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1.
Univ. salud ; 27(1): 1-10, enero-abril 2025.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555921

RESUMO

Introducción: La calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) y los estados de ánimo son indicadores cruciales del bienestar en adolescentes, pero su relación con estudiantes de Antioquia, Colombia, no ha sido ampliamente estudiada. Objetivo: Determinar la CVRS y los estados de ánimo en escolares de Antioquia-Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal con 1957 escolares de 9 a 20 años. Se aplicaron mediciones de CVRS, ansiedad, depresión, hostilidad y alegría, actividad física, comportamiento sedentario, apoyo social de padres y nivel socioeconómico. Resultados: La calidad de vida alta (CVA) es más elevada en hombres, personas con alegría, estudiantes con apoyo de padres, activos físicamente y personas de nivel socioeconómico alto y medio. AL aumentar un año de edad, disminuye en un 15 % la CVA, y al aumentar la depresión, la ansiedad y el comportamiento sedentario disminuye la CVA. Además, los niveles de depresión y ansiedad son mayores en mujeres, estudiantes mayores, sin apoyo de los padres y personas sedentarias. Conclusiones: La CVRS se asocia con estados de ánimo, actividad física, comportamiento sedentario y apoyo de los padres; mientras que los estados de ánimo se asocian con el sexo, el apoyo de los padres, la CVS y el sedentarismo.


Introduction: Even though health-related quality of life (HRQL) and mood states are key indicators of the well-being of adolescents, their relationship has not been analyzed in students from Antioquia, Colombia. Objective: To determine HRQL and mood states in schoolchildren from Antioquia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,957 schoolchildren and adolescents aged between 9 and 20 years. Measurements of HRQL, anxiety, depression, hostility and happiness, physical activity, sedentary behavior, parental social support, and socioeconomic status were applied. Results: A high quality of life (HQL) was observed more frequently in male participants, students with parental support, physically active, and those belonging to medium and high socioeconomic status. HQL decreased 15% as their age increased by one year. Also, HQL was reduced when depression, anxiety, and sedentary behavior increased. Furthermore, depression and anxiety levels were higher in women, older students, as well as in those without parental control and with sedentary behavior. Conclusions: HRQL is associated with mood states, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and parental support. In contrast, mood states are related to gender, parental support, HQL, and sedentary lifestyle.


Introdução: A qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (CVRS) e os estados de humor são indicadores cruciais de bem-estar em adolescentes, mas sua relação com estudantes de Antioquia, Colômbia, não foi amplamente estudada. Objetivo: Determinar a CVRS e os estados de humor em escolares de Antioquia-Colômbia. Materiais e métodos: Estudo transversal com 1.957 escolares de 9 a 20 anos. Foram aplicadas medidas de QVRS, ansiedade, depressão, hostilidade e felicidade, atividade física, comportamento sedentário, apoio social dos pais e nível socioeconômico. Resultados: A alta qualidade de vida (CVA) é maior em homens, pessoas com alegria, estudantes com apoio parental, fisicamente ativos e pessoas de nível socioeconômico alto e médio. À medida que a idade aumenta em um ano, diminui em 15% o CVA, e ao aumentar a depressão, a ansiedade e o comportamento sedentário aumentam, o CVA diminui. Além disso, os níveis de depressão e ansiedade são mais elevados nas mulheres, nos estudantes mais velhos, sem apoio dos pais e nas pessoas sedentárias. Conclusões: A QVRS está associada a estados de humor, atividade física, comportamento sedentário e apoio parental; enquanto os estados de humor estão associados ao sexo, apoio parental, CVS e estilo de vida sedentário.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Saúde , Emoções , Felicidade , Hostilidade
2.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(6): 1089-1093, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of peer education on changing the knowledge and frequency of smoking of high school students. METHODS: The quasi-experimental study was conducted at the Vocational and Technical Anatolian High School, Turkey, during the 2021-22 academic year, and comprised students of either gender from the 9th to the 11th grade. After baseline assessment, training that blended peer education with the photovoice technique was administered between March 2021 and January 2022. Post-intervention assessment included smoking frequency, cigarette exposure and health literacy. Data was analysed using R version 4.0.5. RESULTS: Of the 465 students available, 395(84.95%) were part of the baseline assessment, while 434(93.3%) took the postintervention assessment. At the baseline, 365(93.8%) participants were males and 24(6.2%) were femaes. The overall median age was 15 years (interquartile range: 15-16 years). Post-training, smoking rate and indoor exposure to cigarette smoke among the students were statistically lower than the baseline values (p<0.05). The mean health literacy score postintervention was significantly higher than the baseline score (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Photovoice combined with peer education seemed beneficial in terms of positive effect on smoking behaviour among youths.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Grupo Associado , Estudantes , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Turquia/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(6): 1099-1103, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between eating habits and mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid copy number in adult cases of eveningness chronotypes. Methods: The cross-sectional, analytical study was conducted from September 2022 to June 2023 at the Physiology Department of the Islamic International Medical College, Rawalpindi, in collaboration with the Genetic Resource Centre, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, and comprised adult subjects who were assessed using the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. The participants' eating habits were assessed using the Healthy Eating Assessment Questionnaire, and on they were divided into those with healthy eating habits in group A and those with unhealthy eating habits in group B. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted using the Chelex method, the mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid copy number of all participants was quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Data was analysed using SPSS 27. RESULTS: Of the 80 subjects, 30(37.5%) were males and 50(62.5%) were females. The overall mean age was 24.27±6.91 years (range: 18-45 years). There were 40(50%) subjects in each group. The mean mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid copy number in group A was 2.74±0.14 compared to 2.26±0.25 in group B (p<0.001). Conclusion: Subjects with healthy eating habits exhibited higher mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid copy numbers, indicating reduced damage to mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Paquistão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Dieta Saudável , Cronotipo
4.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(6): 1104-1108, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948980

