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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253497, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355892

RESUMO

Abstract This research aimed to estimate the length-weight ratio (LWR) of the stingray Potamotrygon wallacei, known locally as the cururu, which was caught in streams and lakes in the middle Negro River region, Amazonas, Brazil. The stingrays were captured during the night (from 11 pm to 1 am) near the shores of streams and lakes, through active search using wooden canoes, head lanterns and scoop nets. The samplings were carried out in November 2017 (5 days), February (8 days), March (3 days) and April (2 days) of 2018, totaling 18 days of sampling. The total fresh weight was measured to 0.1 g of accuracy and the disc width to 0.1 cm accuracy. The parameters a and b of the equation W=a.DWb were estimated. This study provides new maximum length data for the cururu stingray.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo estimar a relação peso-comprimento (LWR) da arraia Potamotrygon wallacei, conhecida localmente como cururu, que foi capturada em igarapés e lagos na região do médio Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil. As arraias foram capturadas durante a noite (das 23h-1h) nas margens dos igarapés e lagos, por meio de busca ativa utilizando canoas de madeira, lanternas de cabeça e puçás. As coletas foram realizadas nos meses de novembro de 2017 (5 dias), fevereiro (8 dias), março (3 dias) e abril (2 dias) de 2018, totalizando 18 dias de amostragem. Foram medidos o peso fresco total com precisão de 0,01 g e a largura do disco com precisão de 0,1 cm. Os parâmetros a e b da equação W= a.DWb foram estimados. Este estudo prover novos dados de comprimento máximo para a arraia cururu.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Rajidae , Rosa , Afro-Americanos , Brasil , Rios
2.
Ethn Dis ; 32(3): 223-230, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909641

RESUMO

Objective: To examine if reduced financial strain and higher educational attainment would confer less advantage for successful cessation among African Americans than for White individuals. Design: A secondary data analysis of the Quit2Live study, a smoking cessation intervention for individuals who smoke. Setting: Recruited participants from a metropolitan city in the Midwest. Participants: The sample included 224 African American and 225 White individuals who smoke. Main Outcome Measures: Our outcome variable was cotinine-verified smoking abstinence at the end-of-treatment (week 12). Our explanatory variables were a combination of financial strain (high, low) and educational attainment (high, low). Methods: We implemented a logistic regression analysis and a two-way interaction of the combined financial strain and educational attainment variable and race on smoking abstinence. Results: About 25% of the study participants were low financial strain and high education, 41% high financial strain and high education, 23% high financial strain and low education, and 11% low financial strain and low education. A greater proportion of African Americans vs Whites were in the high financial strain/low educational attainment category (28% vs 18%, P = .01). Participants with high financial strain and low educational attainment had substantially lower odds of abstinence (OR = .29 [95% CI: .12, .68]) compared to participants with low financial strain and high educational attainment. Contrary to our hypothesis, race did not moderate this association. Conclusion: Findings highlight the constraining role of high financial strain and low educational attainment, irrespective of race, on smoking abstinence among smokers actively engaged in a quit attempt.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Escolaridade , Humanos , Fumar , Brancos
3.
Ethn Dis ; 32(3): 203-212, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909644

RESUMO

Background: Diabetes and prediabetes are common among African Americans (AA), but the frequency and predictors of transition between normal, impaired glucose metabolism, and diabetes are not well-described. The aim of this study was to examine glucometabolic transitions and their association with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: AA participants of the Jackson Heart Study who attended baseline exam (2000-2004) and at least one of two subsequent exams (2005-2008 and 2009-2013, ~8 years) were classified according to glycemic status. Transitions were defined as progression (deterioration) or remission (improvement) of glycemic status. Multinomial logistic regression models with repeated measures were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) for remission and progression with adjustment for demographic, anthropometric, behavioral, and biochemical factors. Results: Among 3353 participants, (mean age 54.6±12.3 years), 43% were normoglycemic, 32% were prediabetes, and 25% had diabetes at baseline. For those with normal glucose at a visit, the probability at the next visit (~4years) of having prediabetes or diabetes was 38.5% and 1.8%, respectively. For those with prediabetes, the probability was 9.9% to improve to normal and 19.9% to progress to diabetes. Progression was associated with baseline BMI, diabetes status, triglycerides, family history of diabetes, and weight gain (OR 1.04 kg, 95% CI:1.03-1.06, P=<.0001). Remission was strongly associated with weight loss (OR .97 kg, 95%CI: .95-.98, P<.001). Conclusions: In AAs, glucometabolic transitions were frequent and most involved deterioration. From a public health perspective additional emphasis should be placed on weight control to preserve glucometabolic status and prevent progression to T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia
4.
Ethn Dis ; 32(3): 169-184, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909645

