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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126750, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339988

RESUMO

The biological mechanisms underlying the associations between atmospheric ozone exposure and adverse cardiometabolic outcomes are yet to be identified. Imbalanced autonomic nervous system (ANS) as well as activations of the sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes are among possible early biological responses triggered by ozone, and may eventually lead to cardiometabolic abnormalities. To determine whether acute ozone exposure causes ANS imbalance and increases the secretion of neuroendocrine stress hormones, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, under controlled 2-hour exposure to either ozone (200 ppb) or clean air with intermittent exercise among 22 healthy young adults. Here we found that, compared to clean air exposure, acute ozone exposure significantly decreased the high-frequency band of heart rate variability, even after adjusting for heart rate and pre-exposure to ambient air pollutants and meteorological factors. Ozone exposure also significantly increased the serum levels of stress hormones, including corticotrophin-releasing factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone, adrenaline, and noradrenaline. Metabolomics analysis showed that acute ozone exposure led to alterations in stress hormones, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism. Our results suggest that acute ozone exposure may trigger ANS imbalance and activate the HPA and SAM axes, offering potential biological explanations for the adverse cardiometabolic effects following acute ozone exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Estudos Cross-Over , Frequência Cardíaca , Hormônios , Humanos , Ozônio/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
2.
Ann Ig ; 34(1): 45-53, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698761

RESUMO

Background: Tobacco products represent a major health risk factor and a potent way to help transmission of COVID-19. Current data regarding consumption of these products in the region are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns of cigarette, hookah and other tobacco products consumption among undergraduate students from the University of Sarajevo before the COVID-19 outbreak in the country. Methods: This cross-sectional study based on a National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) was conducted among undergraduate students from the University of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Hercegovina via an online questionnaire from 22nd to 26th of January 2020. Results: Out of 605 students involved in the study, most of them were female (N=429, 70.9%); 363 (60.0%) were enrolled in medical sciences; 159 (26.3%) were attending the 3rd year of their curriculum; 224 (37%) were original from Canton Sarajevo and 514 (84.9%) were living in urban environment. Two hundred thirty five students out of 605 (38.8%) were current smokers and 117 (19.3%) hookah smokers. Being female (OR=0.539, 95% CI 0.368-0.790, p=0.002), in the 1st or 2nd year of study (OR=0.805, 95% CI 0.667-0.972, p=0.024) and living in a rural environment (OR=0.335, 95% CI 0.191-0.585, p<0.001) were associated with reduced risk of cigarette consumption, while older age (22+ years) (OR=1.287, 95% CI 1.122-1.476, p<0.001) increased the same risk. On the other side, being female (OR=0.595, 95% CI 0.380-0.930, p=0.023), of younger age (18-21 years) (OR=0.832, 95% CI 0.743-0.932, p=0.001) and medical science student (OR=0.567, 95% CI 0.328-0.978, p=0.041) were associated with decreased risk of consuming hookah. Conclusions: This study provides an insight in prevalence of smoking among students at the University of Sarajevo. More antismoking efforts are needed, especially in urban environments; and a follow-up study, to be planned in the near future, should determine whether COVID-19 pandemic (and all the modifications of lifestyles connected with it) have eventually changed tobacco consumption patterns among undergraduate students.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cachimbos de Água , Estudantes de Medicina , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hábitos , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118247, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624398

