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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(1): 231-242, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35043902

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to provide a synthesis of published studies investigating education-based arbovirus control strategies. The data were collected from the LILACS, BDENF and MEDLINE databases using the descriptors "Health Education" and "Aedes", together with the Boolean operator "AND". The searches retrieved 242 studies, 14 of which were included in the review after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The data were analyzed using a qualitative approach, resulting in the identification of four categories: vector control actions based on community capacity building; social mobilization for arbovirus control; education-based vector control combined with biological control; and integrated arbovirus control actions. The findings show that health education is an essential element of arbovirus control and should be implemented in conjunction with other vector control strategies.


Objetivou sintetizar os estudos, publicados na literatura cientifica, que abordem estratégias de enfrentamento às arboviroses mediante ações educativas. Os dados foram coletados nas bases de dados: LILACS, BDENF e MEDLINE utilizando os descritores "Educação em Saúde" e "Aedes" empregando o operador booleano "AND". Foram encontrados 242 estudos, dos quais após aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, 14 foram incluídos na revisão. Os dados foram analisados utilizando a abordagem qualitativa. Foram identificadas quatro categorias: ações de enfrentamento vetorial mediante capacitação da comunidade; mobilização social em torno do combate às arboviroses; combate vetorial a partir de ações educativas associadas ao uso de controle biológico; ações integradas de enfrentamento às arboviroses. Infere-se que a educação em saúde é um elemento indispensável para o enfrentamento às arboviroses que deverá ser implementada de forma conjunta e articuladas às demais estratégia de combate vetorial.


Assuntos
Aedes , Animais , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores
2.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102483, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678492

RESUMO

This study examines the biological efficacy of four mosquito mat vaporizers each containing different active ingredients: prallethrin with PBO, dimefluthrin, prallethrin, and d-allethrin. The glass chamber assay was used to evaluate their efficacy on Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) from nine districts in Selangor, Malaysia. Aedes albopictus exhibited different knockdown rates, with 50% knockdown times, KT50, varying from 1.19 to 2.00 min, 1.22 to 2.20 min, 1.39 to 5.85 min, and 1.39 to 1.92 min for prallethrin with PBO, dimefluthrin, prallethrin and d-allethrin, respectively. In general, all populations of Ae. albopictus were completely knocked down after exposure to all active ingredients except Hulu Selangor population, which showed 96.00% knockdown against d-allethrin. On the contrary, mortality rates were observed from 84.00-100.00%, 84.00-100.00%, 90.67-100.00% and 90.67-100.00% in populations tested with prallethrin with PBO, dimefluthrin, prallethrin and d-allethrin, respectively. Moreover, significant correlations between mortality rates of prallethrin with PBO vs dimefluthrin (r = 0.836, P = 0.003), prallethrin with PBO vs prallethrin (r = 0.760, P = 0.011), and prallethrin vs d-allethrin (r = 0.694, P = 0.026) were also observed, suggesting cross-resistance among pyrethroids. d-allethrin was found to be high in insecticidal activity, followed by prallethrin, prallethrin with PBO, and dimefluthrin. In consistent with mortality due to insecticide exposure, elevated levels of enzyme activities were also demonstrated in Sabak Bernam, Hulu Selangor, Gombak, Petaling, Hulu Langat and Klang populations.


Assuntos
Aedes , Inseticidas , Controle de Mosquitos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Aedes/genética , Animais , Inativação Metabólica , Malásia , Fenótipo
3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 227-239, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34931940