RESUMO

Objective: To assess functional and aesthetic outcomes in patients having undergone dorsal nasal augmentation with costochondral graft in a tertiary care setting. METHODS: The single-centre, retrospective, observational study was conducted at Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, and comprised data of patients who underwent dorsal nasal augmentation using costochondral graft between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2022. Aesthetic outcomes in terms of patient satisfaction were assessed using Facial Appearance, Health-related Quality of Life and Adverse Effects scores. Data was analysed using SPSS 26. RESULTS: Of the 46 patients, 28(61%) were males and 18(39%) were females. The overall mean age was 28.39±9.13 years. Dorsal nasal deficiency occurred secondary to congenital causes in 12(26.1%) patients, trauma 19(41.3%) and prior surgery 15(32.6%). Postoperative complication rate was 7(15%); 3(6.5%) had recipient site infection and 2(4.3%) had rib graft resorption. Besides, 1(2.2%) patient reported pain 2 months postoperatively and 1(2.2%) had hypertrophic scarring. Patient satisfaction with the outcome was noted in all the 10 parameters analysed. Most commonly reported problem was that the nose was 'looking thick/swollen' by 12(26.1%) patients, but the issue resolved during 1-year follow-up. Conclusion: Costochondral graft was found to be an ideal material for dorsal nasal augmentation, with high patient satisfaction rate.


Assuntos
Satisfação do Paciente , Rinoplastia , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Rinoplastia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estética , Qualidade de Vida , Nariz/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Cartilagem Costal/transplante , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/etiologia , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/epidemiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia
5.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(6): 1084-1088, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948976

RESUMO

Objectives: To assess short-term and long-term outcomes of endoscopic pilonidal sinus treatment for pilonidal sinus disease. METHODS: The prospective study was conducted at Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from July 2015 to July 2021, and comprised all pilonidal sinus cases undergoing minimal invasive endoscopic pilonidal sinus treatment who were treated by a single surgical team. The primary outcomes were duration of healing, post-operative morbidities, persistence of discharge and recurrence at 1-7 years. The secondary outcomes were operative time, return to work, cosmetic results and patient satisfaction. The patients were observed for wound healing and discharge on follow-up in the out-patient department at 1, 3, 6 and 24 weeks. They were further followed up every year through telephonic survey for persistence or recurrence of symptoms. Patient satisfaction was assessed using the 36-item Short Form Survey questionnaire filled at admission and then at 6 weeks post-surgery. Data was analysed using SPSS 23. RESULTS: Of the 67 patients, 55(82%) were males and 12(18%) were females. The overall mean age was 25.69±8.305 years. There were 13(19.4%) patients with a history of recurrent disease and previous procedures for pilonidal sinus, while 54(80.6%) had no previous surgery. The median operative time was 35 minutes (interquartile range: 20-45 minutes). Complete wound healing was achieved in 60(89.6%) patients, while recurrence was seen in 7(10.4%). The median time off work was 2.5 days (interquartile range: 1-3 days). Patient satisfaction with the procedure was significantly high (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic pilonidal sinus treatment appeared to be a good minimally invasive surgical technique for the treatment of pilonidal sinus disease in terms of both short-term and long-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Endoscopia , Duração da Cirurgia , Satisfação do Paciente , Seio Pilonidal , Recidiva , Cicatrização , Humanos , Seio Pilonidal/cirurgia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Endoscopia/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Região Sacrococcígea/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adolescente , Paquistão , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Retorno ao Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(6): 1163-1166, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948991