RESUMO

Background: An understanding of the factors that influence cardiovascular (CVD) risk among young Black men is critically needed to promote cardiovascular health earlier in the life course and prevent poor outcomes later in life. Purpose: To explore how individual (eg, depression, racial discrimination) and environmental factors (eg, neighborhood resources) are associated with CVD risk factors among young Black men. Methods: We conducted a convergent mixed methods study (qualitative/quantitative, QUAL+quant) with Black men aged 18 to 30 years (N = 21; 3 focus groups). Participants completed a self-administered electronic survey immediately prior to the focus groups. Results: Participants (M age = 23) reported: two or more CVD risk factors (75%; eg, high blood pressure); racial discrimination (32%); and depressive symptoms in the past 2 weeks (50%). Five themes emerged: 1) emergence and navigation of Black manhood stressors; 2) high expectations despite limited available resources; 3) heart disease socialization: explicit and vicarious experiences; 4) managing health care needs against fear, avoidance and toughing it out; and 5) camaraderie and social support can motivate or deter. The integrated qualitative and quantitative analyses highlight race, gender, and class intersectionality factors that are relevant to what it means to be young, Black, male and of lower socioeconomic status in the United States. Conclusion: Our findings help to identify modifiable, culturally specific and contextually relevant factors that relate to CVD risk factors among young Black men. Such work is crucial to inform interventions, primary prevention efforts, policies, and social-structural changes to thwart the development of CVD and advanced disease stages.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Racismo , Afro-Americanos , Negros , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Kidney360 ; 3(7): 1183-1190, 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919537

RESUMO

Background: Sulfur is an important mineral element whose principal source is animal protein. Animal protein contributes to the daily acid load, which is associated with poor outcomes in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesized that higher urinary sulfate, as a reflection of the daily acid load, is associated with a greater risk of death and CKD progression. Methods: Urinary sulfate was measured in 1057 African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) participants at baseline. Participants were categorized by tertiles of daily sulfate excretion. The longitudinal outcome of interest was the composite of death, dialysis, or 50% reduction in measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Multivariable adjusted Cox regression models were fit to relate the composite outcome to daily sulfate excretion using the lowest tertile as the reference. Results: Participants in the highest urinary sulfate tertile were more likely to be men and have a higher body mass index, protein intake, measured GFR, and urinary ammonium and phosphate excretion, and lower urinary protein/creatinine. Compared with those in the lowest tertile of sulfate, those in the highest tertile had a 44% lower hazard (95% CI, 0.37 to 0.84), and those in the middle tertile had a 27% lower hazard (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.96) of death, dialysis, or 50% reduction in measured GFR during follow-up after adjusting for demographics, GFR, protein intake, and other potential confounders. Protein intake was not associated with risk of these events. Conclusions: Higher urinary sulfate excretion is associated with more favorable outcomes in Blacks who have CKD attributed to hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Afro-Americanos , Humanos , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Sulfatos
6.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(8): 1202-1207, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914210

RESUMO

We investigated racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 vaccine uptake, using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. As of March 29, 2022, uptake of the first dose was higher among Hispanic and Asian people than among White and Black people. In contrast, uptake rates of the booster were higher among Asian and White people than among Black and Hispanic people.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Brancos , Afro-Americanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Etnicidade , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos
7.
Med Educ Online ; 27(1): 2107470, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912473

RESUMO

The increased utilization of telehealth has provided patients with the opportunity to interact with racially diverse healthcare providers (HCPs). While evidence of racial stereotypes in healthcare is well documented, less is known about whether linguistic cues increase or decrease racial bias in healthcare interactions. The purpose of this pilot study was to use virtual clinicians (VCs) to examine how varying linguistic features affect patient perceptions of Black-identifying HCPs. Participants (N = 282) were recruited to participate in an online pilot study using a two-arm posttest-only experimental design. Participants were randomly assigned to interact with a Black VC that used vocal cues associated with either Standard American English (SAE) or African American English (AAE) on the topic of colorectal cancer. After the interaction, participants completed a posttest questionnaire. Resulting data were analyzed using mediation.


