponectin were detected by ELISA. RESULTS: In this study, according to Fazekas criteria, WMLs were divided into different severity groups. With the increase of WML score, the level of adiponectin decreased, and linear correlation analysis shows that adiponectin is negatively correlated with the severity of white matter lesions (p < 0.001). And adiponectin level was significantly positively correlated with MoCA score (p < 0.05). Moreover, adiponectin in the WMLs combined with the cognitive impairment group was significantly reduced (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The level of adiponectin is independently associated with WMLs and cognitive function, which suggests that adiponectin may be a protective factor for WMLs and cognitive function.


Assuntos
Adiponectina , Disfunção Cognitiva , Substância Branca , Adiponectina/sangue , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia
7.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057485

RESUMO

Disturbances in eating behaviors have been widely related to obesity. However, little is known about the role of obesity-related biomarkers in shaping habitual patterns of eating behaviors (i.e., eating styles) in childhood. The objective of the present study was to explore the relationships between several biomarkers crucially involved in obesity (ghrelin, insulin resistance, and leptin/adiponectin ratio) and eating styles in children and adolescents with obesity. Seventy participants aged between 8 and 16 (56.2% men) fulfilled the Spanish version of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire for Children to measure external, emotional, and restrained eating styles. In addition, concentrations of ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and glucose were obtained through a blood test. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for age and sex were computed for each eating style. Results indicated that individuals with higher ghrelin concentration levels showed lower scores in restrained eating (ß = -0.61, p < 0.001). The total model explained 32% of the variance of the restrained pattern. No other relationships between obesity-related biomarkers and eating behaviors were found. This study highlights that one of the obesity-risk factors, namely lower plasma ghrelin levels, is substantially involved in a well-known maladaptive eating style, restraint eating, in childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Adiponectina/sangue , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262542, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35085298

RESUMO

AIM: Serum adiponectin levels are decreased in patients with cerebral infarction. Adiponectin in circulation exists in three isoforms: high molecular weight (HMW), medium molecular weight (MMW), and low molecular weight (LMW) adiponectin. We measured serum levels of total adiponectin and adiponectin multimers (HMW, MMW, and LMW) in patients with cerebral infarction and compared the serum levels of the three adiponectin multimers in stroke subtypes. We also evaluated the clinical value of adiponectin multimer levels as a biomarker for cerebral infarction. METHODS: We assessed a total of 132 patients with cerebral infarctions. The serum levels of total and adiponectin multimers were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The total and HMW adiponectin levels were significantly lower in atherothrombotic infarction (AI) than in cerebral embolism (CE) (total, p < 0.05; HMW, p < 0.05). In male patients, the MMW adiponectin level was significantly lower in the lacunar infarction (LI) group than in the AI group (p < 0.05). The LMW adiponectin level was significantly lower in the AI group than in the LI and CE groups (LI, p < 0.001; CE, p = 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in adiponectin multimer levels among the stroke subtypes in female subjects. Additionally, in female patients with AI and LI, the LMW adiponectin levels were negatively associated with C-reactive protein (CRP; AI, p < 0.05; LI, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that a decrease in adiponectin is associated with AI and that serum LMW adiponectin level represents a potential biomarker for AI.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Infarto Cerebral/sangue , Infarto Cerebral/metabolismo , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Peso Molecular , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/sangue , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo
9.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 322(3): R170-R180, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018810

RESUMO

During metabolically demanding physiological states, ruminants and other mammals coordinate nutrient use among tissues by varying the set point of insulin action. This set point is regulated in part by metabolic hormones with some antagonizing (e.g., growth hormone and TNFα) and others potentiating (e.g., adiponectin) insulin action. Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) was recently identified as a sensitizing hormone in rodent and primate models of defective insulin action. FGF21 administration, however, failed to improve insulin action in dairy cows during the naturally occurring insulin resistance of lactation, raising the possibility that ruminants as a class of animals or lactation as a physiological state are unresponsive to FGF21. To start addressing this question, we asked whether FGF21 could improve insulin action in nonlactating ewes. Gene expression studies showed that the ovine FGF21 system resembles that of other species, with liver as the major site of FGF21 expression and adipose tissue as a target tissue based on high expression of the FGF21 receptor complex and activation of p44/42 extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) following exogenous FGF21 administration. FGF21 treatment for 13 days reduced plasma glucose and insulin over the entire treatment period and improved glucose disposal during a glucose tolerance test. FGF21 increased plasma adiponectin by day 3 of treatment but had no effect on the plasma concentrations of total, C16:0-, or C18:0-ceramide. Overall, these data confirm that the insulin-sensitizing effects of FGF21 are conserved in ruminants and raise the possibility that lactation is an FGF21-resistant state.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/sangue , Adiponectina/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/farmacocinética , Injeções Intravenosas , Injeções Subcutâneas , /metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Carneiro Doméstico , Fatores de Tempo
10.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262271, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982778