RESUMO

Hyponatraemia has indeed been extensively studied from multiple angles, including volume status, tonicity, and aetiology; however, the specific consideration of the osmolar gap (OG) within the context of hyponatraemia and its potential impact on their overall outcomes received limited attention in research. The current study represents an effort to address this gap in our understanding. This prospective exploratory study was conducted on adults aged 14 years and older at the Indus Hospital, Karachi, from 2017 to 2020. The study involved categorising severity of hyponatraemia and volume status. The osmolar gap (OG) was calculated and categorised as either increased (OG>10) or normal (OG<10). Among the 262 patients included in the study, there were 139 females and 123 males. Elevated OG was observed in 141(53.8%) patients. There were 28 (10.7%) recorded fatalities and majority of these individuals had an elevated OG. These findings underscore the importance for clinicians to consider the osmolar gap when managing patients with hyponatraemia.


Assuntos
Hiponatremia , Humanos , Hiponatremia/epidemiologia , Hiponatremia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Concentração Osmolar , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Adolescente
7.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(6): 1183-1186, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948997

RESUMO

Isolated Left Ventricular Non-compaction (LVNC) is a type of cardiomyopathy that usually has a genetic origin. Its diagnosis is based on finding such as deep intertrabecular recesses or sinusoids and ventricular trabeculations communicating with the left ventricular cavity. LVNC was first clinically recognised almost four decades ago, yet its diagnostic and management challenges persist. In this report, we present the case of an 18-year-old boy, who presented at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Karachi, in March 2023, with complaints of dizziness, pedal oedema, and shortness of breath. Echocardiography revealed signs suggestive of LVNC, which were confirmed conclusively on Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) (NC/C ratio>2.4). The patient underwent implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) placement, was discharged after a smooth post-procedure recovery, and is doing well on follow-ups. Hence, ICD and guideline-directed medical therapy as a combination have turned out to have satisfactory outcomes in decreasing morbidity and providing mortality benefits for such patients.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Ecocardiografia , Miocárdio Ventricular não Compactado Isolado , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Miocárdio Ventricular não Compactado Isolado/terapia , Miocárdio Ventricular não Compactado Isolado/diagnóstico , Dispneia/etiologia , Tontura/etiologia
8.
Int Marit Health ; 75(2): 103-108, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) reported an estimated 249 million malaria cases globally in 2023, of which 94% were reported from Africa. Tanzania, a Sub-Saharan African country, has an exceptionally high malaria prevalence (3.6 million in 2023). The aim of the present study was to assess malaria prevalence rates in the Arusha Region, northern Tanzania. This region is famous for its national parks and wildlife reserves, and it is visited by thousands of tourists from all over the world each year. The assessment of malaria prevalence in the region is important in the context of the necessity to administer antimalarial chemoprophylaxis to international travellers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 101 people, residents of the Karatu District in the Arusha Region, aged between 1 and 73 years, who volunteered to participate in the screening. Phase I of the study was conducted in July 2022 in the Karatu Lutheran Hospital in Karatu Town (located close to the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and the Serengeti National Park). During this phase a venous blood sample was collected from each patient. The samples were tested for malaria using a rapid diagnostic test (mRDT); the same samples were also used to measure haemoglobin concentration and next they were applied onto the Whatman FTA micro cards for further molecular diagnostics in Poland (phase II). RESULTS: mRDT detected two (2.0%) infections caused by Plasmodium (the etiological factor of malaria), the molecular tests (RT-PCR) confirmed the two positive results by mRDT but also detected infections in six other samples (7.9% in total). The study found that six patients were infected with the Plasmodium falciparum species, while two other subjects had co-infections (P. falciparum + P. ovale, P. falciparum + P. vivax + P. malariae). CONCLUSIONS: The study findings confirm the prevalence of malaria in areas located close to national parks in northern Tanzania and support the use of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis in international travellers visiting the area. The present study found co-infections caused by four different species of Plasmodium species which supports the prevalence of different parasitic species in Sub-Saharan Africa and is in line with CDC reports but contrary to WHO reports which estimate that 100% of malaria cases in Sub-Saharan Africa are caused by P. falciparum.


