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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246803, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339417

RESUMO

Abstract Traditional medicine is cheaper and easily available to local people, to care for most frequent diseases in the Northern parts of Pakistan. Our study aimed at inventorying medicine from local plants, documenting their uses, and assessing their market value in 2015-2018 during spring, summer, and winter seasons. A total of 15 trips were made, 5 in each season. Semi-structured interviews with 165 inhabitant's age range between 20-80 years were conducted, analyzed the data is analyzed using Relative frequency of citation(RFC), Use Value(UV), Fidelity Level(FL), Informants consensus factor(ICF), and Jaccard index(JI) to find the most frequent and well-known used species in the area. A total of 86 species belonging to 39 vascular plant families, 33 genera were documented as medicinally important. Family Asteraceae was observed as the dominant family among all the families with 10 species, the leaf was the most used parts and decoction 36% was the most preferred preparation type. Herb was the predominant life form (67%). The maximum UV (0.92) was demonstrated by J. adhatoda L. species, while A. sativum L. shows maximum RFC (0.58), the highest ICF value represented by diarrhea and dermatitis 0.92, and high FL value is recorded 100%. According to our collections, wild species were 45%, invasive species were 38% and cultivated 17% recorded, dicots species were recorded more 81%. Seven 7 medicinal species is being economically important and export to the local and international market of the world, whereas P. integrima L. species were the most exported species according to the local dealers. The investigated area is rural and the local people depend on the area's plants for their health needs, and other uses like a vegetable, fuelwood, fodder, etc. The current result of RFC, UV, ICF, FL, and JI shows that medicinal flora needs to be pharmacologically and phytochemically investigated to prove their efficacy. The documentation of medicinal knowledge is important to preserve this precious old knowledge before it is lost forever, due to technological and environmental changes in the world.


Resumo A medicina tradicional é mais barata e facilmente disponível à população local para cuidar das doenças mais frequentes nas áreas do norte do Paquistão. Nosso estudo teve como objetivo inventariar medicamentos de plantas locais, documentar seus usos e avaliar seu valor de mercado em 2015-2018 durante as temporadas de primavera, verão e inverno. Foram feitas 15 viagens, 5 em cada temporada. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 165 moradores na faixa etária de 20 a 80 anos, com dados analisados ​​por meio de frequência relativa de citação (RFC), valor de uso (UV), nível de fidelidade (FL), fator de consenso de informantes (CIF), e o índice de Jaccard (JI) para encontrar as espécies utilizadas mais frequentes e conhecidas na área. Um total de 86 espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias de plantas vasculares, 33 gêneros foram documentados como medicamente importantes. A família Asteraceae foi observada como a família dominante entre todas as famílias com 10 espécies, a folha foi a parte mais utilizada e a decocção 36% foi o tipo de preparação mais preferido. A erva foi a forma de vida predominante (67%). O UV máximo (0,92) foi demonstrado pelas espécies de J. adhatoda L., enquanto A. sativum L. mostra RFC máximo (0,58), o maior valor de ICF representado por diarreia e dermatite 0,92, e alto valor de FL é registrado 100%. De acordo com nossas coleções, as espécies selvagens foram 45%, as espécies invasoras 38% e as cultivadas 17% registradas, as espécies dicotiledôneas foram registradas mais 81%. Sete espécies medicinais estão sendo economicamente importantes e exportadas para o mercado local e internacional do mundo, enquanto as espécies de P. integrima L. foram as espécies mais exportadas de acordo com os comerciantes locais. A área investigada é rural e a população local depende das plantas da área para suas necessidades de saúde e outros usos como vegetal, lenha, forragem etc. O resultado atual de RFC, UV, ICF, FL e JI mostra que a flora medicinal precisa ser investigada farmacológica e fitoquimicamente para comprovar sua eficácia. A documentação do conhecimento medicinal é importante para preservar esse precioso conhecimento antigo antes que se perca para sempre, devido às mudanças tecnológicas e ambientais do mundo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Plantas Medicinais , Paquistão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Folhas de Planta , Etnobotânica , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339366