RESUMO

Dengue is caused by four genetically distinct viral serotypes, dengue virus (DENV) 1-4. Following transmission by Aedes mosquitoes, DENV can cause a broad spectrum of clinically apparent disease ranging from febrile illness to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Progress in the understanding of different dengue serotypes and their impacts on specific host-virus interactions has been hampered by the scarcity of tools that adequately reflect their antigenic and genetic diversity. To bridge this gap, we created and characterized infectious clones of DENV1-4 originating from South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Analysis of whole viral genome sequences of five DENV isolates from each of the four serotypes confirmed their broad genetic and antigenic diversity. Using a modified circular polymerase extension reaction (CPER), we generated de novo viruses from these isolates. The resultant clones replicated robustly in human and insect cells at levels similar to those of the parental strains. To investigate in vivo properties of these genetically diverse isolates, representative viruses from each DENV serotype were administered to NOD Rag1-/-, IL2rgnull Flk2-/- (NRGF) mice, engrafted with components of a human immune system. All DENV strains tested resulted in viremia in humanized mice and induced cellular and IgM immune responses. Collectively, we describe here a workflow for rapidly generating de novo infectious clones of DENV - and conceivably other RNA viruses. The infectious clones described here are a valuable resource for reverse genetic studies and for characterizing host responses to DENV in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/genética , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/virologia , Aedes/fisiologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Variação Antigênica , Dengue/genética , Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/transmissão , Vírus da Dengue/classificação , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Variação Genética , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Genética Reversa , Sorogrupo
4.
Pest Manag Sci ; 78(1): 321-328, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes express different degrees of preference towards hosts depending on behavioral, ecological, and physiological factors. These preferences have implications for mosquito-borne disease risk. This study investigated the effect of human blood groups on the behavior and fecundity of the female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from March 2018 to August 2019. In laboratory tests, mosquitoes were fed artificial membrane feeders on A, AB, B, and O blood groups. The level of attraction to different blood groups was tested under controlled conditions with a wind tunnel bioassay. RESULTS: The responses of Ae. aegypti to the blood groups treatments in the five-choice tunnel chambers showed a significant preference (Kruskal-Wallis (2 = 85.772, df = 4, P < 0.0001) for favor blood group B. Also, the response of Ae. aegypti to olfactory cues (filth) derived from a pool of volunteers cutting across the blood groups showed a similar preference for pattern towards the blood group B. The percentage rate of digestibility in Ae. aegypti was highest in those fed on blood group O, while individuals fed on the AB blood group had the lowest digestion rate. Thus, the rate of digestibility highly varied significantly (P < 0.0001) between blood groups. Overall, Ae. aegypti fed on blood group B had the highest average feeding rate, number of females with eggs, and fecundity level, which showed a significant difference (P < 0.0001) on preferred. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel insight into the ABO host choice of Ae. aegypti and reinforces the need for personal protection against dengue virus transmission in light of the increased risk of exposure for individuals with B blood type. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Aedes , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos , Comportamento de Busca por Hospedeiro , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2409: 3-9, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709631

RESUMO

This chapter describes the methods of propagation and titration for DENV-1 to -4, which are required for most of the experiments using live viruses. DENV does not reach titers as high as those of other viruses or as high as desired for their use in biological assays. Although DENV grows in many different cell lines derived from both vertebrate and invertebrate cells, the most common cell lines used for virus isolation and propagation are mosquito cells C6/36 from Aedes albopictus. Amongst several methods for virus quantification, plaque assay stands out as being very practical and inexpensive. This technique is carried out essentially to estimate virion density in a particular material, being extremely important when evaluating the effect of an antiviral treatment or antibody neutralization capacity, for example. In this assay, viral particles are serially diluted and added onto confluent cell monolayers immersed in a semisolid medium, which is responsible for limiting virus spread throughout the culture. Therefore, regarding the medium consistency, once a virion successfully infects a cell, the newly produced particles can only infect neighboring cells, eventually leading them to death. This phenomenon can be observed as round gaps or plaques in the culture after staining live cells with a crystal violet solution. Then, plaques are counted and used to determine plaque-forming units per milliliter. Here, we describe a protocol established by our group for dengue virus (DENV) titration with porcine kidney (PS) cells.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Aedes , Animais , Antivirais , Bioensaio , Linhagem Celular , Suínos
6.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 81(4): 872-880, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-762597