Assuntos
Malária , Humanos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Pré-Escolar , Malária/epidemiologia , Lactente , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico
9.
Clin Oral Investig ; 28(7): 406, 2024 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop and validate a predictive nomogram for diagnosing radicular grooves (RG) in maxillary lateral incisors (MLIs), integrating demographic information, anatomical measurements, and Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) data to diagnose the RG in MLIs based on the clinical observation before resorting to the CBCT scan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort of orthodontic patients from the School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, was analyzed, including demographic characteristics, photographic anatomical assessments, and CBCT diagnoses. The cohort was divided into development and validation groups. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses identified significant predictors of RG, which informed the development of a nomogram. This nomogram's performance was validated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. RESULTS: The study included 381 patients (64.3% female) and evaluated 760 MLIs, with RG present in 26.25% of MLIs. The nomogram incorporated four significant anatomical predictors of RG presence, demonstrating substantial predictive efficacy with an area under the curve of 0.75 in the development cohort and 0.71 in the validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: A nomogram for the diagnosis of RG in MLIs was successfully developed. This tool offers a practical checklist of anatomical predictors to improve the diagnostic process in clinical practice. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The developed nomogram provides a novel, evidence-based tool to enhance the detection and treatment planning of MLIs with RG in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Incisivo , Maxila , Nomogramas , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Incisivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Adolescente , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Raiz Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , China
10.
Law Hum Behav ; 48(3): 203-213, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949766

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits in adolescence predisposes youth to negative behavioral and social outcomes and may be particularly damaging to youth involved in the justice system. Whereas research has shown that CU traits predict later arrest, it remains unknown whether rearrest predicts changes in CU traits and whether these associations may be modified by maternal relationship quality. The present study assessed whether being rearrested predicted changes in CU traits and whether these associations varied by maternal warmth and maternal hostility. HYPOTHESES: We hypothesized that self-reported CU traits would increase at data collection time points following rearrest. Further, we hypothesized that maternal warmth would buffer the negative effects of rearrest, whereas maternal hostility would not have a significant moderating effect on the associations. METHOD: Hypotheses were tested using a large, multisite longitudinal data set of 1,216 justice-involved male youth (Mage = 15.82 years at baseline; 47% Latino, 38% Black/African American, 15% White). Data from a series of nine interviews (across a 7-year period) were used to determine associations between rearrest at one-time point and CU traits at the subsequent time point. RESULTS: Rearrest is associated with a significant increase in CU traits. However, these associations are not moderated by either maternal warmth or maternal hostility. CONCLUSIONS: Rearrest predicts increases in a known risk factor for healthy socioemotional development among justice-involved youths (CU traits). Moreover, the way rearrest is associated with CU traits does not change depending on maternal warmth; rearrest is associated with increases in CU traits irrespective of the quality of a youth's relationship with their mother. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Delinquência Juvenil , Relações Mãe-Filho , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Hostilidade , Emoções , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia
11.
ASAIO J ; 70(7): 602-608, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949774