RESUMO

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Cariotipagem
3.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29(spe1): e2022_0183, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394859

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction The student, when entering university, is subject to new cycles and major changes in his routine, which includes exercise and nutritious habits. Objective Explore the effect of a balanced diet and physical exercise on the health of university students. Methods Through literature studies, a questionnaire was developed where the physical condition, nutritional habits, dietary structure, and exercise practice of obese college students were investigated and analyzed. Results The BMI index of those investigated exceeded the standard limit of BMI > 25. The longer the time of physical exercise, the more evident the difference between male and female students in terms of physical endurance factor. The body weight, BMI, and body fat index of both groups showed a downward trend after the intervention. Six weeks of aerobic exercise combined with a proper diet can significantly improve body mass index, body mass index, and physiological and biochemical indices of obese college students. Conclusion Balanced diet and exercise positively affect the health of obese college students. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment outcomes.


RESUMO Introdução O estudante, ao ingressar na universidade, está sujeito a novos ciclos e grandes mudanças em sua rotina, que inclui os hábitos de exercício e alimentares. Objetivo Explorar o efeito de uma dieta balanceada e exercícios físicos na saúde de estudantes universitários. Métodos Através de estudos da literatura, elaborou-se um questionário onde foram investigadas e analisadas a condição física, os hábitos alimentares, a estrutura alimentar e a prática de exercícios nos universitários com obesidade. Resultados o índice de IMC dos investigados ultrapassou o limite padrão de IMC > 25. Quanto maior o tempo de exercício físico, mais evidente é a diferença entre estudantes do sexo masculino e feminino no fator da resistência física. O peso corporal, IMC e índice de gordura corporal dos dois grupos apresentaram tendência de queda após a intervenção. Seis semanas de exercícios aeróbicos combinados com dieta razoável podem melhorar significativamente o índice de massa corporal, índice de massa corporal e índices fisiológicos e bioquímicos de estudantes universitários obesos. Conclusão Dieta balanceada e exercício físico possuem um efeito positivo sobre a saúde dos estudantes universitários obesos. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción El estudiante, al entrar en la universidad, se ve sometido a nuevos ciclos y a grandes cambios en su rutina, que incluye el ejercicio y los hábitos alimenticios. Objetivo Explorar el efecto de una dieta equilibrada y el ejercicio físico en la salud de los estudiantes universitarios. Métodos A través de estudios bibliográficos, se elaboró un cuestionario en el que se investigó y analizó la condición física, los hábitos alimentarios, la estructura de la dieta y la práctica de ejercicio en estudiantes universitarios con obesidad. Resultados El índice de IMC de los investigados superaba el límite estándar de IMC > 25. Cuanto mayor es el tiempo de ejercicio físico, más evidente es la diferencia entre los alumnos y las alumnas en el factor de resistencia física. El peso corporal, el IMC y el índice de grasa corporal de ambos grupos mostraron una tendencia a disminuir después de la intervención. Seis semanas de ejercicios aeróbicos combinados con una dieta razonable pueden mejorar significativamente el índice de masa corporal, el índice de masa corporal y los índices fisiológicos y bioquímicos de los estudiantes universitarios obesos. Conclusión La dieta equilibrada y el ejercicio tienen un efecto positivo en la salud de los estudiantes universitarios obesos. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Esportes , Exercício Físico , Dieta Saudável , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Estudantes , Universidades , Índice de Massa Corporal , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Behav Brain Res ; 437: 114148, 2023 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using balanced placebo designs, seminal alcohol administration research has shown individuals' beliefs about whether they have consumed alcohol, irrespective of the actual presence of alcohol, can determine level of alcohol consumption and impact social behavior. Despite the known effect of expecting alcohol on drinking behavior, few studies have used the placebo manipulation to directly investigate the neural underpinnings of the expectancy-related effects that occur following perceived alcohol consumption in humans. The present paper examined placebo responses in the laboratory to better understand the neural basis for the psychological phenomenon of expectancies. METHODS: As part of a larger within-subjects study design, healthy young adults (N = 22, agemean+SD=23 +1) completed resting state fMRI scans and measures of subjective response before and after consuming placebo beverages. Effect of placebo beverage consumption (pre- versus post-beverage consumption) on functional connectivity within prefrontal cortical networks was examined using the CONN Toolbox. Relations between perceived subjective response to alcohol with functional connectivity response following placebo beverage consumption were examined. RESULTS: Compared to pre-beverage scan, placebo beverage consumption was associated with increased positive functional connectivity between right nucleus accumbens - ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subcallosal cingulate cortex (pFDR<0.05). Subjective ratings of intoxication (i.e., feeling 'drunk') positively correlated with placebo beverage-related increases in nucleus accumbens - subcallosal cingulate cortex functional connectivity. CONCLUSION: Results suggest placebo response to alcohol is associated with increased functional connectivity within a key reward network (nucleus accumbens - ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subcallosal cingulate cortex) and put forth a mechanism by which alcohol expectancies may contribute to the subjective experience of intoxication.