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia may be a potential mechanism linking air pollution to adverse cardiovascular outcomes and this may differ among obese and normal-weight populations. However, the joint effect of multiple air pollutants on lipid profiles and the role of each pollutant are still unclear. This panel study aims to investigate and compare the overall associations of major air pollutants with lipid parameters in obese and normal-weight adults, and assess the relative importance of each pollutant for lipid parameters. Forty-four obese and 53 normal-weight young adults were recruited from December 2017 to June 2018 in Beijing, China. Their fasting blood was collected and serum lipid levels were measured in three visits. Six major air pollutants were included in this study, which were PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, O3 and CO. Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) was implemented to estimate the joint effect of the six air pollutants on various lipid parameters. We found that decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the obese group and increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-HDL-C in the normal-weight group were associated with the exposure to the mixture of six air pollutants above. Significant increases in total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C and non-HDL-C/HDL-C were observed in both groups, and the effect was stronger in obese group. Of the six air pollutants above, O3 had the largest posterior inclusion probability in above lipid indices, ranging from 0.75 to 1.00. In the obese group, approximately linear exposure-response relationships were observed over the whole range of logarithmic O3-8 h max concentration, while in the normal-weight group, these relationships existed when the logarithmic concentration exceeded about 2.8. Therefore, lipid profiles of obese adults may be more sensitive to air pollution and this study highlights the importance of strengthening emissions control efforts for O3 in the future.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Teorema de Bayes , China , Humanos , Lipídeos , Obesidade , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto Jovem
4.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131494, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the high concentrations of nicotine and flavor chemicals in EC (electronic cigarette) fluids, it is important to determine how efficiently they transfer to aerosols, how well they are retained by users (exposure), and if they are exhaled into the environment where they settle of surfaces forming ECEAR (EC exhaled aerosol residue). OBJECTIVES: To quantify the flavor chemicals and nicotine in refill fluids, inhaled aerosols, and exhaled aerosols. Then deduce their retention and contribution to ECEAR. METHODS: Flavor chemicals and nicotine were identified and quantified by GC-MS in two refill fluids, smoking machine-generated aerosols, and aerosols exhaled by 10 human participants (average age 21; 7 males). Machine generated aerosols were made with varying puff durations and two wattages (40 and 80). Participants generated exhale ad libitum; their exhale was quantified, and chemical retention and contribution to ECEAR was modeled. RESULTS: "Dewberry Cream" had five dominant (≥1 mg/mL) flavor chemicals (maltol, ethyl maltol, vanillin, ethyl vanillin, furaneol), while "Cinnamon Roll" had one (cinnamaldehyde). Nicotine transferred well to aerosols irrespective of topography; however, transfer efficiencies of flavor chemicals depended on the chemical, puff volume, puff duration, pump head, and EC power. Participants could be classified as "mouth inhalers" or "lung inhalers" based on their exhale of flavor chemicals and nicotine and retention. Lung inhalers had high retention and exhaled low concentrations of EC chemicals. Only mouth inhalers exhaled sufficient concentrations of flavor chemicals/nicotine to contribute to chemical deposition on environmental surfaces (ECEAR). CONCLUSION: These data help distinguish two types of EC users, add to our knowledge of chemical exposure during vaping, and provide information useful in regulating EC use.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Adulto , Aerossóis , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Pulmão , Nicotina , Adulto Jovem
5.
Libyan J Med ; 17(1): 2003968, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802395

RESUMO

Describe the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the last two decades (2000-2019) in the East region of Tunisia (city of Sousse). This was a descriptive retrospective analysis of notified incident cases of tuberculosis from 2000 to 2019 in Sousse Governorate, Tunisia. The data collection was done via the regional registry of tuberculosis. Stata software was used to characterize the socio-demographic and clinical profile of tuberculosis, to calculate its incidence, mortality and fatality rates and to determine predictive factors of mortality. R software was used to analyze the chronological trend of tuberculosis incidence and mortality. A total of 2606 incident cases of tuberculosis were declared from 2000 to 2019 in Sousse. The mean age was 39 ± 19 years with a sex ratio (male/female) of 1.19. Only one case was HIV positive among the total 2606 incident cases. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis was the most recorded (1,534 cases, 58.9%). The mean annual case notification and deaths were 130 and four respectively. After adjusting for confounders, individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis were 1.9 significantly more likely to die from tuberculosis compared to those suffering from extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. There was a trend of increasing mortality with increasing age. The association was statistically significant only for those above 60 years' old who had 12.5 times higher odds of dying compared to those below 60 years. After adjusting for age and gender, with every year there was an increase in the total incidence rate (+0.35 per 100,000) with p = 0.005 and in the extra-pulmonary incidence (+0.27 per 100,000), with p = 0.001. This study demonstrated the increasing trend of tuberculosis in Sousse, Tunisia from 2000 to 2019. The national program against tuberculosis should enhance community knowledge and centralize the national and regional epidemiological information for better epidemiological surveillance.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Clin Podiatr Med Surg ; 39(1): 129-142, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809791

RESUMO

Tarsal coalitions are recognized as a congenital anomaly whereby the two or more bones of the hindfoot and midfoot are fused resulting in limitation of foot motion and pain. Tarsal coalitions were found to be the cause of painful flatfeet in adolescents and young adults. Developing a clinical understanding of tarsal coalitions as well as developing a step-wise conservative and surgical approach for their treatment can alleviate patient symptomatology and provide excellent long-term benefits. Conservative treatment consists of immobilization, NSAIDs, and casting for symptomatic patients, and surgical treatment for symptomatic tarsal coalition consists of resection and/or arthrodesis.