RESUMO

We report the largest pediatric multicenter experience with Impella pump use and peripheral veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) support. Utilizing the Advanced Cardiac Therapies Improving Outcomes Network (ACTION) collaborative database, we conducted a retrospective, multicenter study of all patients with cardiogenic shock requiring VA-ECMO support with subsequent Impella implant between October 2014 and December 2021. The primary outcome was defined as death while on Impella support. Secondary outcomes were recovery, transplantation, and transition to durable ventricular assist device (VAD) at the time of Impella explantation. Adverse events were defined according to the ACTION registry criteria. Twenty subjects were supported with Impella; Impella 2.5 (n = 3), CP (n = 12), 5.0/5.5 (n = 5). The median Interquartile range (IQR) age, weight, and body surface area at implantation were 15.6 years (IQR = 13.9-17.2), 65.7 kg (IQR = 53.1-80.7), and 1.74 m2 (IQR = 1.58-1.98). Primary cardiac diagnoses were dilated cardiomyopathy/myocarditis in nine (45%), congenital heart disease in four (20%), graft failure/rejection in four (20%), and three (15%) others. Most common adverse events included hemolysis (50%) and bleeding (20%). There were two deaths (10%) in the cohort. Nine patients (45%) were explanted for recovery, eight (40%) were transitioned to a durable VAD, and one (5%) underwent heart transplantation. Impella percutaneous pump support should be considered in the older pediatric population supported with peripheral VA-ECMO, as a means of left heart decompression, and a strategy to come off ECMO to achieve endpoints of myocardial recovery, transition to a durable VAD, or transplantation.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Coração Auxiliar , Choque Cardiogênico , Humanos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15101, 2024 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956051

RESUMO

The etiology of tic disorders (TDs) is not precisely known, although several lines of evidence suggest involvement of the immune system in pathogenesis. Here, we aimed to determine the expression levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in children with TD and compare them with those of healthy controls. Furthermore, we also evaluated their association with clinical variables in the TD group. Within the study period, 88 children with tic disorders and 111 healthy control children were enrolled. Most children with tic disorders were diagnosed with Tourette's disorder (n = 47, 53.4%) or persistent motor tic disorder (n = 39, 44.3%), while the remainder (n = 2, 2.3%) were diagnosed with persistent vocal tic disorder. We found that children with tic disorders had significantly elevated levels of IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-4 expression, while we detected lower expression levels of IL-17 in children with tic disorders. Our findings provide a molecular landscape of cytokine expression in children with TD, which may suggest a proinflammatory state not affected by the presence of comorbidity and symptom severity. Delineating the contribution of alterations in the immune system to the pathogenesis of tic disorders may pave the way for better therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Transtornos de Tique , Humanos , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Citocinas/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14724, 2024 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956070

RESUMO

Across vertebrates, adaptive behaviors, like feeding and avoiding predators, are linked to lateralized brain function. The presence of the behavioral manifestations of these biases are associated with increased task success. Additionally, when an individual's direction of bias aligns with the majority of the population, it is linked to social advantages. However, it remains unclear if behavioral biases in humans correlate with the same advantages. This large-scale study (N = 313-1661, analyses dependent) examines whether the strength and alignment of behavioral biases associate with cognitive and social benefits respectively in humans. To remain aligned with the animal literature, we evaluate motor-sensory biases linked to motor-sequencing and emotion detection to assess lateralization. Results reveal that moderate hand lateralization is positively associated with task success and task success is, in turn, associated with language fluency, possibly representing a cascade effect. Additionally, like other vertebrates, the majority of our human sample possess a 'standard' laterality profile (right hand bias, left visual bias). A 'reversed' profile is rare by comparison, and associates higher self-reported social difficulties and increased rate of autism and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We highlight the importance of employing a comparative theoretical framing to illuminate how and why different laterization profiles associate with diverging social and cognitive phenotypes.


Assuntos
Cognição , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Cognição/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Habilidades Sociais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Emoções/fisiologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15135, 2024 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956123

RESUMO

The behavioral and neural responses to social exclusion were examined in women randomized to four conditions, varying in levels of attractiveness and friendliness. Informed by evolutionary theory, we predicted that being socially excluded by attractive unfriendly women would be more distressing than being excluded by unattractive women, irrespective of their friendliness level. Our results contradicted most of our predictions but provide important insights into women's responses to interpersonal conflict. Accounting for rejection sensitivity, P300 event-related potential amplitudes were largest when women were excluded by unattractive unfriendly women. This may be due to an expectancy violation or an annoyance with being excluded by women low on social desirability. An examination of anger rumination rates by condition suggests the latter. Only attractive women's attractiveness ratings were lowered in the unfriendly condition, indicating they were specifically punished for their exclusionary behavior. Women were more likely to select attractive women to compete against with one exception-they selected the Black attractive opponent less often than the White attractive opponent when presented as unfriendly. Finally, consistent with studies on retaliation in relation to social exclusion, women tended to rate competitors who rejected them as being more rude, more competitive, less attractive, less nice, and less happy than non-competitors. The ubiquity of social exclusion and its pointed emotional and physiological impact on women demands more research on this topic.