Assuntos
Etanol , Núcleo Accumbens , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Núcleo Accumbens/diagnóstico por imagem , Etanol/farmacologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107469, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055058

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: According to the recent adaptation of the I-PACE model, desire thinking and craving might be closely related to problematic Internet pornography use. The overall aim of the present study was to investigate the role of two components of desire thinking (imaginal prefiguration and verbal perseveration) and craving in problematic Internet pornography use. Furthermore, we examined gender differences in the underlying mechanism linking desire thinking to problematic Internet pornography use. METHOD: A total of 414 Italian adults (mean age = 27.55 years, SD = 6.13; age range = 18-58; 53.6 % men) participated in this study. Participants completed an online survey to assess problematic Internet pornography use, pornography craving, desire thinking and problematic Internet use. Path analyses and a multi-group approach were used to test the relationships among variables and to explore gender differences. RESULTS: Imaginal prefiguration was associated to pornography craving which, in turn, was associated to verbal perseveration as proximal antecedent of problematic Internet pornography use, above and beyond the effect of age, relationship status, and problematic Internet use. Two paths significantly differed between men and women: the path between verbal perseveration and problematic Internet pornography, which for women was weaker and did not reach significance; and the path between problematic Internet use and problematic Internet pornography use that was not significant for women. CONCLUSIONS: In line with the I-PACE model, the present study provided support for the potential role of desire thinking in problematic Internet pornography use as a specific Internet-use disorder and expanded the literature in the field by testing unexplored gender differences. Preventive and clinical implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Fissura , Literatura Erótica , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Uso da Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pensamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107461, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several typologies have proposed two etiological pathways involved in the development of alcohol misuse which are associated with the internalizing and externalizing domains of psychopathology, respectively. This study's aim was to investigate this typology in a young adult sample, and test whether drinking motives, specifically drinking for negative or positive reinforcement, may provide a plausible mechanism characterizing these pathways. METHOD: Mixture modeling was conducted on a set of internalizing (anxiety, depression, neuroticism), externalizing (antisocial behavior, conscientiousness, sensation seeking, drug use), and alcohol misuse items (binge drinking, alcohol use disorder symptoms [AUDsx]) measured by self-report in a sample of 9,807 college students. Linear regression and chi-square tests were used to determine how latent class membership was associated with drinking motives, demographics, and personality characteristics. RESULTS: The model identified 3 latent classes: a Low Risk class (70%), an Internalizing class (19%) with elevated levels of internalizing traits/symptoms and AUDsx, and an Externalizing class (10%) with elevated levels of externalizing traits/symptoms and both binge drinking and AUDsx. All drinking motives were substantially elevated in the Internalizing and Externalizing (vs Low Risk) classes (p < 3.0E-10), while positive reinforcement motives were specifically elevated in the Externalizing (vs Internalizing) class (p < 2.0E-55). Personality comparisons further emphasized the relevance of class distinctions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide additional support for both a specific internalizing and a broadband externalizing association with subtypes of alcohol misuse. Drinking motives may be useful intermediate indicators of these different risk processes.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Ansiedade , Etanol , Humanos , Motivação , Adulto Jovem
7.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107464, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As daily engagement with social networking sites (SNS) increases globally, identifying and understanding the risk factors associated with problematic SNS use is of utmost importance. Researchers are interested in understanding internalizing symptoms as both a risk factor and a negative consequence of problematic SNS use. Prior research has proposed rumination alongside internalizing symptoms as a risk factor, though limited research has examined these associations across different cultures. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the indirect associations between internalizing symptoms (specifically depressive and social anxiety symptoms) and problematic SNS use via rumination among a cross-cultural sample. METHOD: Participants were 8,912 (70.8 % female; Mean age = 20.25, SD = 3.95) college students recruited across seven countries (U.S., Canada, Spain, England, Argentina, Uruguay, and South Africa) who completed measures of internalizing symptoms, rumination, weekly SNS use, and problematic SNS use. RESULTS: We found that higher internalizing symptoms were associated with more problematic SNS use via higher ruminative thinking. Specifically, problem-focused thoughts (a rumination subtype) uniquely accounted for 22.89% and 28.15% of the total effect of depressive and social anxiety symptoms on problematic SNS use, respectively. Other rumination subtypes (i.e., anticipatory thoughts and repetitive thinking) also demonstrated significant indirect effects, though weaker effects than for problem-focused thoughts. Findings were invariant across countries. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide support for further exploring the role rumination plays in determining and comparing problematic SNS use cross-culturally in longitudinal and experimental work.