Assuntos
Racismo , Afro-Americanos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Linguística , Projetos Piloto , Estados Unidos
8.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2S): 5-12, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the accelerated spread of COVID-19 and current shelter-in-place orders from many local governments, African American (AA) communities see to be more vulnerable as emerging data show disproportionate rates of infection and mortality among AAs across the nation. OBJECTIVES: In a sample of AA church members, to conduct a rapid community assessment during the early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: Our community-based participatory research team, partnering with the local AA church community and including trained lay health workers, conducted the assessment via telephone and online. RESULTS: Although most participants reported high confidence regarding recommendations for physical distancing, more than 60% reported elevated anxiety and stress, and 10% indicated that they needed more information about staying healthy and safe during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based participatory research with lay health workers is an effective method to implement a community needs assessment, problem-solve with community members, and build community health infrastructure during a public health crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Afro-Americanos , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias
9.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2S): 83-90, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community-engaged research is a well-established approach to tackling health disparities in communities of color. However, the devastation caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) calls for a reexamination of the practice of community-engaged research. Syndemic framework characterizes the clustering and synergistic interactions between two or more diseases amid an underlay of social and environmental threats. This framework has been used to explain the disproportionately higher rates of COVID-19 in communities of color and may have utility in guiding future community-engaged research. OBJECTIVES: This article describes the process by which a syndemic framework was used to generate discussions on lessons learned from COVID-19 and describes the ensuing collaborative writing process that emerged from this discourse. METHODS: This article was developed by the Community Engagement Working Group (CEWG) of the Jackson Heart Study, a community-based epidemiologic study focused on cardiovascular disease among African Americans in the Jackson, Mississippi Metropolitan Area. By drawing upon a syndemic framework and lessons from COVID-19, the CEWG identified gaps and opportunities to enhance community-engaged research. CONCLUSIONS: Using syndemic framework as a starting point, the CEWG identified the following as aspects of community-engaged research that may warrant further consideration: 1) the need to examine multiple dimensions and assets of a community, 2) the need to view communities through an intersectionality lens, 3) the need to acknowledge the impact of historical and current trauma on the community, and 4) the need to provide support to community-engaged researchers who may be members of minoritized groups themselves and therefore, experience similar trauma.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Afro-Americanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Humanos , Sindemia
10.
J Prof Nurs ; 41: 115-118, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35803646

RESUMO

The purpose of this article is to relay the results of research study about the perceived challenges and successes of African American men in pre-licensure nursing programs, while describing the lessons learned when trying to research an underrepresented population in nursing education. Methodological flaws, poor return rates, and an overall lack of support led to findings which were not usable for the research topic, but might be usable to others interested in nursing education research. The research process highlights the continual struggle that nursing education has with creating and disseminating evidence to help faculty diversify the student body in nursing programs.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Afro-Americanos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Humanos , Licenciamento em Enfermagem , Masculino , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem
11.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 25(7): 439-449, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35819281

RESUMO

Social media connects people in a myriad of ways, yet when prevented from staying connected, an experience of missing out on information and events perceived to be integral to one's well-being may ensue. Relatedness, a core construct of self-determination theory, is a primary influencer of motivation, and therefore being cut off from others has a negative impact on one's quality of life. Across diverse groups of people, social media is utilized for a variety of purposes directly related to connectedness, which implies inherent differences in how one's fear of missing out (FoMO) manifests in everyday life. This study employed the previously validated Fear of Missing Out Scale (FoMOS) with a nonclinical sample of African American and Caucasian college students in the United States, with a particular focus on validity of the measure with an African American cohort due to a lack of empirical evidence pertaining to with this demographic. Factor analyses yielded inconsistent findings from the FoMOS initial validation study, and results indicated differences in self-reported FoMO between the two racial groups. We speculate that observed group-based differences are at least partially the result of how individuals from each group understood and internalized the conceptual meaning of FoMO, supporting a hypothesis of practical differences in how anxieties related to missing out manifest. This may be due to individual or group-based differences in motivations for, or general purpose of, using social media.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ansiedade , Medo , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 295: 324-327, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35773874

RESUMO

We applied mixed-methods to refine our first version of the Twitter message library (English 400, translated into Spanish 400) for African Americans and Hispanic family caregivers for a person with dementia. We conducted a series of expert panels to collect quantitative and qualitative data using surveys and in-depth interviews. Using mixed methods to ensure unbiased results, the panelists first independently scored them (1 message/5 panelist) on a scale of 1 to 4 (1: lowest, 4: highest), followed by in-depth interviews and group discussions. Survey results showed that the average score was 3.47, indicating good to excellent (SD 0.35, ranges from 1.8 to 4). Quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews showed different results in emotional support messages.