Assuntos
Pé Chato , Ossos do Tarso , Coalizão Tarsal , Adolescente , Artrodese , Tratamento Conservador , Humanos , Ossos do Tarso/diagnóstico por imagem , Ossos do Tarso/cirurgia , Coalizão Tarsal/diagnóstico por imagem , Coalizão Tarsal/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 413-416, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515998

RESUMO

In December 2020, Italy experienced the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.7 lineage. In January 2021, we identified 21 cases of this variant in Corzano, defining the first outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 lineage in Italy. The high transmissibility of the B.1.1.7 variant represented an important benefit for the virus, which became rapidly dominant on the territory. Containment measures induced the epidemic curve onto a decreasing trajectory underlining the importance of appropriate control and surveillance for restraint of virus spread. Highlights The first Italian outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 lineage occurred in Lombardy in January 2021. The outbreak originated by a single introduction of the B.1.1.7 lineage. The genomic sequencing revealed, for the first time, the presence of the V551F mutation in the B.1.1.7 lineage in Italy. Surveillance, prompt sequencing and tracing efforts were fundamental to identify and to quickly contain the outbreak.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/transmissão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Genoma Viral/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 366-371, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546584

RESUMO

Co-epidemics happening simultaneously can generate a burden on healthcare systems. The co-occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 with vector-borne diseases (VBD), such as malaria and dengue in resource-limited settings represents an additional challenge to the healthcare systems. Herein, we assessed the coinfection rate between SARS-CoV-2 and VBD to highlight the need to carry out an accurate diagnosis and promote timely measures for these infections in Luanda, the capital city of Angola. This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 105 subjects tested for the SARS-CoV-2 and VBD with a rapid detection test in April 2021. The participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (3.80%), malaria (13.3%), and dengue (27.6%). Low odds related to testing positivity to SARS-CoV-2 or VBD were observed in participants above or equal to 40 years (odds ratio [OR]: 0.60, p = 0.536), while higher odds were observed in male (OR: 1.44, p = 0.392) and urbanized areas (OR: 3.78, p = 0.223). The overall co-infection rate between SARS-CoV-2 and VBD was 11.4%. Our findings showed a coinfection between SARS-CoV-2 with malaria and dengue, which could indicate the need to integrate the screening for VBD in the SARS-CoV-2 testing algorithm and the adjustment of treatment protocols. Further studies are warranted to better elucidate the relationship between COVID-19 and VBD in Angola.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Angola/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Teste para COVID-19 , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
10.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102471, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562631

RESUMO

Filariasis is a common parasitic infection in India. It is rare to find neglected cases of Filariasis nowadays. We reported the presence of microfilaria species in the follicular fluid of an egg donor undergoing an ovum pick up procedure. She was a 23-year-old egg donor who underwent stimulation using the GnRH antagonist protocol. Antagonist protocol is one of the standard protocols used for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation as a part of the IVF/ICSI(in-vitro fertilization / intracytoplasmic sperm injection) procedure where GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix) is used to suppress the endogenous LH surge. Her baseline investigations were normal, with no significant history suggestive of any worm infestations. During the ovum pickup procedure, follicular fluid revealed the presence of worm-like structures suggestive of larvae of some parasites. The follicular fluid was sent to the microbiology department along with the blood sample to confirm the parasite species. The parasite was found to be the larvae of W. Bancroft. The oocytes were of poor quality and were discarded. The patient was treated with Diethylcarbamazine citrate. There are so many reports about scrotal Filariasis, but rare literature quotes ovarian Filariasis.