Assuntos
Rede Social , Estudantes , Adulto , Argentina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha , Uruguai/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Biomech Eng ; 145(2)2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082471

RESUMO

In vivo characteristics of palmar soft tissue can be used to improve the accuracy of human models to explore and simulate a range of contact scenarios. Tissue characteristics can help to assess injury prevention strategies and designing technologies that depend on quantified physical contacts such as prosthetics, wearables, and assistive devices. In this study, a simplified quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) model was developed to quantify large deformation, in vivo soft tissue relaxation characteristics of the palm. We conducted relaxation tests on 11 young adults (6 males, 5 females, 18 < age < 30, mean age: 25 ± 4 yr) and 9 older adults (6 males, 3 females, age > 50, mean age: 61.5 ± 11.5 yr) using a 3 mm indenter to a depth of 50% of each participant's soft tissue thickness. The relaxation parameters of the QLV model were found to differ with age and sex, emphasizing the importance of using targeted material models to represent palmar soft tissue mechanics. Older adults showed on average 2.3-fold longer relaxation time constant compared to younger adults. It took 1.2-fold longer for young males to reach equilibrium than for young females; however, young females had a higher level of relaxation (36%) than young males (33%). Differences in specific QLV model parameters, P1, P2, and α were also found between age and sex groups. QLV characteristics differentiated by age and sex, add biofidelity to computational models which can provide a better representation of the diversity of tissue properties in the population.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Adulto , Idoso , Elasticidade , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Mecânico , Viscosidade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Meat Sci ; 195: 109004, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272313

RESUMO

Demographics, anthropometrics, oral responsiveness to sensory stimuli and psycho-attitudinal traits were collected from a representative Italian population sample (n = 2384; 58% women, age 18-60 years) and considered as possible explanatory variables affecting meat liking. Differences in motives underlying individual variation in liking for meat were independently investigated by gender. Three groups of subjects were identified based on liking ratings: Slightly Likers, Likers and Lovers. Both common and gender-specific variables affecting liking for meat were identified. The interest in food (including its rewarding function) and eating experience, low food neophobia and relatively high Body Mass Index characterized meat Lovers irrespective to gender. The careful food selection and the food comforting function further characterized women meat Lovers. Men Slightly Likers were characterized by the interest for health-related food aspects, importance assigned to naturalness and restrained eating. Markers of oral responsiveness were ineffective for describing variation in liking for meat.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preferências Alimentares , Personalidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Demografia
10.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 222: 115082, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183577