RESUMO

Bacillus thuringiensis is the most commonly used entomopathogen in the control of Aedes aegypti, which is a vector for different etiological agents that cause serious infections in humans. Several studies aim to isolate strains of this bacterium from different environments, with the perspective of selecting isolates with larvicidal activity for mosquitoes. Aiming at the insecticidal action of B. thuringiensis, the present study aimed to prospect B. thuringiensis of restinga and mangrove soils from the state of Maranhão, Brazil, with toxic potential for use in the biological control of Ae. aegypti. Bioassays were performed to determine the entomopathogenic activity of the bacilli against Ae. aegypti and lethal concentrations (LC50 and CL90) were estimated after the tests. Polymerase Chain Reaction and SDS-PAGE techniques were performed to verify the gene and protein content of the isolates, respectively. The soil of the mangrove and restinga ecosystems showed potential for obtaining B. thuringiensis. This isolate, in addition to having proteins with molecular mass similar to the toxins Cry and Cyt, also presented several diptera-specific genes cry and cyt, demonstrating that it has high potential to be used in the biological control of Ae. aegypti.(AU)


Bacillus thuringiensis é o entomopatógeno mais utilizado no controle do Aedes aegypti, vetor de diferentes agentes etiológicos que causam infecções graves em humanos. Diversos estudos têm como objetivo isolar cepas dessa bactéria de diferentes ambientes, com a perspectiva de selecionar isolados com atividade larvicida para mosquitos. Visando a ação inseticida de B. thuringiensis, o presente estudo teve como objetivo prospectar B. thuringiensis de solos de restinga e mangue do estado do Maranhão, Brasil, com potencial tóxico para uso no controle biológico de Ae. aegypti. Bioensaios foram realizados para determinar a atividade entomopatogênica do bacilo contra Ae. aegypti e as concentrações letais (CL50 e CL90) foram estimadas após os testes. As técnicas de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase e SDS-PAGE foram realizadas para verificar o conteúdo de genes e proteínas dos isolados, respectivamente. Os solos dos ecossistemas de mangue e restinga apresentaram potencial para obtenção de B. thuringiensis. O isolado BtMA-750, obtido a partir da amostra de solo da restinga, foi interessantemente distinguido por sua alta toxicidade para Ae. aegypti. Este isolado, além de apresentar proteínas com massa molecular semelhante às toxinas Cry e Cyt, apresentou também diversos genes díptero-específicos cry e cyt, demonstrando que tem alto potencial para ser usado no controle biológico de Ae. aegypti.(AU)


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Áreas Alagadas , Aedes , Controle Biológico de Vetores
7.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 894, 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wolbachia wMel is the most commonly used strain in rear and release strategies for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that aim to inhibit the transmission of arboviruses such as dengue, Zika, Chikungunya and yellow fever. However, the long-term establishment of wMel in natural Ae. aegypti populations raises concerns that interactions between Wolbachia wMel and Ae. aegypti may lead to changes in the host genome, which could affect useful attributes of Wolbachia that allow it to invade and suppress disease transmission. RESULTS: We applied an evolve-and-resequence approach to study genome-wide genetic changes in Ae. aegypti from the Cairns region, Australia, where Wolbachia wMel was first introduced more than 10 years ago. Mosquito samples were collected at three different time points in Gordonvale, Australia, covering the phase before (2010) and after (2013 and 2018) Wolbachia releases. An additional three locations where Wolbachia replacement happened at different times across the last decade were also sampled in 2018. We found that the genomes of mosquito populations mostly remained stable after Wolbachia release, with population differences tending to reflect the geographic location of the populations rather than Wolbachia infection status. However, outlier analysis suggests that Wolbachia may have had an influence on some genes related to immune response, development, recognition and behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Ae. aegypti populations remained geographically distinct after Wolbachia wMel releases in North Australia despite their Wolbachia infection status. At some specific genomic loci, we found signs of selection associated with Wolbachia, suggesting potential evolutionary impacts can happen in the future and further monitoring is warranted.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arbovírus , Wolbachia , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Aedes/genética , Animais , Wolbachia/genética
8.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 896, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mating induces behavioral and physiological changes in the arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti, including stimulation of egg development and oviposition, increased survival, and reluctance to re-mate with subsequent males. Transferred seminal fluid proteins and peptides derived from the male accessory glands induce these changes, though the mechanism by which they do this is not known. RESULTS: To determine transcriptome changes induced by seminal proteins, we injected extract from male accessory glands and seminal vesicles (MAG extract) into females and examined female lower reproductive tract (LRT) transcriptomes 24 h later, relative to non-injected controls. MAG extract induced 87 transcript-level changes, 31 of which were also seen in a previous study of the LRT 24 h after a natural mating, including 15 genes with transcript-level changes similarly observed in the spermathecae of mated females. The differentially-regulated genes are involved in diverse molecular processes, including immunity, proteolysis, neuronal function, transcription control, or contain predicted small-molecule binding and transport domains. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal that seminal fluid proteins, specifically, can induce gene expression responses after mating and identify gene targets to further investigate for roles in post-mating responses and potential use in vector control.