Assuntos
Demência , Mídias Sociais , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Demência/psicologia , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Apoio Social
14.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 21: 15347354221103275, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35786041

RESUMO

Mind-body interventions have been shown to improve physical and mental health outcomes among cancer survivors, and African Americans have one of the highest cancer mortality rates of all racial/ethnic groups, while often facing considerable barriers to quality healthcare. African American cancer survivors report difficulty accessing mind-body practices, and few studies have focused exclusively on African American populations. This integrative review aims to explore the acceptability and use of mind-body interventions among African American cancer survivors. This review seeks to determine if current research indicates that mind-body interventions may be helpful in improving outcomes for African American cancer survivors. The literature search resulted in 284 studies, of which 14 met the inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria were articles published in or after 2016, written in the English language, addressing mind-body modalities, and including a study population of ≥50% African American cancer survivors. Other reviews, meta-analyses, or studies without results were excluded. Results indicate that African American cancer survivors have expressed receptiveness to interventions incorporating mindfulness, meditation, yoga, Tai Chi, and other mind-body or complimentary/alternative medicine interventions. Still, few studies have offered such interventions exclusively to African American cancer survivors. This review indicated that African American cancer survivors across demographic backgrounds are interested in and view mind-body practices as an acceptable way to improve quality of life, pain interference, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and physical health; however, the interventions should be culturally appropriate and accessible. In conclusion, despite a growing interest in mind-body interventions, African American communities are often unaware of opportunities to engage in these practices in their communities, and mind-body practices are inaccessible due to cost or geographical location. Additional research that offers such interventions specific to African American cancer survivors is warranted.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias , Yoga , Afro-Americanos , Ansiedade , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Qualidade de Vida
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 931102, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35899153

RESUMO

Purpose: Our objective is to pilot an advertisement-driven sampling procedure among African American (AA) breast cancer survivors living in Maryland. These pilot study methods will inform a future population-based study of AA breast cancer survivors at high risk of poor outcomes due to biological differences and social inequities. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilizes an innovative, social media-based advertisement campaign with an associated social media study page to recruit 100 AA breast cancer survivors. Participants are biologically female, aged 18 and older, identify as AA/Black, have a diagnosis of breast cancer, and reside in Maryland. A preset "Audience" was created via Meta (formerly Facebook) to automatically target potential interest in the online study via geolocation and public social media interests (estimated range = 101,000 women). Eligible participants complete an online survey including demographic and clinical characteristics, cancer screening, healthcare access, and utilization, COVID-19 impact, quality of doctor-patient communication, and preferences for future study participation. Results: Recruitment began on 5 January 2022 and remains ongoing. As of 7 June 2002: 124 completed the screener, 110/124 (88.7%) consented passively, 24/110 (21.8%) started but did not complete survey, 86/110 (78.1%) completed the survey. Conclusions: Results from this study will inform a statewide multilevel prospective population-based study to improve health behaviors, disease management, and self-efficacy of chronic disease management among AA breast cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , COVID-19 , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Mídias Sociais , Publicidade/métodos , Afro-Americanos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Rede Social
17.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 97, 2022 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of participation in HIV care, medication uptake, and viral suppression are improving among persons living with HIV (PLWH) in the United States. Yet, disparities among African American/Black and Latino PLWH are persistent, signaling the need for new conceptual approaches. To address gaps in services and research (e.g., insufficient attention to structural/systemic factors, inadequate harm reduction services and autonomy support) and improve behavioral interventions, we integrated critical race theory, harm reduction, and self-determination theory into a new conceptual model, then used the model to develop a set of six intervention components which were tested in a larger study. The present qualitative study explores participants' perspectives on the study's acceptability, feasibility, and impact, and the conceptual model's contribution to these experiences. METHODS: Participants in the larger study were African American/Black and Latino PLWH poorly engaged in HIV care and with non-suppressed HIV viral load in New York City (N = 512). We randomly selected N = 46 for in-depth semi-structured interviews on their experiences with and perspectives on the study. Interviews were audio-recorded and professionally transcribed verbatim, and data were analyzed using directed qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: On average, participants were 49 years old (SD = 9) and had lived with HIV for 19 years (SD = 7). Most were male (78%) and African American/Black (76%). All had taken HIV medication previously. Challenging life contexts were the norm, including poverty, poor quality/unstable housing, trauma histories exacerbated by current trauma, health comorbidities, and substance use. Participants found the study highly acceptable. We organized results into four themes focused on participants' experiences of: 1) being understood as a whole person and in their structural/systemic context; 2) trustworthiness and trust; 3) opportunities for self-reflection; and 4) support of personal autonomy. The salience of nonjudgment was prominent in each theme. Themes reflected grounding in the conceptual model. Participants reported these characteristics were lacking in HIV care settings. CONCLUSIONS: The new conceptual model emphasizes the salience of systemic/structural and social factors that drive health behavior and the resultant interventions foster trust, self-reflection, engagement, and behavior change. The model has potential to enhance intervention acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness with African American/Black and Latino PLWH.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Infecções por HIV , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Redução do Dano , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autonomia Pessoal , Estados Unidos
18.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 19(4): 265-280, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794447