RESUMO

The diagnostic methods in an emergency scenario must be simple, fast, and efficient to provide an effectiveness and efficient treatment, thus reducing the consequences of exposure. Considering the sample analysis, the protein precipitation combined with LC-MS/MS has been shown to be a good strategy for the simultaneous determination of compounds of toxicological interest, such as medicines and drugs of abuse. In this study, a rapid and simple multi-analyte method was developed and validated for the quantification of 57 pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in plasma samples. Sample pre-treatment consists of protein precipitation of 50 µL of the sample with 240 µL of organic solvent mixture (MeOH:ACN, 3:1, v/v), centrifugation, and injection into the LC-MS/MS, with a chromatographic run time of 7 min. The method was validated considering lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), interferences, linearity, precision, accuracy, dilution integrity, carryover, and matrix effect. The LLOQs ranged from 5 to 20 ng/mL and all analytes were linear (r2>0.99) in the tested concentration ranges. The method proved to be precise and accurate, presenting QC concentrations for all analytes within acceptable limits by the guideline used (CV % ≤20 % and bias ± 20 %). The developed method was successfully applied in 470 plasma samples of real cases of poisoning. A total of 80 % of the samples were positive for at least one substance, with acetaminophen (32.1 %), diazepam (25.1 %), and lidocaine (18.9 %) being the most detected. The most prevalent exposure circumstance among the cases was suicide attempt. The most frequent age groups were young adults between 20 and 29 years old and children under 5 years old. The methodology developed proved to be efficient in the simultaneous determination of 57 substances of toxicological interest, contributing to a correct diagnosis and, consequently, to the most appropriate management and treatment of the intoxicated patient. Furthermore, it is possible to observe the most commonly involved toxic agents in the Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, helping to trace a profile of the poisoning patient, important in toxicovigilance actions.


Assuntos
Drogas Ilícitas , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Plasma , Brasil , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Limite de Detecção
11.
Appl Ergon ; 106: 103893, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152447

RESUMO

Load carriage (LC) is a contributing factor to musculoskeletal injury in many occupations. Given that falls are a common mechanism of injury for those frequently engaging in LC, understanding the effects of LC on postural stability (PS) is necessary. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to examine effects of LC on PS. Sixteen and 9 studies were included in the qualitative and quantitative synthesis, respectively. In most studies, it was found that LC leads to a decrease in PS with significant effects on center of pressure (COP) sway area (standardized mean difference = 0.45; p < 0.005) and COP anterior-posterior excursion (standardized mean difference = 0.52; p < 0.05). Furthermore, load magnitude and load placement are factors which can significantly affect COP measures of PS. It is recommended to minimize load magnitude and equally distribute load when possible to minimize LC effects on PS. Future research should examine additional factors contributing to differences in individual PS responses to LC such as changes in muscle activation and prior LC experience.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Equilíbrio Postural , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Nível de Saúde
12.
J Surg Res ; 281: 13-21, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108534