Assuntos
Aedes , Aedes/genética , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Reprodução/genética , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Transcriptoma
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 605, 2021 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne diseases have a devastating impact on human civilization. A few species of Anopheles mosquitoes are responsible for malaria transmission, and while there has been a reduction in malaria-related deaths worldwide, growing insecticide resistance is a cause for concern. Aedes mosquitoes are known vectors of viral infections, including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are key players in protein synthesis and are potent anti-infective drug targets. The structure-function activity relationship of aaRSs in mosquitoes (in particular, Anopheles and Aedes spp.) remains unexplored. METHODS: We employed computational techniques to identify aaRSs from five different mosquito species (Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles minimus, and Aedes aegypti). The VectorBase database ( https://vectorbase.org/vectorbase/app ) and web-based tools were utilized to predict the subcellular localizations (TargetP-2.0, UniProt, DeepLoc-1.0), physicochemical characteristics (ProtParam), and domain arrangements (PfAM, InterPro) of the aaRSs. Structural models for prolyl (PRS)-, and phenylalanyl (FRS)-tRNA synthetases-were generated using the I-TASSER and Phyre protein modeling servers. RESULTS: Among the vector species, a total of 37 (An. gambiae), 37 (An. culicifacies), 37 (An. stephensi), 37 (An. minimus), and 35 (Ae. aegypti) different aaRSs were characterized within their respective mosquito genomes. Sequence identity amongst the aaRSs from the four Anopheles spp. was > 80% and in Ae. aegypti was > 50%. CONCLUSIONS: Structural analysis of two important aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases [prolyl (PRS) and phenylanalyl (FRS)] of Anopheles spp. suggests structural and sequence similarity with potential antimalarial inhibitor [halofuginone (HF) and bicyclic azetidine (BRD1369)] binding sites. This suggests the potential for repurposing of these inhibitors against the studied Anopheles spp. and Ae. aegypti.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/antagonistas & inibidores , Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Dengue/transmissão , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/enzimologia , Aedes/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/química , Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/genética , Animais , Anopheles/enzimologia , Anopheles/genética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Descoberta de Drogas , Genômica , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Modelos Estruturais , Mosquitos Vetores/enzimologia , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 606, 2021 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Entomological surveillance is an important means of assessing the efficacy of insect vector management programs and estimating disease transmission thresholds. Among baited traps, Biogents' BG-Sentinel (BGS) trap baited with BG-Lure is considered to have the most similar outcome to, and be a possible replacement for, human-landing catches for the epidemiologically relevant monitoring of adult Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. In contrast to the BGS trap, the Black Hole ultraviolet (UV) light trap, which is widely used to catch nocturnal flying insects, is not baited with synthetic human odor-mimicking lures. METHODS: We evaluated the L-lactic acid-based Kasetsart University (KU)-lures nos. 1-6 as novel candidate chemical lures for the diurnal species Ae. aegypti and the nocturnal species Cx. quinquefasciatus using two commercial traps (the BGS trap and the Black Hole UV light trap) in a semi-field screen (SFS) house. Firstly, we optimized the dose of each KU-lure in an SFS house (140 m3). Secondly, six different candidate KU-lures were screened by comparing their percent attraction using a single discriminating dose (0.5 g). Finally, we evaluated the synergism of the KU-lures selected in this way with commercially available traps. RESULTS: BGS traps baited with KU-lure no. 1 exhibited the greatest percent attraction for Ae. aegypti (29.5% ± 14.3%), whereas those baited with KU-lure no. 6 most strongly attracted Cx. quinquefasciatus (33.3% ± 10.7%). Interestingly, BGS traps treated with 10 g BG-Lure did not significantly attract more Ae. aegypti or Cx. quinquefasciatus than the untreated BGS traps. CO2 at a flow rate of 250 ml/min most strongly attracted both Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus (42.2% ± 14.2% and 75.1% ± 16.9%, respectively). BGS and Black Hole UV light traps with KU-lure no. 6 exhibited a stronger attraction for Cx. quinquefasciatus than untreated traps, and the percent attraction did not differ between the treated traps. CONCLUSIONS: Synergistic effects of KU-lures nos. 1 and 6 with the mosquito traps were demonstrated for both the diurnal and nocturnal species in the SFS house assays. However, further studies are urgently needed for the development of species-specific lures to increase trap efficacy in the field for local vector mosquitoes in Thailand.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Anopheles/efeitos da radiação , Culex/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/química , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
11.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261244, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941927

