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1.
Univ. salud ; 27(1): 1-10, enero-abril 2025.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555921

RESUMO

Introducción: La calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) y los estados de ánimo son indicadores cruciales del bienestar en adolescentes, pero su relación con estudiantes de Antioquia, Colombia, no ha sido ampliamente estudiada. Objetivo: Determinar la CVRS y los estados de ánimo en escolares de Antioquia-Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal con 1957 escolares de 9 a 20 años. Se aplicaron mediciones de CVRS, ansiedad, depresión, hostilidad y alegría, actividad física, comportamiento sedentario, apoyo social de padres y nivel socioeconómico. Resultados: La calidad de vida alta (CVA) es más elevada en hombres, personas con alegría, estudiantes con apoyo de padres, activos físicamente y personas de nivel socioeconómico alto y medio. AL aumentar un año de edad, disminuye en un 15 % la CVA, y al aumentar la depresión, la ansiedad y el comportamiento sedentario disminuye la CVA. Además, los niveles de depresión y ansiedad son mayores en mujeres, estudiantes mayores, sin apoyo de los padres y personas sedentarias. Conclusiones: La CVRS se asocia con estados de ánimo, actividad física, comportamiento sedentario y apoyo de los padres; mientras que los estados de ánimo se asocian con el sexo, el apoyo de los padres, la CVS y el sedentarismo.


Introduction: Even though health-related quality of life (HRQL) and mood states are key indicators of the well-being of adolescents, their relationship has not been analyzed in students from Antioquia, Colombia. Objective: To determine HRQL and mood states in schoolchildren from Antioquia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,957 schoolchildren and adolescents aged between 9 and 20 years. Measurements of HRQL, anxiety, depression, hostility and happiness, physical activity, sedentary behavior, parental social support, and socioeconomic status were applied. Results: A high quality of life (HQL) was observed more frequently in male participants, students with parental support, physically active, and those belonging to medium and high socioeconomic status. HQL decreased 15% as their age increased by one year. Also, HQL was reduced when depression, anxiety, and sedentary behavior increased. Furthermore, depression and anxiety levels were higher in women, older students, as well as in those without parental control and with sedentary behavior. Conclusions: HRQL is associated with mood states, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and parental support. In contrast, mood states are related to gender, parental support, HQL, and sedentary lifestyle.


Introdução: A qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (CVRS) e os estados de humor são indicadores cruciais de bem-estar em adolescentes, mas sua relação com estudantes de Antioquia, Colômbia, não foi amplamente estudada. Objetivo: Determinar a CVRS e os estados de humor em escolares de Antioquia-Colômbia. Materiais e métodos: Estudo transversal com 1.957 escolares de 9 a 20 anos. Foram aplicadas medidas de QVRS, ansiedade, depressão, hostilidade e felicidade, atividade física, comportamento sedentário, apoio social dos pais e nível socioeconômico. Resultados: A alta qualidade de vida (CVA) é maior em homens, pessoas com alegria, estudantes com apoio parental, fisicamente ativos e pessoas de nível socioeconômico alto e médio. À medida que a idade aumenta em um ano, diminui em 15% o CVA, e ao aumentar a depressão, a ansiedade e o comportamento sedentário aumentam, o CVA diminui. Além disso, os níveis de depressão e ansiedade são mais elevados nas mulheres, nos estudantes mais velhos, sem apoio dos pais e nas pessoas sedentárias. Conclusões: A QVRS está associada a estados de humor, atividade física, comportamento sedentário e apoio parental; enquanto os estados de humor estão associados ao sexo, apoio parental, CVS e estilo de vida sedentário.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Saúde , Emoções , Felicidade , Hostilidade
2.
Univ. salud ; 26(2): 41-50, mayo-agosto 2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553978

RESUMO

Introducción: El desarrollo positivo es un estadio de ajuste psicosocial que acentúa las potencialidades y los recursos entre jóvenes y sus contextos próximos. En Australia, se desarrolló el primer modelo de desarrollo positivo para adultos emergentes, el cual consta de cinco componentes (competencia social, satisfacción con la vida, confianza y tolerancia con los otros, confianza hacia autoridades e instituciones, acción y compromiso cívico), pero no ha sido investigado en Chile. Objetivo: Analizar la evidencia disponible en la literatura científica sobre los cinco componentes del modelo de desarrollo positivo en adultos emergentes universitarios de Chile. Materiales y métodos: Revisión narrativa de la literatura publicada entre 2013 y 2023, en bases de datos Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, Redalyc y Dialnet. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 83 artículos, de los cuales 53 cumplieron los requisitos de inclusión; en su mayor parte fueron estudios cuantitativos (81,13%) y en español (75,47%). Se evidenció una disparidad en la cantidad de estudios por temática; se encuentra mayor investigación en satisfacción con la vida y acción y compromiso cívico. Conclusiones: Existen brechas en la literatura científica chilena en el estudio del desarrollo positivo; además de que se discuten particularidades idiosincrásicas y desafíos asociados a la etapa de adultez emergente.