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Digital Mammography (DM) is extensively used for breast imaging however, lesion visibility is often limited by overlapping tissues, which affects lesion characterization. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) reduces the effect of overlapping tissues and helps in revealing obscured findings. We aimed to describe the mammographic findings in granulomatous and non-granulomatous mastitis and assess the utility of adjunctive DBT in lesion characterization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DM and DBT images of histo-pathologically diagnosed cases of granulomatous (GM) and non-granulomatous mastitis (NGM) were reviewed according to the BI-RADS lexicon. Presence of contiguous/ interconnected lesions, tubular densities, interspersed hypodensities/fat densities within the involved areas were also assessed. The perceived utility of adjunct DBT was scored from 0-2. RESULTS: Of 33 reviewed patients (24 GM, 9 NGM; median age 39 years, range 24-78); 13/33 (39.4%) were under 35 years of age. DBT detected masses in 24/33 (72.7%), whereas only 15/33 (45.4%) were visible on DM alone. Contiguous or inter-connected lesions were found in 10/33 (30.3%) cases. Tubular extensions were seen in 14 cases and interspersed hypodensities in 15. None of the enlarged lymph nodes had irregular shape or indistinct margins or loss of fatty hilum. DBT was able to categorize more lesions as BIRADS 4a or below, as compared to DM alone. CONCLUSIONS: Mammographic presence of multiple contiguous iso-dense masses, reniform contour of axillary lymph nodes with preserved fatty hilum despite a large area of breast involvement favour a benign etiology; especially if DBT reveals tubular extensions or lesions with inhomogenous low density areas within.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mastite Granulomatosa , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Mamografia , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/patologia , Margens de Excisão , Mastite Granulomatosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Axila , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 305-312, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) benefits adults with depression while its efficacy and safety in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) remain unclear. We conducted a preliminary meta-analysis here to objectively appraise rTMS in the youth with MDD to inform future research and clinical practice. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from their inception to December 1, 2021. Studies with a control group or self-controlled designs and evaluating the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) or the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) at baseline and post-rTMS treatment were included. Two reviewers independently selected eligible studies, retrieved data in a structured fashion and assessed studies' quality. Hedges'g with 95 % confidence intervals and withdrawal rate with 95 % confidential intervals were separately used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rTMS. RESULTS: Thirteen studies with six datasets (165 patients, 61.8 % female, age range from 10 to 25 years old) were included and our meta-analysis found children and adolescents with MDD benefited from rTMS treatment (Hedges'g 1.37, 95 % CI 0.85 to 1.90, P = 0.001). In addition, 4 % of patients (95 % CI 0.02 to 0.09) withdrew during rTMS treatment for reasons including fear, mood swings, suicide ideation and adverse events. LIMITATIONS: This conclusion is tempered by a small number of studies included and a potentially existing placebo effect. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest rTMS could benefit children and adolescents with MDD in a relatively safe manner, and this result may help guide clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Masculino , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/efeitos adversos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Depressão , Efeito Placebo , Transtornos do Humor , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 319-329, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social and interpersonal context are associated with the onset and persistence of psychiatric disorders. We compared the effects of short-term interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) on weight loss, binge eating behaviors, and depressive symptoms against cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), health education (HE), and behavioral weight loss (BWL). METHODS: We searched until May 28th, 2022 following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Science Direct, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Scopus. Articles on parallel randomized clinical trials were included. Outcomes were body mass index (BMI), binge days (bulimic episode), and depressive symptoms. These outcomes were self-reported or measured with specific scales (BMI) or instrument (depressive symptoms). RESULTS: The initial search retrieved 820 articles, a total of 10 studies met the eligibility criteria, and seven were included in the meta-analysis. Participants with overweight/obesity were women (62-100 %), aged between 11 and 50 years. There was a trivial to small effect on BMI favoring IPT over other interventions (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -0.10; 95%CI: -0.27 to 0.07, I2 = 0 %), especially when compared to health education (SMD = -0.21; 95%CI: -0.54 to 0.12, I2 = 0 %); no effect on number of binge days (SMD = -0.09; 95%CI: -0.30 to 0.11, I2 = 0 %); and a small effect on depressive symptoms (SMD = -0.25, 95%CI = -0.50 to 0.00, I2 = 0 %). LIMITATIONS: Small number of studies, the discrepancy in age cohorts, and racial diversity. Psychotherapeutic protocols and assessment tools had to be adapted across studies. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with overweight/obesity and depression had some benefit from IPT when compared with other interventions. In view of existing evidence, an IPT program adapted to obesity could help to achieve reliable and long-term effects.