RESUMO

Arboviruses are arthropod-dependent viruses to complete their zoonotic cycle. Among the transmitting arthropods, culicids stand out, which participate in the cycle of several arboviruses that can affect humans. The present study aimed to identify species of culicidae and to point out the risk of circulation, emergency, or reemergence of pathogenic arboviruses to humans in the region of the Jequitibá headquarters of the Parque Estadual dos Três Picos (PETP), in Cachoeiras de Macacu, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sampling was carried out at five Sample Points (SP) demarcated on trails from the headquarters, with CDC light traps, HP model with dry ice attached to the side, for 48 hours of activity each month. Additionally, active catches were made with a castro catcher in the period of one hour per day in the field, from six to eleven o'clock in the morning, in each PM. After the captures, thematic map was assembled using the ArcGIS 10 software and performing a multidimensional scaling (MDS). A total of 1151 specimens were captured and the presence of culicids already incriminated as vectors of arboviruses circulating in the region was observed: Aedes fluviatilis Lutz, 1904 (71 specimens); Aedes scapularis Rondani, 1848 (55 specimens); Haemagogus leococelaenus Dyar and Shannon, 1924 (29 specimens). In addition to the subgenus Culex (culex) spp. (163 specimens). In this sense, we highlight the importance of strengthening the actions of continuous entomological surveillance of the emergence and re-emergence of new arboviruses in ecotourism visitation parks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Culicidae/virologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Arbovírus/patogenicidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dípteros/patogenicidade , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela/veterinária
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 609, 2021 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) is the main vector of dengue virus in China. The resistance to insecticides is a huge obstacle for the control of this species, and determining its resistance status and mechanisms in China is essential for the implementation of vector management strategies. METHODS: We have investigated the larval and adult resistance status of Ae. albopictus to deltamethrin in eight field populations in China. Mutations at the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, related to the knockdown resistance (kdr) effect, were detected by sequencing of PCR products. The eight field populations were examined for pyrethroid resistance using the World Health Organization standard bioassays, and the association between the mutations and phenotypic resistance was tested. RESULTS: The eight field populations of larvae of Ae. albopictus in China exhibited high resistance to deltamethrin; the RR50 values ranged from 12 (ZJ) to 44 (GZ). Adult bioassay revealed that Ae. albopictus populations were resistant to deltamethrin (mortality rate < 90%), except ZJ population (probably resistant, mortality rate = 93.5%). Long knockdown time in the field populations was consistent with low mortality rates in adult bioassay. F1534S mutation showed increased protection against deltamethrin in all populations except BJ and SJZ populations, whereas I1532T mutation showed increased protection against deltamethrin in only BJ population. CONCLUSION: There were different degrees of resistance to deltamethrin in field Ae. albopictus populations in China. The longest knockdown time and lowest mortality rate observed in Ae. albopictus population in Guangzhou indicate the severity of high resistance to deltamethrin. The patchy distribution of deltamethrin resistance and kdr mutations in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes suggests the necessity for resistance management and developing counter measures to mitigate the spread of resistance.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Animais , China , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 610, 2021 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases, especially arboviruses transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitos, should be a health policy priority in Brazil. Despite this urgency, there are significant limitations in the traditional surveillance system, mainly in vulnerable areas. This study aimed to investigate the circulation of dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV), and chikungunya viruses (CHIKV) by laboratory syndromic surveillance (LSS) in a slum area of the Federal District of Brazil, comparing the results with traditional surveillance data. METHODS: LSS for acute febrile and/or exanthematous symptoms was developed at a health unit of Cidade Estrutural, in order to identify the circulation of arboviruses transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitos. Between June 2019 and March 2020, 131 valid participants were identified and sera tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for DENV (by serotype), ZIKV, and CHIKV acute infection and by immunoglobulin M enzyme-inked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-IgM) for DENV and CHIKV 15-21 days after symptom onset, when the participant reported no respiratory signs (cough and/or coryza). The results obtained were compared with traditional surveillance data for the study area and period. RESULTS: At least three DENV-1 (2.3%), four DENV-2 (3%), and one CHIKV (0.7%) cases were confirmed in the laboratory, showing evidence of hyperendemicity even though LSS had not reached the historic peak dengue fever months in the Federal District (April-May). When the results obtained here were compared with traditional surveillance, a significant discrepancy was observed, including underreporting of CHIKV infection. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the risks posed to the study population, the area investigated with its respective socio-environmental profile may be a potential site for spread of the virus, given the cosmopolitan presence of Aedes sp. and human mobility in the Federal District. It is also suggested that traditional epidemiological surveillance may be reporting acute viral infections other than DENV as dengue fever, while underreporting other arboviruses transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitos in the Federal District.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Arbovírus/isolamento & purificação , Áreas de Pobreza , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vigilância da População , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Risco
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 614, 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spatial and temporal changes in the dengue incidence are associated with multiple factors, such as climate, immunity among a population against dengue viruses (DENV), circulating DENV serotypes and vertical transmission (VT) of DENV in an area at a given time. The level of VT in a specific location has epidemiological implications in terms of viral maintenance in vectors. Identification of the circulating DENV serotypes in both patients and Aedes mosquito larvae in an area may be useful for the early detection of outbreaks. We report here the results of a prospective descriptive study that was conducted to detect the levels of VT in Aedes mosquito larvae and circulating DENV serotypes in patients and Aedes mosquito larvae from December 2015 to March 2017 in an area of Sri Lanka at high risk for dengue. METHODS: A total of 200 patients with clinically suspected dengue who had been admitted to a tertiary care hospital during a dengue outbreak (3 study periods: December 2015-January 2016, June-August 2016, December 2016-January 2017) and in the inter-outbreak periods (February-May 2016 and September-November 2016) were investigated. Blood samples were drawn from the study participants to test for DENV. The houses of the study participants were visited within 7 days of admission to the hospital, and Aedes larvae were also collected within a radius of 400 m from the houses. The larvae were separately identified to species and then pooled according to each patient's identification number. Patients' sera and the Aedes larvae were tested to identify the infecting DENV serotypes using a reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) method. Levels of VT in Aedes mosquito larvae were also identified. RESULTS: All four DENV serotypes (DENV-1 to -4) were identified in the study area. In the early part of the study (December 2015-February 2016), DENV-3 was predominant and from April 2016 to March 2017, DENV-2 became the most predominant type. Four cases of DENV co-infections were noted during the study period in patients. Interestingly, all four DENV serotypes were detected in Aedes albopictus larvae, which was the prominent immature vectorial form identified throughout the study period in the area, showing 9.8% VT of DENV. With the exception of DENV-4, the other three DENV serotypes were identified in Aedes aegypti larvae with a VT of 8.1%. CONCLUSION: Comparatively high rates of VT of DENV was detected in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti larvae. A shift in the predominant DENV serotype with simultaneous circulation of all four DENV serotypes was identified in the study area from December 2015 to March 2017.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/classificação , Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Estações do Ano , Sorogrupo , Animais , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Incidência , Larva/virologia , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
15.
Gac Sanit ; 35 Suppl 2: S459-S462, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to describe the effectiveness of essential oil plants for Aedes aegypti mosquito vector control. METHODS: This systematic review selection process following with 2015 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Guideline. The source of the articles from databases international journal were Scopus, Pubmed, Scinapse and Google Scholar. RESULT: Natural control management with essential oil is the way of alternative for larvicidal mosquito control especially A. aegypti. The essential oil for many plants can use for larvicidal against A. aegypti as Piper batle L., Tinospora rhumpii, Azadiractha indica, Persea americana, Piper aduncum, Leucas aspera, Eucaliptus camaldulensis, Ottonia anisum, Salvia Plebeian, Lantana camara, and Syzygium aromaticum with 100% mortality larvae A. aegypti at 48h. CONCLUSIONS: The vector borne diseases must be used to integrate vector management control with essential oils plants.