Introduction: Positive development is a stage of psychosocial adjustment that accentuates the potentials and resources of young people and their close contexts. The first positive development model for emerging adulthood was developed in Australia, which includes five components: social; life satisfaction; trust and tolerance of others; trust in the authorities and institutions; and action and civic engagement. However, this model has not been investigated in Chile. Objective: To analyze the evidence available in the scientific literature on the five components of the positive development model in emerging adults universities. Materials and methods: A narrative review of the literature published between 2013 and 2023 in the Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, Redalyc, and Dialnet databases was conducted. Results: 83 articles were selected, of which 53 met the inclusion criteria; most of them were qualitative studies (81.13%) and in Spanish (75.47%). There is an evident disparity in terms of the number of studies and topics, e.g., there is more research on life satisfaction and civic action and commitment. Conclusions: There are gaps in the Chilean scientific literature in the study of positive development. In addition, idiosyncratic particularities and challenges associated with the stages of emerging adulthood are discussed.


Introdução: O desenvolvimento positivo é uma fase de ajustamento psicossocial que acentua o potencial e os recursos dos jovens e dos seus contextos imediatos. Na Austrália, foi desenvolvido o primeiro modelo de desenvolvimento positivo para adultos emergentes, que consiste em cinco componentes (social, satisfação com a vida, confiança e tolerância com os outros, confiança nas autoridades e instituições, ação e envolvimento cívico), mas ainda não foi investigado no Chile. Objetivo: Analisar as evidências disponíveis na literatura científica sobre os cinco componentes do modelo de desenvolvimento positivo em adultos universitários emergentes no Chile. Materiais e métodos: Revisão narrativa da literatura publicada entre 2013 e 2023, nas bases de dados Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, Redalyc e Dialnet. Resultados: foram obtidos 83 artigos, dos quais 53 atenderam aos requisitos de inclusão; A maioria deles eram estudos quantitativos (81,13%) e em espanhol (75,47%). Ficou evidente uma disparidade no número de estudos por tema; Há mais pesquisas sobre satisfação com a vida e ação e compromisso cívico. Conclusões: Existem lacunas na literatura científica chilena no estudo do desenvolvimento positivo; Além disso, são discutidas particularidades e desafios idiossincráticos associados à fase da idade adulta emergente.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto Jovem , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento , Universidades , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento
3.
Appl Ergon ; 120: 104342, 2024 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959633

RESUMO

This research sought to evaluate the thermal zones of the upper body and firefighter personal protective equipment (PPE) immediately following uncompensable heat stress (0.03 °C increase/min). We hypothesized that the frontal portion of the head and the inside of the firefighter helmet would be the hottest as measured by infrared thermography. This hypothesis was due to previous research demonstrating that the head accounts for ∼8-10% of the body surface area, but it accounts for ∼20% of the overall body heat dissipation during moderate exercise. Twenty participants performed a 21-min graded treadmill exercise protocol (Altered Modified Naughton) in an environmental chamber (35 °C, 50 % humidity) in firefighter PPE. The body areas analyzed were the frontal area of the head, chest, abdomen, arm, neck, upper back, and lower back. The areas of the PPE that were analyzed were the inside of the helmet and the jacket. The hottest areas of the body post-exercise were the frontal area of the head (mean: 37.3 ± 0.4 °C), chest (mean: 37.5 ± 0.3 °C), and upper back (mean: 37.3 ± 0.4 °C). The coldest area of the upper body was the abdomen (mean: 36.1 ± 0.4 °C). The peak temperature of the inside of the helmet increased (p < 0.001) by 9.8 °C from 27.7 ± 1.6 °C to 37.4 ± 0.7 °C, and the inside of the jacket increased (p < 0.001) by 7.3 °C from 29.2 ± 1.7 °C to 36.5 ± 0.4 °C. The results of this study are relevant for cooling strategies for firefighters.