Assuntos
Beleza , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Distância Psicológica , Desejabilidade Social , Amigos/psicologia , Potenciais Evocados P300/fisiologia , Adolescente , Face/fisiologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15141, 2024 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956129

RESUMO

Pediatric cardiomyopathies are mostly attributed to variants in sarcomere-related genes. Unfortunately, the genetic architecture of pediatric cardiomyopathies has never been previously studied in Jordan. We sought to uncover the genetic landscape of 14 patients from nine families with several subtypes of pediatric cardiomyopathies in Jordan using Exome sequencing (ES). Our investigation identified pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants in seven out of nine families (77.8%), clustering in sarcomere-related genes. Surprisingly, phenocopies of sarcomere-related hypertrophic cardiomyopathies were evident in probands with glycogen storage disorder and mitochondrial-related disease. Our study underscored the significance of streamlining ES or expanding cardiomyopathy-related gene panels to identify plausible phenocopies of sarcomere-related cardiomyopathies. Our findings also pointed out the need for genetic testing in patients with cardiomyopathy and their at-risk family members. This can potentially lead to better management strategies, enabling early interventions, and ultimately enhancing their prognosis. Finally, our findings provide an initial contribution to the currently absent knowledge about the molecular underpinnings of cardiomyopathies in Jordan.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Linhagem , Sarcômeros , Humanos , Jordânia , Masculino , Feminino , Sarcômeros/genética , Criança , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Sequenciamento do Exoma , Lactente , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Mutação , Testes Genéticos/métodos
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15164, 2024 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956149

RESUMO

Communicable disease risk is high in refugee camps and reception centers. To better understand the risks for communicable disease diagnoses among refugees and asylum seekers, this study assesses individual- and camp-level risk factors among individuals utilizing Médecins du Monde clinics in four large refugee camps-Elliniko, Malakasa, Koutsochero, and Raidestos-on mainland Greece between July 2016 and May 2017. Descriptive statistics are reported for the demographic characteristics of the study population and for communicable disease burdens within the four camps-Elliniko, Malakasa, Raidestos, and Koutsochero. A hierarchical generalized linear model was used to assess risk factors for communicable disease diagnoses while accounting for individual-level clustering. This study shows marginal patterns in risk factors for communicable disease. Males had marginally higher risk of communicable disease diagnosis than females (OR = 1.12; 95% CI 0.97-1.29), and increased age was more protective against communicable disease for females (OR = 0.957; 95% CI 0.953-0.961) than for males (OR = 0.963; 95% CI 0.959-0.967). Communicable disease risk was significantly different between camps, with Elliniko (OR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.40-1.79) and Malakasa (OR = 1.43; 95% CI 1.25-1.63) having higher odds of communicable disease than Raidestos. The demographic and epidemiologic profiles of displaced populations differ across settings, and epidemiologic baselines for displaced populations are fundamental to evidence-informed provision of humanitarian aid. Further, while influences and risks for negative health outcomes in complex emergencies are broadly, the causal mechanisms that underpin these relationships are not as well understood. Both practitioners and researchers should engage with further research to elucidate the mechanisms through which these risks operate among displaced populations, including multilevel analyses.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Campos de Refugiados , Refugiados , Humanos , Masculino , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Idoso
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15251, 2024 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956182