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Status-neutral care, a person-centered approach to healthcare not predicated on HIV serostatus, may improve health equity among Black sexual minority men (BSMM). We reviewed current status-neutral, HIV, and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) interventions, and coded each for social-ecological focus and use of six approaches: (1) person-centered, (2) anti-stigma, (3) social support, (4) the social determinants of health (SDOH), (5) community engagement, and (6) multi-sectoral partnerships. RECENT FINDINGS: We reviewed 25 studies, of which 3 were status-neutral. Nineteen studies utilized person-centered approaches, with several employing BSMM peers. For SDOH, financial incentives and reducing clinic-level barriers to care improved cascade outcomes. Direct text messaging, anti-stigma, social support, community-engagement, and multi-sectoral partnerships also improved outcomes in some studies. Few status-neutral programs exist and additional research is needed to identify key intervention components and mechanisms of influence. Programs targeting SDOH and multiple social-ecological levels offer promise for providing holistic care to BSMM, while addressing HIV prevention and treatment and health equity.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Equidade em Saúde , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Afro-Americanos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Clin Epigenetics ; 14(1): 88, 2022 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and insulin resistance. Studies among other population groups have identified DNA methylation loci associated with insulin resistance, but data in African Americans are lacking. Using DNA methylation profiles of blood samples obtained from the Illumina Infinium® HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, we performed an epigenome-wide association study to identify DNA methylation loci associated with insulin resistance among 136 non-diabetic, unrelated African American men (mean age 41.6 years) from the Howard University Family Study. RESULTS: We identified three differentially methylated positions (DMPs) for homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at 5% FDR. One DMP (cg14013695, HOXA5) is a known locus among Mexican Americans, while the other two DMPs are novel-cg00456326 (OSR1; beta = 0.027) and cg20259981 (ST18; beta = 0.010). Although the cg00456326 DMP is novel, the OSR1 gene has previously been found associated with both insulin resistance and T2D in Europeans. The genes HOXA5 and ST18 have been implicated in biological processes relevant to insulin resistance. Differential methylation at the significant HOXA5 and OSR1 DMPs is associated with differences in gene expression in the iMETHYL database. Analysis of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) did not identify any epigenome-wide DMRs for HOMA-IR. We tested transferability of HOMA-IR associated DMPs from five previous EWAS in Mexican Americans, Indian Asians, Europeans, and European ancestry Americans. Out of the 730 previously reported HOMA-IR DMPs, 47 (6.4%) were associated with HOMA-IR in this cohort of African Americans. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from our study suggest substantial differences in DNA methylation patterns associated with insulin resistance across populations. Two of the DMPs we identified in African Americans have not been reported in other populations, and we found low transferability of HOMA-IR DMPs reported in other populations in African Americans. More work in African-ancestry populations is needed to confirm our findings as well as functional analyses to understand how such DNA methylation alterations contribute to T2D pathology.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Metilação de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epigenoma , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Masculino
20.
WMJ ; 121(2): 132-144, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This scoping review focuses on the intersections of racism, health, and health care, as well as interventions for the African American population in Milwaukee, Wisconsin-one of the most hypersegregated regions in the country. We investigate what existing research provides about the impact of segregation and racism on health and consider how community setting informs health interventions, practice, and policy. METHODS: We analyzed studies that address racism and health in Milwaukee to assess the state of the science in this area. We searched databases using the terms "African American," "racism," "segregation," and "health." A total of 296 studies resulted, and 54 met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Racism is a known determinant of health. However, a lack of research investigating the impact of racism on health in Milwaukee County leaves a knowledge gap necessary for improving health among African American residents. The adverse effects of racism on health are compounded by the social, economic, and policy context of geographic and social segregation that limit access to care and resilience. Themes identified in the review include measures of physical and mental health, community factors related to health (eg, housing, environmental contamination, economic and social exclusion), intervention strategies, and theoretical gaps. DISCUSSION: Professionals must work across disciplines and social sectors to address the effects of racism on the physical and mental health of African American individuals in urban metropolitan environments. Health research and medical interventions in hypersegregated communities must center structural racism in their analysis.


Assuntos
Racismo , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Wisconsin
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