Assuntos
Bombeiros , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Termografia , Humanos , Termografia/métodos , Masculino , Adulto , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/etiologia , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Raios Infravermelhos , Cabeça/fisiologia , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Tórax/fisiologia , Abdome/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta
4.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 299: 317-321, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Use clinical pain measurement tools to investigate and compare the prevalence of pelvic loin disoders in women with and without endometriosis. STUDY DESIGN: Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) associated with endometriosis has diverse origins, including musculoskeletal factors. Musculoskeletal dysfunction in the pelvic region is theorized to result from sustained muscular contraction, triggered by altered visceral stimuli and adoption of antalgic postures, causing secondary damage to muscles, ligaments, and joints. CPP significantly impacts quality of life, relationships, sexuality, and mental health. However, limited data exists on musculoskeletal impacts of endometriosis and CPP. It was made a case-control study at Maternidade Escola Assis Chateaubriand from August 2017 to January 2021. Evaluated 71 women: 41 in endometriosis group (EG) and 30 in control group (CG). Data collection included sociodemographic questionnaires, musculoskeletal physiotherapeutic evaluations, pain mapping, pressure pain thresholds, kinesiophobia, and disability measurements. Statistical analysis was performed using Spearman's Rho test to determine correlations. RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 31 years. EG exhibited lower pain threshold variations in lumbopelvic trigger points than CG (P < .05). Significant muscle flexibility differences between groups were observed; EG had reduced flexibility (P < .05). Most common pain areas were hypogastrium in EG (48.78 %) and left lumbar in CG (30 %). EG had higher kinesiophobia values (P = .009). There was a weak association between kinesiophobia-pressure threshold association observed in CG's lumbar pelvic region. CONCLUSION: Women with Endometriosis and CPP exhibit higher prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder, lower pain thresholds, decreased lumbopelvic muscle range of motion, higher kinesiophobia scores, and increased disability indices with low back pain compared to healthy women.


Assuntos
Endometriose , Dor Pélvica , Humanos , Feminino , Endometriose/complicações , Endometriose/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Adulto , Dor Pélvica/epidemiologia , Dor Pélvica/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Limiar da Dor , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Infect ; 89(2): 106220, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38960103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Efficacy and safety of letermovir as prophylaxis for clinically significant cytomegalovirus infections (csCVMi) was evaluated in randomised controlled trials while most of the real-world studies are single-centre experiences. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, multi-centre case-control study at six German university hospitals to evaluate clinical experiences in patients receiving CMV prophylaxis with letermovir (n = 200) compared to controls without CMV prophylaxis (n = 200) during a 48-week follow-up period after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (aHCT). RESULTS: The incidence of csCMVi after aHCT was significantly reduced in the letermovir (34%, n = 68) compared to the control group (56%, n = 112; p < 0.001). Letermovir as CMV prophylaxis (OR 0.362) was found to be the only independent variable associated with the prevention of csCMVi. Patients receiving letermovir showed significantly better survival compared to the control group (HR = 1.735, 95% CI: 1.111-2.712; p = 0.014). Of all csCMVi, 46% (n = 31) occurred after discontinuation of letermovir prophylaxis. Severe neutropenia (<500 neutrophils/µL) on the day of the stem cell infusion was the only independent variable for an increased risk of csCMVi after the end of letermovir prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the preventive effects of letermovir on csCMVi after aHCT. A substantial proportion of patients developed a csCMVi after discontinuation of letermovir. In particular, patients with severe neutropenia require specific attention after drug discontinuation.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Antivirais , Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Quinazolinas , Humanos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quinazolinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Acetatos/uso terapêutico , Acetatos/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Idoso , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem , Citomegalovirus , Adolescente , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Incidência
6.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 18(3): 181-188, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38960771

RESUMO

RESEARCH AIM: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) is an adipocytokine that is elevated in obesity, type 2 diabetes and increased levels are associated with inflammatory processes. Nampt serum concentrations have been suggested to follow a diurnal rhythm peaking in the afternoon in lean males. However, no data exists regarding the effects of gender and body weight. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We measured Nampt serum levels over 24 h in a cohort of healthy individuals living with either normal weight or obesity. Furthermore, effects of meals, oral glucose tolerance test and physical exercise on Nampt concentrations were evaluated. Correlation analyses to other hormonal- and lab parameters and anthropometric measurements were performed. RESULTS: Nampt showed a diurnal rhythm with increased levels at daytime and a peak in the early afternoon. This diurnal rhythm was significant for all groups but obese males. The Nampt amplitude, measured both relatively and absolutely, was significantly higher in females than in males. Meals did not influence Nampt serum levels, whereas physical exercise and an OGTT did significantly influence Nampt serum levels. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we found gender specific differences in Nampt amplitude and coefficient variation with both being higher in females. The circadian rhythm of Nampt was independent of gender in healthy lean individuals, whereas it was disturbed in men with obesity.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Citocinas , Exercício Físico , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase , Obesidade , Humanos , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/sangue , Masculino , Feminino , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Adulto , Obesidade/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Fatores Sexuais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Appl Ergon ; 120: 104340, 2024 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38964218