Assuntos
Psicoterapia Interpessoal , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Psicoterapia/métodos , Sobrepeso/terapia , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade/psicologia , Redução de Peso
15.
Neurol Clin ; 41(1): 87-106, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400561

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent nontraumatic disabling neurologic condition among young adults worldwide. The diagnosis and management of MS is complex. The goal of this review is to provide an updated and practical approach to the diagnosis and treatment approaches in MS, emphasizing current understanding of immunopathogenesis, recent advances, and future directions, for both MS and non-MS clinicians.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 95: 59-62, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273626

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The presence of orientation-dependent susceptibility artifacts in magnetic resonance chemical shift thermometry (CST) can confound accurate temperature calculations. Here, we quantify the effect of white matter (WM) tract orientation on CST due to tissue-specific susceptibility. METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy volunteers (27 ± 4 years old) were scanned on a 3 T MR scanner with a 32-channel head coil. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), T1-weighted imaging, and single voxel spectroscopy (SVS) for CST were acquired. Participants were then asked to rotate their head ∼3-5° (yaw or roll) to alter the orientation of WM tracts relative to the external magnetic field. After head rotation, a second SVS scan and T1-weighted imaging were acquired. The WM-fraction-normalized DTI principal eigenvector (V1) images were used to calculate the length of the x-y component of V1, which was used as a surrogate for WM tracts perpendicular to B0. A linear regression model was used to determine the relationship between the perpendicular WM tracts and brain temperature. RESULTS: Significant temperature differences between post- and pre-head rotation scans were observed for brain (-0.72 °C ± 1.36 °C, p = 0.01) but not body (0.012 °C ± 0.07 °C, p = 0.37) temperatures. The difference in brain temperature was positively associated with the corresponding change in perpendicular WM tracts after head rotation (R2 = 0.26, p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate WM tract orientation affects temperature calculations, suggesting artifacts from orientation-dependent susceptibility may be present in CST.


Assuntos
Termometria , Substância Branca , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Substância Branca/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 307: 103974, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36180018

RESUMO

Our objective was to evaluate the effects of 6-weeks high-resistance, low-volume inspiratory muscle strength training (IMST) on respiratory endurance, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responsiveness to high respiratory workloads. Ten healthy young adults completed two constant-load resistive breathing tests to exhaustion (Tlim) (target pressure =65 % maximal inspiratory pressure [PImax]; duty cycle = 0.7; breathing frequency matched to eupnea) separated by 6-weeks high-resistance (75 % maximal inspiratory pressure, PImax), low-volume (30 inspiratory efforts/day, 5 days/week) IMST. Throughout resistive breathing trials we measured beat-to-beat changes in BP and HR, mouth pressure, inspiratory muscle work and perceived exertion. POST resistive breathing tests revealed significant gains in endurance (PRE: 362.0 ± 46.6 s vs. POST: 663.8 ± 110.3 s, p = 0.003) and increases in respiratory muscle work (PRE: -9445 ± 1562 mmHg.s vs. POST: -16648 ± 3761 mmHg.s, p = 0.069). Conversely, systolic and diastolic BP responses, HR and ratings of perceived exertion all declined. Consistent with previous observations, 6 weeks high resistance, low volume IMST lowered casual resting SBP (p = 0.002), DBP (p = 0.007) and mean arterial pressure (p = 0.001) and improved static inspiratory pressure. High resistance, low volume inspiratory muscle strength training extends respiratory endurance and attenuates BP responsiveness in healthy, recreationally-active young adults. The outcomes have implications for improved athletic performance and for attaining and/or maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Pulmão , Respiração
18.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 147-152, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Depression is the leading cause of mental health-related disease burden. This study aimed to investigate the relationship among dietary diversity, physical activity and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women. METHOD: Based on the WHO guidelines on physical activity, subjects who meet moderate-intensity aerobic physical exercise of 150-300 min per week were qualified or otherwise unqualified. The dietary diversity scores (DDS) were developed according to the balanced diet pagoda and assessed the consumption of nine food groups. The total scores ranged from 0 to 9 and could divide into three levels: insufficient [DDS-1] (score of 1-5), moderate [DDS-2] (score of 6-7), and sufficient [DDS-3] (score of 8-9). RESULTS: An age at menarche ≥12 years old (OR = 0.94; 95 % CI: 0.89-1.00; p < 0.05), a higher dietary diversity score [DDS-3] (OR = 0.59; 95 % CI: 0.55-0.63; p < 0.001), drinking coffee (OR = 0.88; 95 % CI: 0.84-0.92; p < 0.001), and qualified physical activity (OR = 0.69; 95 % CI: 0.66-0.72; p < 0.001) were protective factors for depressive symptoms, while an age at first birth ≤20 years old (OR = 1.23; 95 % CI: 1.12-1.36; p < 0.001) or ≥30 years old (OR = 1.18; 95 % CI: 1.11-1.26; p < 0.001), eating late-night snacks (OR = 1.44; 95 % CI: 1.36-1.52; p < 0.001), drinking sugar-sweetened beverages (OR = 1.15; 95 % CI: 1.06-1.24; p < 0.001), and overeating (OR = 2.30; 95 % CI: 2.069-2.56; p < 0.001) were risk factors. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that dietary diversity and physical activity are associated with depressive symptoms in middle-aged women. To improve dietary diversity, attention should be given to dietary patterns and dietary habits, instead of simply increasing the amount of food.