RESUMO

Age-associated intramuscular adipose tissue (IntraMAT) deposition induces the development of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. However, the relationship between IntraMAT and biochemical parameters in older adults remains unclear. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to elucidate the relationship between adiponectin and echo intensity-estimated IntraMAT using ultrasonography in normal-weight older adults (men 9, women 13) and examine biochemical parameters. Blood tests were performed to determine fasting levels of glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol (Total-C), high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), free fatty acid, triglycerides (TGs), adiponectin, leptin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and high-sensitivity tumor necrosis factor, and homoeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Mean gray-scale echo intensity was calculated as the IntraMAT index of the vastus lateralis. Waist circumference was measured at the level of the navel as the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) index. Echo intensity was significantly inversely correlated with adiponectin or LDL-C, and that was significantly positively correlated with TG. Adiponectin level was inversely correlated with waist circumference. Partial correlation analysis with waist circumference as the control variable revealed that adiponectin was inversely correlated with echo intensity, independent of waist circumference, whereas no such correlation was observed after controlling for LDL-C and TG levels. When biochemical parameters were grouped in the principal component analysis, among men, Total-C, insulin, and HOMA-IR or hemoglobin A1c, and high-sensitivity tumor necrosis factor-alpha were grouped with the same distribution for factors 1 and 2. Among women, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and Total-C or TGs were grouped with the same distribution for factors 1 and 2. These data suggest that adiponectin level is related to IntraMAT content, independent of VAT in normal-weight older adults. The dynamics of adiponectin might not be similar to those of other circulating biochemical parameters in older men and women.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Gorduras/análise , Resistência à Insulina , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Gorduras/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Triglicerídeos/sangue
11.
Cell Rep ; 38(3): 110277, 2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35045290

RESUMO

Exosomes/small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) can serve as multifactorial mediators of cell-to-cell communication through their miRNA and protein cargo. Quantitative proteomic analysis of five cell lines representing metabolically important tissues reveals that each cell type has a unique sEV proteome. While classical sEV markers such as CD9/CD63/CD81 vary markedly in abundance, we identify six sEV markers (ENO1, GPI, HSPA5, YWHAB, CSF1R, and CNTN1) that are similarly abundant in sEVs of all cell types. In addition, each cell type has specific sEV markers. Using fat-specific Dicer-knockout mice with decreased white adipose tissue and increased brown adipose tissue, we show that these cell-type-specific markers can predict the changing origin of the serum sEVs. These results provide a valuable resource for understanding the sEV proteome of the cells and tissues important in metabolic homeostasis, identify unique sEV markers, and demonstrate how these markers can help in predicting the tissue of origin of serum sEVs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Exossomos/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Células 3T3 , Adiponectina/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Camundongos
12.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 22(1): 16, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance and related metabolic dysregulation, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several non modifiable (i.e. genetic predisposition) and modifiable (i.e. sedentary lifestyle, energy-dense food) risk factors were suggested to explain the mechanisms involved in the development of inflammation, but are difficult to assess in clinical routine. The present study aimed to identify easy to asses clinical and biological risk factors associated with inflammation in patients with T2DM. METHODS: One hundred nine patients (51 men, 58 women), 28-60 years old, from seven primary healthcare centers in Gaza City, Palestine, took part to the cross-sectional study (November 2013-May 2014). Study participants had T2DM with no history of inflammatory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, medication and/or any health condition that might affect the inflammatory markers, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Inflammation was defined for IL-6 ≥ 2 pg/mL and CRP ≥ 6 mg/L. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify the relationship between inflammation and clinical and biological risk factors. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and gender, inflammation seems to increase with increased body mass index (BMI) (OR: 1.427 [1.055-1.931]), increased fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.029 [1.007-1.052]) and decreased adiponectin values (OR: 0.571 [0.361-0.903]). There were also significant relationships between inflammation and BMI (OR: 1.432 [1.042-1.968]), fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.029 [1.006-1.052]) and adiponectin (OR: 0.569 [0.359-0.902]), after adjustment for smoking habits and physical activity. CONCLUSION: Managing obesity and associated complications (i.e. hyperglycemia, high adiponectin levels) might help decreasing inflammation in individuals with T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Inflamação/sangue , Adiponectina/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
13.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 38(2): 165-173, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672426