RESUMO

Augmented reality (AR) environments are emerging as prominent user interfaces and gathering significant attention. However, the associated physical strain on the users presents a considerable challenge. Within this background, this study explores the impact of movement distance (MD) and target-to-user distance (TTU) on the physical load during drag-and-drop (DND) tasks in an AR environment. To address this objective, a user experiment was conducted utilizing a 5× 5 within-subject design with MD (16, 32, 48, 64, and 80 cm) and TTU (40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 cm) as the variables. Physical load was assessed using normalized electromyography (NEMG) (%MVC) indicators of the upper extremity muscles and the physical item of NASA-Task load index (TLX). The results revealed significant variations in the physical load based on MD and TTU. Specifically, both the NEMG and subjective physical workload values increased with increasing MD. Moreover, NEMG increased with decreasing TTU, whereas the subjective physical workload scores increased with increasing TTU. Interaction effects of MD and TTU on NEMG were also significantly observed. These findings suggest that considering the MD and TTU when developing content for interacting with AR objects in AR environments could potentially alleviate user load.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Eletromiografia , Movimento , Músculo Esquelético , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Extremidade Superior , Interface Usuário-Computador , Humanos , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Feminino , Movimento/fisiologia , Adulto , Carga de Trabalho , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Realidade Virtual
8.
Anal Methods ; 16(28): 4817-4826, 2024 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38966930

RESUMO

While polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well-known for their potential carcinogenic and mutagenic effects, the health implications of exposure to oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs), which are significant substitutes with increased persistence and bioaccumulation, are less understood. In this work, we compared the background levels of liquid-liquid, solid-phase, and supported-liquid extraction for the determination of serum PAHs and OPAHs. Liquid-liquid extraction demonstrated minimal background interference and was validated and used for human biomonitoring of PAHs and OPAHs in 240 participants using gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. We observed significant positive correlations between these compounds using Spearman correlation analysis. Furthermore, we investigated the concentration levels and compositions of PAHs and OPAHs among different demographic characteristics, including gender, age, and body mass index. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a weak but significant correlation between total concentrations of PAHs and OPAHs and age and body mass index. A multivariate linear regression analysis was then conducted to examine the association of exposure to individual PAHs and OPAHs with the body mass index. Naphthalene exposure and body mass index showed a statistically significant positive correlation, suggesting that higher levels of naphthalene exposure are associated with higher body mass index values. This study establishes a robust method for biomonitoring PAHs and OPAHs in serum, evaluating the exposure levels of these compounds in healthy adults and highlighting their associations with demographic characteristics.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/sangue , Masculino , Feminino , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Idoso , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Adulto Jovem
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(28): e2403888121, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968102