Assuntos
Filariose/diagnóstico , Líquido Folicular/parasitologia , Microfilárias/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Wuchereria bancrofti/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Feminino , Filariose/parasitologia , Humanos , Índia , Microfilárias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças Ovarianas/parasitologia , Wuchereria bancrofti/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Nurs Care Qual ; 37(1): 47-53, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccinations are a preventive health quality measure. Home telehealth nursing staff interventions can reduce influenza disease burden and complications. PURPOSE: To improve seasonal flu vaccine rates using novel home telehealth clinical and technology interventions. METHODS: A pre- and postintervention concurrent cohort study for 513 outpatients was conducted. Interventions included automated 2-way patient messaging using remote monitoring equipment, a new note template to record vaccination status in the electronic health record, and flu vaccine patient education. RESULTS: Interventions resulted in vaccination rates of 70.4% for Veterans ages 19 to 65 years, and 81.7% for Veterans 66 years and older, exceeding national, regional, and local Veterans Administration targets. CONCLUSIONS: Two-way messaging and standardized documentation increased rates. Declinations persisted despite education. Reasons included fear of side effects, and rarely leaving home due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Nursing interventions can increase influenza vaccination quality measures for primary care home telehealth patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Telemedicina , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 147-153, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411312

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in serum and its association with the clinical severity of COVID-19. This retrospective cohort study performed at Toyama University Hospital included consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia and the strength of its association with clinical severity variables were examined. Fifty-six patients were included in this study. RNAemia was detected in 19.6% (11/56) patients on admission, and subsequently in 1.0% (1/25), 50.0% (6/12), and 100.0% (4/4) moderate, severe, and critically ill patients, respectively. Patients with RNAemia required more frequent oxygen supplementation (90.0% vs. 13.3%), ICU admission (81.8% vs. 6.7%), and invasive mechanical ventilation (27.3% vs. 0.0%). Among patients with RNAemia, the median viral loads of nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs that were collected around the same time as the serum sample were significantly higher in critically ill (5.4 log10 copies/µl; interquartile range [IQR]: 4.2-6.3) than in moderate-severe cases (2.6 log10 copies/µl; [IQR: 1.1-4.5]; p = 0.030) and were significantly higher in nonsurvivors (6.2 log10 copies/µl [IQR: 6.0-6.5]) than in survivors (3.9 log10 copies/µl [IQR: 1.6-4.6]; p = 0.045). This study demonstrated a relatively high proportion of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia and an association between RNAemia and clinical severity. Moreover, among the patients with RNAemia, the viral loads of NP swabs were correlated with disease severity and mortality, suggesting the potential utility of combining serum testing with NP tests as a prognostic indicator for COVID-19, with higher quality than each separate test.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral , Viremia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Criança , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 186-196, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427932

RESUMO

In classical viral infections, the avidity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is low during acute infection and high a few months later. As recently reported, SARS-CoV-2 infections are not following this scheme, but they are rather characterized by incomplete avidity maturation. This study was performed to clarify whether infection with seasonal coronaviruses also leads to incomplete avidity maturation. The avidity of IgG toward the nucleoprotein (NP) of the seasonal coronaviruses 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1 and of SARS-CoV-2 was determined in the sera from 88 healthy, SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects and in the sera from 70 COVID-19 outpatients, using the recomLine SARS-CoV-2 assay with recombinant antigens. In the sera from SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects, incomplete avidity maturation (persistent low and intermediate avidity indices) was the lowest for infections with the alpha-coronaviruses 229E (33.3%) and NL63 (61.3%), and the highest for the beta-coronaviruses OC43 (77.5%) and HKU1 (71.4%). In the sera from COVID-19 patients, the degree of incomplete avidity maturation of IgG toward NP of 223E, OC43, and HKU1 was not significantly different from that found in SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects, but a significant increase in avidity was observed for IgG toward NP of NL63. Though there was no cross-reaction between SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal coronaviruses, higher concentrations of IgG directed toward seasonal coronaviruses seemed to indirectly increase avidity maturation of IgG directed toward SARS-CoV-2. Our data show that incomplete IgG avidity maturation represents a characteristic consequence of coronavirus infections. This raises problems for the serological differentiation between acute and past infections and may be important for the biology of coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/imunologia , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Coronavirus Humano NL63/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Coronavirus Humano OC43/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 178-185, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428312