RESUMO

To explore the relationship between the severity of hypertension and the imbalanced intestinal flora, inflammatory factors, adiponectin (ADPN) and vascular endothelial function in primary hypertension patients. According to the grading criteria for hypertension, in total of 60 patients with primary hypertension in our hospital from April to July, 2020 were divided into Grade 1 group (n = 20), Grade 2 group (n = 20), and Grade 3 group (n = 20). The feces of the research subjects were collected to extract the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and detect its composition of intestinal flora. Subsequently, the peripheral blood was collected to determine the changes in inflammatory factors interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-1ß, serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM, ADPN and vascular endothelial function-related endothelin-1 (ET-1), nitric oxide (NO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). There were no significant differences in the gender, age, and body mass index (BMI), the proportion of smokers, diet habit, probiotics and antihypertensive medication use, and number of diabetic cases among groups (p > 0.05). We found an inverse association between blood pressure measures and microbial diversity, in particular microbial richness (p < 0.05). Among the four major kinds of intestinal flora, the composition of firmicutes (p < 0.05) and bacteroidetes (p < 0.05) showed obvious differences among the three groups, and they had consistent trends with the changes in the abundance of firmicutes and bacteroidetes. Intestinal flora imbalance is closely related to the severity of hypertension, inflammatory factors, ADPN, and vascular endothelial function.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/microbiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(3): 583-595, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665453

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the effects of insulin sensitizers metformin (MET) and myo-inositol (MI) on adiponectin levels and metabolic characteristics in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with respect to their body mass index (BMI). METHODS: In this open label, parallel randomized clinical trial, 66 women with PCOS (33 normal-weight and 33 overweight/obese) were randomized to either MI (4 g/day) or MET (1500 mg/day) for a period of 6 months. Serum concentration of adiponectin, hormonal and metabolic laboratory outcomes and clinical assessment of BMI, body composition and Ferriman-Gallwey score (FG score) were evaluated before and after treatment. RESULTS: After the 6-month intervention, comparison between MET and MI in time to treatment analysis showed no significant differences between the two treatments for all analyzed parameters. Only borderline significantly lower AUC glucose was found in the MET group in comparison to the MI group (p = 0.071). The main effect of treatment was shown for glucose concentration at 120 min OGTT (p = 0.032) and testosterone (p = 0.002). The main effect of time was shown for body mass (p = 0.004), waist circumference (p < 0.001), BMI (p = 0.003), body fat mass (p = 0.001), adiponectin (p = 0.020), fasting glucose (p = 0.001), testosterone (p = 0.015), SHBG (p = 0.013), 17OH progesterone (p = 0.008), LH (p = 0.004) and estradiol (p = 0.014). CONCLUSION: Our study showed similar effects of MET and MI on BMI, body composition, hormonal profile, metabolism of glucose and insulin, and adiponectin level. The two insulin sensitizers, MET and MI, were useful in reducing BMI and improving body composition without significant differences between the two treatments in PCOS women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN13199265. Trial registration date: 14.04.2021. (ISRCTN Registry), retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Inositol/administração & dosagem , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Obesidade , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem
15.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 201: 111597, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780856