RESUMO

Real-world communication frequently requires language producers to address more than one comprehender at once, yet most psycholinguistic research focuses on one-on-one communication. As the audience size grows, interlocutors face new challenges that do not arise in dyads. They must consider multiple perspectives and weigh multiple sources of feedback to build shared understanding. Here, we ask which properties of the group's interaction structure facilitate successful communication. We used a repeated reference game paradigm in which directors instructed between one and five matchers to choose specific targets out of a set of abstract figures. Across 313 games (N = 1,319 participants), we manipulated several key constraints on the group's interaction, including the amount of feedback that matchers could give to directors and the availability of peer interaction between matchers. Across groups of different sizes and interaction constraints, describers produced increasingly efficient utterances and matchers made increasingly accurate selections. Critically, however, we found that smaller groups and groups with less-constrained interaction structures ("thick channels") showed stronger convergence to group-specific conventions than large groups with constrained interaction structures ("thin channels"), which struggled with convention formation. Overall, these results shed light on the core structural factors that enable communication to thrive in larger groups.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Idioma , Processos Grupais , Relações Interpessoais , Adulto Jovem , Psicolinguística
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(7): e0012314, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Case detection delay (CDD) in leprosy is defined as the period between the onset of the first signs and symptoms and the time of diagnosis. A tool, consisting of a questionnaire and a detailed guide for researchers, which includes photos of typical skin signs and notes on establishing the timing of events, was developed to determine this period of delay in months in recently diagnosed leprosy patients. The aims of the study were to determine the reliability and consistency of this CDD assessment tool. METHODS: This study was conducted in Ethiopia, Mozambique and Tanzania. Two types of consistency were considered: over time (test-retest reliability) and across different researchers (interrater reliability). A CDD questionnaire was administered to 167 leprosy patients who were diagnosed within 6 months prior to their inclusion. One month later, the same or another researcher re-administered the CDD questionnaire to the same patients. Both test-retest and interrater reliability were assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), where a value greater than or equal to 0.7 is considered acceptable. RESULTS: In this study, 10 participants (6.0%) were under 15 years of age, and 56 (33.5%) were women. In the test-retest assessment, the mean CDD from the first and second interviews was 23.7 months (95% CI 14.4-34.8) and 24.0 months (95% CI 14.8-33.2), respectively. The ICC for test-retest reliability was 0.99 (95% CI 0.994-0.997). For the interrater reliability assessment, the first and second interviews revealed a mean CDD of 24.7 months (95% CI 18.2-31.1) and 24.6 months (95% CI 18.7-30.5), respectively, with an ICC of 0.90 (95% CI 0.85-0.94). A standard error of measurement of 0.46 months was found in the test-retest and 1.03 months in the interrater measurement. Most answers given by participants during the first and second interviews were matching (≥86%). Most non-matching answers were in the 0-2 month delay category (≥46%). CONCLUSION: The tool, including a questionnaire to determine the CDD of newly diagnosed leprosy patients, was validated in three African countries. The test-retest and interrater measurements demonstrated that the instrument is reliable and measures consistently. The tool can be used in routine leprosy programmes as well as in research settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered with The Netherlands Trial Register (NTR), now available via International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP) with registration number NL7294 (NTR7503), as well as with The Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR) with registration number PACTR202303742093429.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Feminino , Masculino , Tanzânia , Moçambique , Etiópia , Adulto , Adolescente , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diagnóstico Tardio , Criança , Idoso
11.
BMC Neurol ; 24(1): 237, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38971757

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Glioma-associated epilepsy affects a significant proportion of glioma patients, contributing to disease progression and diminished survival rates. However, the lack of a reliable preoperative seizure predictor hampers effective surgical planning. This study investigates the potential of Alpha B crystallin protein (CRYAB) plasma levels as a predictive biomarker for epilepsy seizures in glioma patients. METHODS: Plasma samples were obtained from 75 participants, including 21 glioma patients with pre-operative epilepsy, 14 glioma patients without pre-operative epilepsy, and 21 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Additionally, 11 idiopathic epilepsy patients and 8 intractable epilepsy patients served as positive disease control groups. The study utilized ELISA to accurately quantify the circulating levels of CRYAB in the plasma samples of all participants. RESULTS: The analysis revealed a significant reduction in plasma CRYAB levels in glioma patients with pre-operative epilepsy and idiopathic epilepsy. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis displayed an impressive performance, indicating an AUC of 0.863 (95% CI, 0.810-0.916) across the entire patient cohort. Furthermore, plasma CRYAB levels exhibited a robust diagnostic capability, with an AUC of 0.9135, a sensitivity of 100.0%, and a specificity of 73.68%, effectively distinguishing glioma patients with preoperative epilepsy from those without epilepsy. The Decision Curve Analysis (DCA) underscored the clinical relevance of plasma CRYAB levels in predicting pre-operative epilepsy in glioma. CONCLUSION: The findings imply that the reduced levels of CRYAB may assist in prediction of seizure occurrence in glioma patients, although future large-scale prospective studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioma , Convulsões , Cadeia B de alfa-Cristalina , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Glioma/cirurgia , Glioma/sangue , Glioma/complicações , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/sangue , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Convulsões/sangue , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/etiologia , Cadeia B de alfa-Cristalina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Adulto Jovem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 465, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38971755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While well-established associations exist between socioeconomic conditions and smoking during pregnancy (SDP), less is known about social disparities in the risk of continuous SDP. Intersectional analyses that consider multiple social factors simultaneously can offer valuable insight for planning smoking cessation interventions. METHODS: We include all 146,222 pregnancies in Sweden between 2006 and 2016 where the mother smoked at three months before pregnancy. The outcome was continuous SDP defined as self-reported smoking in the third trimester. Exposures were age, education, migration status and civil status. We examined all exposures in a mutually adjusted unidimensional analysis and in an intersectional model including 36 possible combinations. We present ORs with 95% Confidence Intervals, and the Area Under the Curve (AUC) as a measure of discriminatory accuracy (DA). RESULTS: In our study, education status was the factor most strongly associated to continuous SDP among women who smoked at three months before pregnancy. In the unidimensional analysis women with low and middle education had ORs for continuous SDP of 6.92 (95%CI 6.63-7.22) and 3.06 (95%CI 2.94-3.18) respectively compared to women with high education. In the intersectional analysis, odds of continuous SDP were 17.50 (95%CI 14.56-21.03) for married women born in Sweden aged ≥ 35 years with low education, compared to the reference group of married women born in Sweden aged 25-34 with high education. AUC-values were 0.658 and 0.660 for the unidimensional and intersectional models, respectively. CONCLUSION: The unidimensional and intersectional analyses showed that low education status increases odds of continuous SDP but that in isolation education status is insufficient to identify the women at highest odds of continuous SDP. Interventions targeted to social groups should be preceded by intersectional analyses but further research is needed before recommending intensified smoking cessation to specific social groups.