RESUMO

Many aspects of the humoral immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), such as its role in protection after natural infection, are still unclear. We evaluated IgA and IgG response to spike subunits 1 and 2 (S1 and S2) and Nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-COV-2 in serum samples of 109 volunteers with viral RNA detected or seroconversion with different clinical evolution (asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe coronavirus disease 2019), using the ViraChip® Test Kit. We observed that the quantification of antibodies to all antigens had a positive correlation to disease severity, which was strongly associated with the presence of comorbidities. Seroreversion was not uncommon even during the short (median of 77 days) observation, occurring in 15% of mild-asymptomatic cases at a median of 55 days for IgG and 46 days for IgA. The time to reach the maximal antibody response did not differ significantly among recovered and deceased volunteers. Our study illustrated the dynamic of anti-S1, anti-N, and anti-S2 IgA and IgG antibodies, and suggests that high production of IgG and IgA does not guarantee protection to disease severity and that functional responses that have been studied by other groups, such as antibody avidity, need further attention.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Soroconversão , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 222-228, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449894

RESUMO

The current study aimed at characterizing the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) antigenemia in a cohort of critically ill adult COVID-19 patients and assessing its potential association with plasma levels of biomarkers of clinical severity and mortality. Seventy-three consecutive critically ill COVID-19 patients (median age, 65 years) were recruited. Serial plasma (n = 340) specimens were collected. A lateral flow immunochromatography assay and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used for SARS-CoV-2 N protein detection and RNA quantitation and in plasma, respectively. Serum levels of inflammatory and tissue-damage biomarkers in paired specimens were measured. SARS-CoV-RNA N-antigenemia and viral RNAemia were documented in 40.1% and 35.6% of patients, respectively at a median of 9 days since symptoms onset. The level of agreement between the qualitative results returned by the N-antigenemia assay and plasma RT-PCR was moderate (k = 0.57; p < 0.0001). A trend towards higher SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads was seen in plasma specimens testing positive for N-antigenemia assay than in those yielding negative results (p = 0.083). SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in tracheal aspirates was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the presence of concomitant N-antigenemia than in its absence. Significantly higher serum levels of ferritin, lactose dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, and D-dimer were quantified in paired plasma SARS-CoV-2 N-positive specimens than in those testing negative. Occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 N-antigenemia was not associated with increased mortality in univariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-3.34; p = 0.59). In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 N-antigenemia detection is relatively common in ICU patients and appears to associate with increased serum levels of inflammation and tissue-damage markers. Whether this virological parameter may behave as a biomarker of poor clinical outcome awaits further investigations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/sangue , Estado Terminal , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/sangue , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Traqueia/virologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 380-383, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403142

RESUMO

The durability of infection-induced severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunity has crucial implications for reinfection and vaccine effectiveness. However, the relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and long-term anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody level is poorly understood. Here, we measured the longevity of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies in survivors who had recovered from COVID-19 1 year previously. In a cohort of 473 survivors with varying disease severity (asymptomatic, mild, moderate, or severe), we observed a positive correlation between virus-specific IgG antibody titers and COVID-19 severity. In particular, the highest virus-specific IgG antibody titers were observed in patients with severe COVID-19. By contrast, 74.4% of recovered asymptomatic carriers had negative anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG test results, while many others had very low virus-specific IgG antibody titers. Our results demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG persistence and titer depend on COVID-19 severity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/patologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Assintomáticas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 388-392, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415572

RESUMO

In the current COVID-19 pandemic, a better understanding of the relationship between merely binding and functionally neutralizing antibodies is necessary to characterize protective antiviral immunity following infection or vaccination. This study analyzes the level of correlation between the novel quantitative EUROIMMUN Anti-SARS-CoV-2 QuantiVac ELISA (IgG) and a microneutralization assay. A panel of 123 plasma samples from a COVID-19 outbreak study population, preselected by semiquantitative anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG testing, was used to assess the relationship between the novel quantitative ELISA (IgG) and a microneutralization assay. Binding IgG targeting the S1 antigen was detected in 106 (86.2%) samples using the QuantiVac ELISA, while 89 (72.4%) samples showed neutralizing antibody activity. Spearman's correlation analysis demonstrated a strong positive relationship between anti-S1 IgG levels and neutralizing antibody titers (rs = 0.819, p < 0.0001). High and low anti-S1 IgG levels were associated with a positive predictive value of 72.0% for high-titer neutralizing antibodies and a negative predictive value of 90.8% for low-titer neutralizing antibodies, respectively. These results substantiate the implementation of the QuantiVac ELISA to assess protective immunity following infection or vaccination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 399-403, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460119