Assuntos
Depressão , Dieta , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , China/epidemiologia
19.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 234-241, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual violence, especially childhood sexual violence, is a serious social issue, yet the prevalence of childhood sexual violence among university students is unknown. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of these experiences and assess their associations with depressive symptoms. METHODS: The study included 29,311 participants, mean (SD) age 20.5 (1.4) years, from a cross-sectional survey of a multi-stage stratified cluster random sample from all universities in Guangdong province of China. Data were obtained through an anonymous electronic questionnaire from December 2 to 15, 2019. Undergraduates' experiences of childhood sexual violence were self-reported. Current depressive symptoms were measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10). Stress measures in recent months were measured by the College Student Stress Scale. RESULTS: The prevalence of childhood sexual violence experience among university students was 4.8 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 4.6 %-5.0 %), 7.3 % (95 % CI = 6.9 %-7.7 %) for female students and 1.8 % (95 % CI = 1.6 %-2.0 %) for male students. Sexual violence in childhood was related to students' current depressive symptoms after adjustment for stress and socio, demographic characteristics (adjusted prevalence ratio (PRa) = 1.36, 95 % CI = 1.30-1.42). Significant differences in the association between childhood sexual violence and depressive symptoms were also found by sex. CONCLUSIONS: Experiences of childhood sexual violence among university students are not negligible and associated with their current depressive symptoms. The association between childhood sexual violence and depressive symptoms among female and male students is different. Schools, families, and society as a whole should be encouraged to provide education on healthy sexual behavior preventive interventions related to sexual violence for childhood students.


Assuntos
Depressão , Delitos Sexuais , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Universidades , Estudos Transversais , China/epidemiologia , Estudantes
20.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 348-352, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This epidemiological study described changes in the estimated prevalence of current pharmacological and/or psychotherapy-based treatment utilization among college students with depression only, anxiety only, or comorbid depression & anxiety. METHODS: A sample of 190,500 weighted responses was collected through the 2013-2019 Healthy Minds Study questionnaires. Annual prevalence estimates of depression only, anxiety only, or comorbid depression & anxiety were computed. Current use of therapy, pharmacological services, or dual treatment among students with depression and/or anxiety were examined via descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Estimated prevalence of college students who screened positive for depression only, anxiety only, and comorbid depression & anxiety escalated from 2013 to 2018-2019. When assessed individually, rates of currently using any psychiatric medication, participating in therapy, and engaging in concurrent medication & therapy services significantly rose among students with depression and/or anxiety. However, temporal trends in the current use of specific classes of psychiatric medications among young adults with depression only, anxiety only, or comorbid depression & anxiety differed by medication class. LIMITATIONS: This study was unable to assess psychiatric prescribing practices, depression or anxiety diagnoses, and prior mental health treatment. CONCLUSIONS: An increasing proportion of college students are reporting depression and/or anxiety symptoms as well as pharmacological and/or psychotherapy service utilization when comparing rates from 2013 to 2018-19. Although this may indicate increasing acceptability to disclose and seek treatment for problematic symptomology, continued surveillance of college populations is needed to identify students at risk for adverse psychiatric health outcomes, especially during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Depressão , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Depressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Psicoterapia
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