Assuntos
Fumar , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Humanos , Feminino , Suécia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Adulto , Fumar/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Adulto Jovem , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Disparidades Socioeconômicas em Saúde
13.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 13(1): 72, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38971782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Before the COVID-19 pandemic there has been a constant increase in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Escherichia coli, the most common cause of urinary tract infections and bloodstream infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) production in urine and blood E. coli isolates in Finland to improve our understanding on the source attribution of this major multidrug-resistant pathogen. METHODS: Susceptibility test results of 564,233 urine (88.3% from females) and 23,860 blood E. coli isolates (58.8% from females) were obtained from the nationwide surveillance database of Finnish clinical microbiology laboratories. Susceptibility testing was performed according to EUCAST guidelines. We compared ESBL-producing E. coli proportions and incidence before (2018-2019), during (2020-2021), and after (2022) the pandemic and stratified these by age groups and sex. RESULTS: The annual number of urine E. coli isolates tested for antimicrobial susceptibility decreased 23.3% during 2018-2022 whereas the number of blood E. coli isolates increased 1.1%. The annual proportion of ESBL-producing E. coli in urine E. coli isolates decreased 28.7% among males, from 6.9% (average during 2018-2019) to 4.9% in 2022, and 28.7% among females, from 3.0 to 2.1%. In blood E. coli isolates, the proportion decreased 32.9% among males, from 9.3 to 6.2%, and 26.6% among females, from 6.2 to 4.6%. A significant decreasing trend was also observed in most age groups, but risk remained highest among persons aged ≥ 60 years. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in the proportions of ESBL-producing E. coli was comprehensive, covering both specimen types, both sexes, and all age groups, showing that the continuously increasing trends could be reversed. Decrease in international travel and antimicrobial use were likely behind this reduction, suggesting that informing travellers about the risk of multidrug-resistant bacteria, hygiene measures, and appropriate antimicrobial use is crucial in prevention. Evaluation of infection control measures in healthcare settings could be beneficial, especially in long-term care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Infecções Urinárias , beta-Lactamases , Humanos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Finlândia/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Masculino , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , beta-Lactamases/biossíntese , Idoso , Adulto , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , SARS-CoV-2 , Recém-Nascido , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Pandemias
14.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2371179, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38972858

RESUMO

The Victorian Government introduced a time-limited human papillomavirus (HPV) catch-up program for gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) aged ≤ 26 years in 2017-2019. We conducted a retrospective observational study to examine the accuracy of the self-report of HPV vaccination status using computer-assisted self-interviewing versus their immunization history via electronic health records. We included GBMSM aged 23-30 years visiting the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) in 2020-2021 because they were age-eligible for the HPV catch-up program in Victoria, Australia. Individuals who were unsure about their vaccination status were categorized as 'unvaccinated'. Of the 1,786 eligible men, 1,665 men self-reported their HPV vaccination status: 48.8% (n = 812) vaccinated, 17.4% (n = 289) unvaccinated, and 33.9% (n = 564) unsure. Self-reported HPV vaccination had a sensitivity of 61.3% (95%CI: 58.3 to 64.2%; 661/1079), a specificity of 74.2% (95%CI: 70.5 to 77.7%; 435/586), a positive predictive value of 81.4% (95%CI: 78.6 to 84.0%; 661/812), a negative predictive value of 51.0% (95%CI: 47.6 to 54.4%; 435/853), and an accuracy of 52.6% (95%CI: 50.1 to 55.0%). Our results showed that only half of GBMSM know and report their HPV vaccination status correctly. Novel approaches such as digital vaccine passports may be useful for individuals to accurately report their vaccination status to guide accurate clinical decisions and management.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Vacinação , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Homossexualidade Masculina , Papillomavirus Humano , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitória
15.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 38(7): 330-339, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985567