Assuntos
Aedes , Inseticidas , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Humanos , Lamiaceae , Mosquitos Vetores , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
16.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260253, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919572

RESUMO

Microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles is more advantageous and is eco-friendly to combat the various vectors that cause diseases in humans. Hence, in the present study a Bacillus strain is isolated from marine habitat and is evaluated for its ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and its efficacy evaluated against the immature stages of selected mosquito species. The effective candidate was confirmed to be Bacillus marisflavi after 16S rRNA sequencing. The synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) analysis showed spherical nanoparticles. Size analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) showed particles of nano size averaging 78.77 nm. The diameter of the particles analyzed by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) showed 101.6 nm with a poly-dispersive index of 0.3. Finally the elemental nature of the nanoparticles was identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). LC50 and LC90 values for the ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal efficacy of the AgNPs against the egg, larvae and pupae of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi respectively were evaluated. The present study revealed that the nanoparticles have an excellent toxic effect against the disease transmitting vector mosquitoes. Hence, the rapid synthesis of AgNPs would be an appropriate eco-friendly tool for biocontrol of vector mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus/química , Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/farmacologia , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Organismos Aquáticos , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/metabolismo , Culex/fisiologia , Química Verde , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Inseticidas/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/fisiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Prata/química , Zigoto/efeitos dos fármacos , Zigoto/fisiologia
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 4224816, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34957305

RESUMO

Dengue remains one of the most serious and widespread mosquito-borne viral infections in human beings, with serious health problems or even death. About 50 to 100 million people are newly infected annually, with almost 2.5 billion people living at risk and resulting in 20,000 deaths. Dengue virus infection is especially transmitted through bites of Aedes mosquitos, hugely spread in tropical and subtropical environments, mostly found in urban and semiurban areas. Unfortunately, there is no particular therapeutic approach, but prevention, adequate consciousness, detection at earlier stage of viral infection, and appropriate medical care can lower the fatality rates. This review offers a comprehensive view of production, transmission, pathogenesis, and control measures of the dengue virus and its vectors.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/patogenicidade , Dengue/transmissão , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Dengue/virologia , Humanos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia
18.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(Suppl 5): 118, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue epidemics is affected by vector-human interactive dynamics. Infectious disease prevention and control emphasize the timing intervention at the right diffusion phase. In such a way, control measures can be cost-effective, and epidemic incidents can be controlled before devastated consequence occurs. However, timing relations between a measurable signal and the onset of the pandemic are complex to be discovered, and the typical lag period regression is difficult to capture in these complex relations. This study investigates the dynamic diffusion pattern of the disease in terms of a probability distribution. We estimate the parameters of an epidemic compartment model with the cross-infection of patients and mosquitoes in various infection cycles. We comprehensively study the incorporated meteorological and mosquito factors that may affect the epidemic of dengue fever to predict dengue fever epidemics. RESULTS: We develop a dual-parameter estimation algorithm for a composite model of the partial differential equations for vector-susceptible-infectious-recovered with exogeneity compartment model, Markov chain Montel Carlo method, and boundary element method to evaluate the epidemic periodicity under the effect of environmental factors of dengue fever, given the time series data of 2000-2016 from three cities with a population of 4.7 million. The established computer model of "energy accumulation-delayed diffusion-epidemics" is proven to be effective to predict the future trend of reported and unreported infected incidents. Our artificial intelligent algorithm can inform the authority to cease the larvae at the highest vector infection time. We find that the estimated dengue report rate is about 20%, which is close to the number of official announcements, and the percentage of infected vectors increases exponentially yearly. We suggest that the executive authorities should seriously consider the accumulated effect among infected populations. This established epidemic prediction model of dengue fever can be used to simulate and evaluate the best time to prevent and control dengue fever. CONCLUSIONS: Given our developed model, government epidemic prevention teams can apply this platform before they physically carry out the prevention work. The optimal suggestions from these models can be promptly accommodated when real-time data have been continuously corrected from clinics and related agents.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Epidemias , Animais , Dengue/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Método de Monte Carlo , Mosquitos Vetores
19.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45(5): 401-410, 2021.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738457