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that the influence on developmental traits might have long-term effects on aging and health later in life. Metformin is a widely used drug for treating type 2 diabetes and is also used for delaying sexual maturation in girls with precocious puberty. The current report focuses on investigating the effects of metformin on development and metabolic traits. Heterogeneous mice (UM-HET3) were treated with i.p. metformin between the ages of 15 and 56 days. Our results show that body weight and food consumption were increased in both sexes, and sexual maturation was delayed in females. Tail length and circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) levels were significantly increased in both sexes. No significant difference was found in insulin tolerance test, but glucose tolerance was significantly reduced in the males. Circulating adiponectin and insulin levels were altered by metformin treatment in a sex-specific manner. Analysis of quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) suggests that metformin treatment increased insulin sensitivity in female pups, but had opposite effect in male pups. This study revealed that early life metformin treatment alters development and metabolism of mice in both sex-specific and non-specific manners. These effects of metformin may have long-term impacts on aging-related traits.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Peso Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Metformina/farmacologia , Adiponectina/sangue , Fatores Etários , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hormônio Liberador de Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Camundongos , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 115(1): 284-297, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is emerging that interdaily meal pattern variability potentially affects response such as thermic effect of food (TEF), macronutrient metabolism, and appetite. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of irregular meal pattern on TEF, glucose, insulin, lipid profile, and appetite regulation in women who are overweight or with obesity and confirmed insulin resistance. DESIGN: In a randomized crossover trial, 9 women [mean ± SD BMI (in kg/m2): 33.3 ± 3.1] with confirmed insulin resistance consumed a regular (14 d; 6 meals/d) and an irregular (14 d; 3-9 meals/d) meal pattern separated by a 14-d washout interval. Identical foods were provided during the interventions, and at the start and end of each meal pattern, participants attended the laboratory after an overnight fast. Energy expenditure, glucose, insulin, lipids, adiponectin, leptin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin were measured at baseline and for 3 h after consumption of a test drink, after which an ad libitum test meal was offered. Subjective appetite ratings were recorded before and after the test drink, after the ad libitum meal, and during the intervention. Continuous interstitial glucose monitoring was undertaken for 7 consecutive days during each intervention. RESULTS: TEF (over 3 h) was significantly lower postirregular intervention compared with postregular (97.7 ± 19.2 kJ*3 h in postregular visit and 76.7 ± 35.2 kJ*3 h in postirregular visit, paired t test, P = 0.048). Differences in HOMA-IR between the 2 interventions (3.3 ± 1.7 and 3.6 ± 1.6 in postregular and postirregular meal pattern, respectively) were not significant. Net incremental AUC for GLP-1 concentrations (over 3 h) for the postregular meal pattern were higher (864.9 ± 456.1 pmol/L*3 h) than the postirregular meal pattern (487.6 ± 271.7 pmol/L*3 h, paired t test, P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Following a 14-d period of an irregular meal pattern, TEF was significantly less than following a regular meal pattern, potentially compromising weight management if sustained long term. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02582606.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Refeições/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Termogênese/fisiologia , Adiponectina/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Metabolismo Energético , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Insulina , Resistência à Insulina , Leptina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/sangue , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pharmacol Res ; 175: 105987, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798268

RESUMO

The most common complication during pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), can cause adverse pregnancy outcomes and result in the mother and infant having a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes after pregnancy. However, existing therapies for GDM remain scant, with the most common being lifestyle intervention and appropriate insulin treatment. MOTS-c, a mitochondrial-derived peptide, can target skeletal muscle and enhance glucose metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that MOTS-c can be an effective treatment for GDM. A GDM mouse model was established by short term high-fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) treatment while MOTS-c was administrated daily during pregnancy. GDM symptoms such as blood glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin tolerance, as well as reproductive outcomes were investigated. MOTS-c significantly alleviated hyperglycemia, improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and reduced birth weight and the death of offspring induced by GDM. Similar to a previous study, MOTS-c also could activate insulin sensitivity in the skeletal muscle of GDM mice and elevate glucose uptake in vitro. In addition, we found that MOTS-c protects pancreatic ß-cell from STZ-mediated injury. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that MOTS-c could be a promising strategy for the treatment of GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Mitocondriais/uso terapêutico , Adiponectina/sangue , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Feminino , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Gravidez
18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(2): e688-e697, 2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477199