RESUMO

Although enacted and internalized stigma is a continuing problem for people living with HIV (PLWH) in Southeast Asia, there is little understanding of how PLWH cope with discrimination, exclusion, and other negative outcomes caused by HIV-related stigmatization. This article aims to bridge this gap by analyzing the lived experiences of HIV-related stigmatization and coping strategies among 30 people with HIV in Myanmar, a country heavily influenced by religion, especially Buddhism. Among the 30 study participants, 20 were female and 10 were male, with ages ranging from 18 to 50 years. Through the lens of Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, field, and capital, this article first elucidates the various forms of stigmatization in family, work, social, and other settings as symbolic violence on people with HIV. The present article shows that spirituality serves as a perceptual and action framework for people with HIV to generate reflexivity toward their HIV infection and related stigmatization and to further engage in agentic responses. More importantly, this article demonstrates how people with HIV draw on spirituality to support peers in reclaiming control over their lives and how they are perceived by society. The findings indicate that the local context, especially cultural and religious resources, should be considered when developing interventions to mitigate HIV-related stigmatization in Southeast Asia.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por HIV , Estigma Social , Espiritualidade , Humanos , Mianmar , Masculino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Estereotipagem , Apoio Social , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Entrevistas como Assunto , Capacidades de Enfrentamento
16.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 37(6): 628-638, 2024 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38988113

RESUMO

Objective: Pertussis cases have increased markedly since 2018 in Guangxi. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibody levels and the infection status of pertussis in the resident population. Method: A total of 10,215 serum samples from residents were collected from August-November 2018 and tested for anti-pertussis IgG and toxin IgG using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Of the collected samples, 1,833 (17.94%) tested positive for anti-pertussis IgG, with the median concentration of 16.06 IU/mL. Antibody level < 10 IU/mL accounted for more than 60% in children under 4 years of age, but declined with age, whereas the percentages of the other three levels (10-40, 40-50, and ≥ 50 IU/mL) increased almost with age ( P < 0.001). Moreover, 7,924 samples were selected for anti-pertussis toxin IgG, of which 653 (8.24%) tested positive (≥ 40 IU/mL) with the median concentration of 5.89 IU/mL, and 204 participants (2.56%) had recent pertussis infection (≥ 100 IU/mL). Among the different age groups, the highest rates of positivity and recent infection were observed at 11-20 years of age, the lowest positivity rate at 5 years of age, and the lowest recent infection rate at 4 years of age ( P < 0.001, P = 0.005, respectively). Conclusion: The survey results showed that all age groups in Guangxi lacked immunity against pertussis, which was one of the main factors contributing to the resurgence of pertussis in 2018. In addition, the prevalence of pertussis is relatively high in Guangxi, and its incidence is seriously underestimated, especially in adolescents and adults.


Assuntos
Coqueluche , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/imunologia , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Bordetella pertussis/imunologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Vacina contra Coqueluche , Distribuição por Idade
17.
Appl Ergon ; 120: 104344, 2024 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38991493

RESUMO

Limb amputation can lead to significant functional challenges in daily activities, prompting amputees to use prosthetic devices (PDs). However, the cognitive demands of PDs and usability issues have resulted in user rejections. This study aimed to create a Human Performance Model for Upper-Limb Prosthetic Devices (HPM-UP). The model used formulations of learnability, error rate, memory load, efficiency, and satisfaction to assess usability. The model was validated in an experiment with 30 healthy participants using a bypass prosthetic device. Findings indicated that the HPM-UP successfully predicted the usability of prosthetic devices, aligning with human subject data. This research proposes a quantitative approach to predict upper limb prosthetic device usability by quantifying each dimension and computationally connecting them. The model, available on Github and executable with Rstudio, could enable clinicians to assess and analyze the human performance of various commercial prostheses, aiding in recommending optimal devices for patients.