RESUMO

The early diagnosis and treatment of foreign body aspiration (FBA) can significantly improve the overall prognosis of children. There are significant differences in the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of FBA in different regions. Therefore, we conducted a real-world study in the western region of China with over 4000 patients. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of FBA in terms of its types, the specific months of its occurrence, and the distribution of primary caregiver characteristics in western China. We collected the clinical and epidemiological data of children who were diagnosed with FBA in our hospital over the past 20 years through a big data centre. We matched the data of healthy children who underwent routine physical examinations at the paediatric health clinic during the same period to analyse the differences in the data of actual guardians. A total of 4227 patients from five provinces were included in this study. Foreign bodies were removed by rigid bronchoscopy in 99.4% (4202/4227) of patients, with a median age of 19 months and a median surgical duration 16 min. January was the most common month of onset for 1725 patients, followed by February, with 1027 patients. The most common types of foreign objects were melon peanuts, seeds and walnuts, accounting for 47.2%, 15.3%, and 10.2%, respectively. In the FBA group, the proportion of grandparents who were primary caregivers was 70.33% (2973/4227), which was significantly greater than the 63.05% in the healthy group (2665/4227) (P < 0.01). FBA most commonly occurs in January and February. More than 60% of FBAs occur between the ages of 1 and 2 years, and the incidence of FBA may be greater in children who are cared for by grandparents. A rigid bronchoscope can be used to remove most aspirated foreign bodies in a median of 16 min.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia , Corpos Estranhos , Humanos , Corpos Estranhos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Broncoscopia/métodos , Criança , Aspiração Respiratória/epidemiologia , Adolescente
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15149, 2024 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956213

RESUMO

Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a tear film disorder caused by increased tear evaporation or decreased production. The heavy workload on the eye and the increased usage of digital screens may decrease blink frequency, leading to an increased evaporation rate and an upsurge in the incidence and severity of DES. This study aims to assess the severity of DES symptoms and the risk factors among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Umm AlQura University to evaluate the severity of DES among students and explore its potential association with digital screen use. Validated questionnaires were used to assess the severity of DES and digital screen usage. The study included 457 participants, of which 13% had symptoms suggestive of severe DES. Furthermore, multiple risk factors had a significant association with the severity of DES, including gender, use of monitor filters, monitor and room brightness, and smoking habits. DES symptoms were prevalent among university students, particularly female students. Although there was no significant association with the duration of screen usage and collage distribution. Other factors however, such as the usage of screen monitors and the brightness of both the monitor and the room, were significantly associated with the severity of DES symptoms.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco , Estudantes , Humanos , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Feminino , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Universidades , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Prevalência
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15059, 2024 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956288

RESUMO

Although validated and reliable psychophysical tests of olfactory function are available, an easy-to-use and feasible test has yet to be developed. This study aimed to design a digital odour identification test, evaluate its validity, assess its reliability, establish a normative curve, and explore the impact of demographic factors. The odour identification test was presented with the Multiscent-20, a hand-held, tablet-like digital scent device that features an integrated odour digital delivery system. The identification performance on the 20 odours was assessed using item response theory (IRT). The normative curve was established by administering the test to a large sample of participants (n = 1299). The mean identification score was 17.5 (SD = 2.1). The two-parameter logistic IRT model provided the best fit, revealing variation in item discrimination and difficulty parameters. Educational attainment influenced performance, with primary education associated with lower scores. Additionally, sex was not found to be associated with performance. This study provides initial evidence supporting the validity and reliability of use of the Multiscent-20 as a digital odour identification test. The test's automation and portability enable the standardized delivery of olfactory stimuli and efficient automatic recording and scoring of responses.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Olfato , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Odorantes/análise , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Olfato/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Idoso
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15154, 2024 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956297

RESUMO

Historically, the analysis of stimulus-dependent time-frequency patterns has been the cornerstone of most electroencephalography (EEG) studies. The abnormal oscillations in high-frequency waves associated with psychotic disorders during sensory and cognitive tasks have been studied many times. However, any significant dissimilarity in the resting-state low-frequency bands is yet to be established. Spectral analysis of the alpha and delta band waves shows the effectiveness of stimulus-independent EEG in identifying the abnormal activity patterns of pathological brains. A generalized model incorporating multiple frequency bands should be more efficient in associating potential EEG biomarkers with first-episode psychosis (FEP), leading to an accurate diagnosis. We explore multiple machine-learning methods, including random-forest, support vector machine, and Gaussian process classifier (GPC), to demonstrate the practicality of resting-state power spectral density (PSD) to distinguish patients of FEP from healthy controls. A comprehensive discussion of our preprocessing methods for PSD analysis and a detailed comparison of different models are included in this paper. The GPC model outperforms the other models with a specificity of 95.78% to show that PSD can be used as an effective feature extraction technique for analyzing and classifying resting-state EEG signals of psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Transtornos Psicóticos , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Descanso/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
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