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Fetal overgrowth "programs" an elevated risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Plausibly, adipokines may be involved in programming metabolic health. OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to evaluate whether large-for-gestational-age (LGA), an indicator of fetal overgrowth, is associated with altered circulating leptin and adiponectin levels in infancy, and assess the determinants. METHODS: In the Canadian 3D birth cohort, we studied 70 LGA (birth weight > 90th percentile) and 140 optimal-for-gestational-age (OGA, 25th-75th percentiles) infants matched by maternal ethnicity, smoking, and gestational age at delivery. The primary outcomes were fasting leptin, and total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin concentrations at age 2 years. RESULTS: LGA infants had higher body mass index (BMI) than OGA infants. However, there were no significant differences in leptin, and total and HMW adiponectin concentrations. Leptin concentrations were positively associated with female sex, weight (z score) gain 0 to 24 months, current BMI, and the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, and negatively associated with maternal age and White ethnicity. Female sex was associated with lower total and HMW adiponectin concentrations. Weight (z score) gain 0 to 24 months and current BMI were positively correlated with total and HMW adiponectin concentrations in LGA infants only. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to demonstrate that LGA does not matter for circulating leptin and adiponectin concentrations in infancy, and there may be LGA-specific positive associations between weight gain or current BMI and adiponectin concentrations in infancy, suggesting dysfunction in establishing the adiposity-adiponectin negative feedback loop in LGA individuals.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Macrossomia Fetal/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Leptina/sangue , Ganho de Peso , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Canadá , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/sangue , Macrossomia Fetal/complicações , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Neuropeptides ; 91: 102214, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861598

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a metabo-psychiatric disorder where alterations of cytokines, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, and the interactions between these factors can play an important role. Thus, the primary goal of the presented study was a cross-sectional analysis of immune-related proteins in patients with AN. Moreover, the correlations between these molecules and selected neuropeptides were studied. Twenty-five adolescent inpatients girls in the acute stage of a restrictive type of AN were enrolled in the study within the first year of the disease. Additionally, thirty similar in age and height controls (CG) were also assessed. The levels of 24 immune-related proteins, including cytokines, chemokines, and proteases, were measured. Moreover, selected adipocytokines, gastrointestinal hormones, and centrally produced neuropeptides levels were determined. Finally, the correlations between these molecules were analyzed. The fasting levels of CXCL1, CXCL9, FGF2, GrB, IL1, IL6, IL8, MMP8, MMP9, CTSS were statistically lower in AN than in the CG. The concentrations of many immune-related proteins remain unchanged despite their metabolic and mental condition. Moreover, significant correlations were found between leptin and CXCL1, CXCL9, GrB, IL1, IL6, and MMP8. Leptin receptors were correlated with GrB, while resistin was associated with MMP9. Our findings suggest that the initial stage of restrictive AN among adolescents within the first year of the disease is not connected with a pro-inflammatory state. Some immune-related protein changes may be associated with altered neuropeptides, primarily leptin, its receptors, and resistin. Future research should clarify which changes are primary and secondary to weight loss and whether these changes normalize with increasing weight. This would aid in understanding the complex etiopathogenesis of AN and in the search for new methods of treatment.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Anorexia Nervosa/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Resistina/sangue , Adolescente , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114590, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487844

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Carthamus tinctorius L. (Safflower) has been widely recommended to treat metabolic disorders in traditional herbal medicine in Persia, China, Korea, Japan, and other East-Asian countries. The anti-hypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of this plant have been well documented, but its protective effects against Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) have not been fully illustrated. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of safflower oil on MetS risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 67 patients with MetS were administered either divided 8 g safflower oil or placebo daily for 12 weeks. All patients were advised to follow their previous diets and physical activities. RESULTS: Safflower oil resulted in a significant reduction in waist circumference (-2.42 ± 3.24 vs. 0.97 ± 2.53, p<0.001), systolic blood pressure (-8.80 ± 9.77 vs. -2.26 ± 8.56, p = 0.021), diastolic blood pressure (-3.53 ± 7.52 vs. -0.70 ± 6.21, p = 0.041), fasting blood sugar (-5.03 ± 10.62 vs. 2.94 ± 7.57, p = 0.003), and insulin resistance (-0.59 ± 1.43 vs. 0.50 ± 1, p = 0.012), but an increase in adiponectin level (0.38 ± 0.99 vs. -0.09 ± 0.81, p = 0.042) in the treatment group in comparison to the placebo group. The results revealed a direct relationship between leptin level and Body Mass Index (BMI) in both groups (p<0.001). In addition, increase in BMI resulted in a non-significant decrease in adiponectin level in both groups. Moreover, no significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding lipid profiles, leptin serum level, serum creatinine concentration, and other outcomes. CONCLUSION: Safflower oil without lifestyle modification improved abdominal obesity, blood pressure, and insulin resistance in patients with MetS.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Carthamus tinctorius , Síndrome Metabólica , Obesidade Abdominal , Óleo de Cártamo/administração & dosagem , Adiponectina/sangue , Adulto , Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Método Duplo-Cego , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Obesidade Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade Abdominal/metabolismo , Fitoterapia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
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