Assuntos
Amputados , Membros Artificiais , Desenho de Prótese , Extremidade Superior , Humanos , Extremidade Superior/cirurgia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Amputados/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Epidemiol Prev ; 48(3): 201-209, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38995133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to estimate Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) incidence and prevalence in three Italian Regions (Lazio, Tuscany, and Umbria), using health administrative databases. DESIGN: retrospective population-based study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: ALS patients residing in Lazio, Umbria, and Tuscany were identified through an algorithm based on three different administrative databases: hospital discharge records, exemptions from health care co-payment, and emergency departments (study period 2014-2019). Crude, age- and gender-specific prevalence were calculated on 31.12.2019 and incidence rates of ALS were standardised by region, year, and gender between 2014-2019. Using a clinical dataset available in the Lazio Region, the proportion of individuals residing in the region correctly identified as ALS cases by the algorithm were calculated. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: prevalence and incidence rates. RESULTS: a total of 1,031 ALS patients (>=18 years) were identified: 408 cases in Tuscany, 546 in Lazio, and 77 in Umbria. ALS standardised prevalence (per 100,000) was similar among regions: 12.31 in Tuscany, 11.52 in Lazio, and 9.90 in Umbria. The 5-year crude rates were higher in men, and in people aged 65-79 years. Among 310 patients included in the clinical dataset, 263 (84.8%) were correctly identified by the algorithm based on health administrative databases. CONCLUSIONS: ALS prevalence and incidence in three Central Italy Regions are rather similar, but slightly higher than those previously reported. This finding is plausible, given that previous results relate to at least ten years ago and evidenced increasing trends. Overall, the results of this paper encourage the use of administrative data to produce occurrence estimates, useful to both epidemiological surveillance and research and healthcare policies.


Assuntos
Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica , Humanos , Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Incidência , Prevalência , Masculino , Idoso , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Distribuição por Sexo , Adolescente , Arquivos , Algoritmos , Adulto Jovem , Distribuição por Idade
19.
BMJ Open ; 14(7): e078666, 2024 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39002967

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among women of reproductive age in Kenya, highlighting the prevalence and risk factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design based on the 2022 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey. SETTING: Kenya. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: Predict the burden of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, lung disease, arthritis, depression, anxiety, breast and cervical cancer. RESULTS: Overall, 15.9% of Kenyan women aged 15-49 years were living with at least one NCD. The most prevalent NCD among this cohort was hypertension (8.7%) followed by arthritis (2.9%) and depression (2.8%). Our findings revealed that increasing age, increasing wealth, being married or formerly married, being overweight or obese, consuming alcohol and some occupations were risk factors of NCDs among women of reproductive age in Kenya. CONCLUSION: We conclude that hypertension is the most prevalent NCD among women of reproductive age in Kenya. The findings underscore the multifaceted nature of NCD risk factors in Kenya, emphasising the importance of targeted interventions that consider age, economic status, education, marital status, occupation and lifestyle factors.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Humanos , Feminino , Quênia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Fatores de Risco , Prevalência , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Artrite/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença
20.
RMD Open ; 10(3)2024 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39004431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term effectiveness and safety of autologous haematopoiesis stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) for severe, refractory autoimmune diseases in paediatric patients. METHODS: A single-centre study of consecutive children and adolescents with refractory autoimmune diseases undergoing AHSCT was performed. Demographics, clinical, laboratory features, pre-AHSCT medications, disease activity and functional status were captured. The primary outcome was progression-free survival, secondary outcomes included overall survival, disease-specific treatment responses, disease activity at the last follow-up and AHSCT safety. RESULTS: The study included seven patients: two systemic sclerosis, one pansclerotic morphoea, one eosinophilic fasciitis, one juvenile dermatomyositis and two patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis; four women, three men median age at AHSCT of 10 years (7-19), median follow-up post-AHSCT of 17 years. Median progression-free survival and overall survival was 4.2 years (95% CI: 0.98 to 8.3) and 17 years (95% CI: 11.8 to 22.1), respectively. Progression-free survival rates at 1 and 2 years post-AHSCT were 100% and 77%, respectively. All children survived. All patients are in clinical remission, only four require ongoing immunotherapy. SAFETY: Three experienced infections, including HHV6, Candida and Ralstonia sepsis; one developed a systemic inflammatory response syndrome; two new onset secondary autoimmune diseases including autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, Graves' disease and one was found to have a breast fibroadenoma. Treatment toxicity: one cyclophosphamide-associated transient renal failure and pericardial effusion, one patient with amenorrhoea/infertility. CONCLUSIONS: AHSCT was an effective and safe approach for children and adolescents with treatment-refractory autoimmune diseases. The indication and timing of transplantation requires a careful consideration and a multidisciplinary approach.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Transplante Autólogo , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adolescente , Criança , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Seguimentos
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