RESUMO

The relevant ecological changes due to the anthropological pressure on the planet is causing reactions in the biological systems, which we must understand and characterize at the local scale to assist the adoption of suitable decisions in the public health risk management. The project presented in this paper is focused on the vector-borne diseases, mainly transmitted by mosquitoes. The species of mosquito currently playing an active role of public health importance in Italy are Aedes albopictus, as a vector of Chikungunya, Dengue and Zika viruses, as well as Culex pipiens, as a vector of West Nile and Usutu viruses. Predictive models are indicating the risk of introduction and establishment in the Mediterranean basin of Aedes aegypti, which is causing a mayor concern. The project has been conducted by the Emilia-Romagna, Piemonte, Veneto, Marche and Sicilia Regions, together with the Italian National Health Institute. The aim was to develop and pilot testing new approaches and technological tools possibly assisting the public health system in the management of the risk. The activities have been organized on six specific objectives: 1. Development and field testing of guidelines for the surveillance of invasive mosquito species; 2. Creation of risk maps for Chikungunya, Dengue and Zika viruses based on the quantitative monitoring of Aedes albopictus populations; 3. Shaping web platform models assisting the sharing of data from/to actors involved in the integrated surveillance of West Nile at the regional level; 4. Developing communication formats dealing with vector borne diseases addressing citizen and specific categories; 5. Approaching the cost-benefit analysis in the view to assist decision makers; 6. Sero-surveillance on arboviruses not included in the Ministry directive (Tick Borne Encephalitis and Toscana virus). The achieved results are presented and the acquired experience is made available to promote the adoptions on a larger scale of the approaches and methods to be certainly adapted in the specific contexts. The one health approach seems suitable to address the necessities emerging in this field by taking into consideration the different triggers shaping the dynamics we are observing.


Assuntos
Aedes , Febre de Chikungunya , Culex , Dengue , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/prevenção & controle , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle
20.
Zootaxa ; 5027(4): 515-545, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811156

RESUMO

An updated checklist of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Algeria based on records published from 1903 to 2021 is presented. Fifty-three species belonging to seven genera are known with reasonable confidence to occur in the country, including Aedes (15 species), Anopheles (15), Coquillettidia (2), Culex (14), Culiseta (5), Orthopodomyia (1) and Uranotaenia (1). Two additional species, Culex simpsoni Theobald, 1905 and Uranotaenia balfouri Theobald, 1904, are provisionally regarded as present in Algeria. Published records are listed for each species, with indication of synonymous usage and variant spelling of names where applicable. The type locality of Aedes biskraensis Brunhes, 1999 is restricted to Seriana in Sidi Okba District in Biskra Province. Problematic species and doubtful occurrence records based on apparently misidentified specimens and confused taxonomy are discussed. Notes on taxonomy and medical importance are provided for the more important species.


Assuntos
Aedes , Anopheles , Culex , Argélia , Animais , Idioma
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