RESUMO

Vaccination generates a neutralizing immune response against SARS-CoV-2. The genomic surveillance is showing the emergence of variants with mutations in spike, the main target of neutralizing antibodies. To understand the impact of these variants, we report the neutralization potency against alpha, gamma, and D614G SARS-CoV-2 variants in 44 individuals that received two doses of CoronaVac vaccine, an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Plasma samples collected at 60 days after the second dose of CoronaVac were analyzed by the reduction of cytopathic effect in Vero E6 cells with the three infectious variants of SARS-CoV-2. Plasma showed lower neutralization with alpha (geometric mean titer [GMT] = 18.5) and gamma (GMT = 10.0) variants than with D614G (GMT = 75.1) variant. Efficient neutralization against the alpha and gamma variants was not detected in 31.8% and 59.1% of plasma, respectively. These findings suggest the alpha and gamma variants could escape from neutralization by antibodies elicited by vaccination. Robust genomic and biological surveillance of viral variants could help to develop effective strategies for the control of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinação , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Células Vero , Adulto Jovem
19.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102482, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673233

RESUMO

Dirofilaria spp. nematodes are accidental parasites of humans causing mild to serious, superficial or visceral infections. Superficial dirofilariosis is rather common in Europe and is typically manifested as subcutaneous form. Herein we report 46 new cases of human dirofilariosis (19 patients with subcutaneous, 18 patients with ocular, 4 patients wih genital, 2 patients with submucosal, 2 patients with pulmonary and 1 patient with intramuscular form of infection) that were recorded from the beginning of 2015 to May 2021 on the Balkan Peninsula with a goal to update the prevalence of this parasitosis and point out potential problems in diagnosis and treatment. Besides, given the high possibility of misinterpretation as tumor, our second aim was to encourage the inclusion of this pathogen in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous nodules. Although quite common forms, subcutaneous and ocular dirofilariosis can be very often misdiagnosed in clinical practice due to the absence of specific clinical manifestations. Therefore, raising awareness of clinicians about this zoonosis is needed as well as closer collaboration between physicians and veterinarians.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose , Zoonoses , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Península Balcânica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sérvia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
20.
Clin Imaging ; 81: 114-117, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700173

RESUMO

Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of infectious disease related death worldwide with extrapulmonary tuberculosis being particularly difficult to diagnose. Here, we report a case of pancreatic tuberculosis (PTB) in an immunocompetent young female, which mimicked a malignant tumor diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration and biopsy (EUS-FNAB). A 19-year-old Japanese female with no prior medical history presented with abdominal epigastralgia and appetite loss lasting 2 months. A solid lobular mass was observed in the pancreatic head with enhanced abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging suggested it was a malignant pancreatic tumor. Using EUS-FNAB, granulomas with caseous necrosis and acid-fast bacilli were observed. Polymerase chain reaction results were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis but negative for Mycobacterium avium complex. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with PTB. Her symptoms and radiological findings improved with a standard antituberculosis therapy. PTB is difficult to differentiate from other pancreatic diseases with Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of T1, T2 weighted, or diffusion-weighted image (DWI) images. To investigate novel radiological diagnostics for PTB, we focused on MRI apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, which have not been investigated in this context. The present case showed 0.52 × 10-3 mm2/s; additionally, the mean value of other mass-forming pancreatic diseases, such as pancreatic cancer was 1.592 × 10-3 mm2/s (the range: 1.015-3.025 × 10-3 mm2/s). The range does not overlap with the present PTB case or other pancreatic diseases. Therefore, ADC values may be useful as a noninvasive radiological diagnostic method for PTB.


Assuntos
Pancreatopatias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Tuberculose , Adulto , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico , Feminino , Humanos , Pâncreas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pancreatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
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