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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e261995, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1384089

RESUMO

In this paper, the short-term and long-term effects of macroeconomic variables on socio-economic indicators of agricultural sector, including price index, rural unemployment and gross domestic product (GDP) over the first to six government development programs were investigated. The auto-regressive distributed lag approach (ARDL) was used. The results showed that in the short run, inflation rate with a delay has a significant and negative effect on employment in the agricultural sector and increases the level of rural unemployment. The findings suggest that the effects of liquidity and inflation rate in the short run on the GDP are negative and government spending in the short run has a positive effect on the agricultural price index. In the long run, the effect of these variables on agricultural inflation is similar to the short term, but with the difference that the elasticities were larger.


Neste artigo, foram investigados os efeitos de curto e longo prazo das variáveis macroeconômicas sobre os indicadores socioeconômicos do setor agrícola, incluindo índice de preços, desemprego rural e produto interno bruto (PIB) sobre os primeiros seis programas de desenvolvimento do governo. Foi utilizada a abordagem de atraso distribuído autorregressivo (ARDL). Os resultados mostraram que no curto prazo a taxa de inflação com atraso tem um efeito significativo e negativo sobre o emprego no setor agrícola e aumenta o nível de desemprego rural. Os resultados sugerem que os efeitos da liquidez e da taxa de inflação no curto prazo sobre o PIB são negativos e os gastos do governo no curto prazo têm efeito positivo sobre o índice de preços agrícolas. No longo prazo, o efeito dessas variáveis ​​sobre a inflação agrícola é semelhante ao de curto prazo, mas com a diferença de que as elasticidades foram maiores.


Assuntos
Indicadores Econômicos , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego , Produto Interno Bruto
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e260065, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1384082

RESUMO

Achatina fulica is a terrestrial mollusk known as the giant African snail that is related to environmental, economic, urban, and public health problems. As control measures for this mollusk, cooking salt (NaCl) and calcium oxide (CaO) are used, and baits are composed of metaldehyde. However, these measures have environmental toxicity and impact the soil. In this way, natural products have been tested on this mollusk to discover and develop a substance to combat this urban and agricultural pest. This article aims to evaluate studies involving natural products to control the population of Achatina fulica. Articles and works published in books were included in the present work. A total of 1,103 works were found during the search. Of these, 14 works met the objective of these review and were included in this article. The tests do not possess methodological standardization, do not have a maximum concentration to be considered active, or a maximum exposure time. A lack of standardization in the methodology of tests on A. fulica was observed. The performance of tests on other life stages of the mollusk, as well as tests that analyze other parameters, are essential. Only one article analyzed presented phytochemical analysis. No ecotoxicity tests were reported either. Some extracts showed promising results, highlighting the aqueous extract of Capsicum frutescens. More studies investigating the molluscicidal activity of natural products on A. fulica are needed. It is very relevant that the new studies present a phytochemical analysis of the tested extracts, as well as ecotoxicity studies.


Achatina fulica é um molusco terrestre conhecido como caramujo gigante africano que está relacionado a problemas ambientais, econômicos, urbanos e de saúde pública. Como medidas de controle para esse molusco, são utilizados sal de cozinha (NaCl) e óxido de cálcio (CaO), e as iscas são compostas de metaldeído. No entanto, essas medidas têm toxicidade ambiental e impactam o solo. Desta forma, produtos naturais foram testados neste molusco para descobrir e desenvolver uma substância para combater esta praga urbana e agrícola. Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar estudos envolvendo produtos naturais para controle da população de Achatina fulica. Artigos e trabalhos publicados em livros foram incluídos no presente trabalho. Um total de 1.103 trabalhos foram encontrados durante a pesquisa. Destes, 14 trabalhos atendiam ao objetivo desta revisão e foram incluídos neste artigo. Os testes não possuem padronização metodológica, não possuem concentração máxima para serem considerados ativos ou tempo máximo de exposição. Observou-se uma falta de padronização na metodologia de testes em A. fulica. A realização de testes em outras fases da vida do molusco, bem como testes que analisem outros parâmetros, são essenciais. Apenas um artigo analisado apresentou análise fitoquímica. Também não foram relatados testes de ecotoxicidade. Alguns extratos apresentaram resultados promissores, com destaque para o extrato aquoso de Capsicum frutescens. Mais estudos investigando a atividade molusquicida de produtos naturais sobre A. fulica são necessários. É muito relevante que os novos estudos apresentem uma análise fitoquímica dos extratos testados, bem como estudos de ecotoxicidade.


Assuntos
Animais , Caramujos , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Controle de Pragas , Agricultura , Saúde Pública
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e259217, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374678

RESUMO

The maize crop is used as food for humans, livestock and poultries forms, it is also used in bread making, corn flakes, corn syrup, corn starch and corn oils. The field study consisted of one experimental trial, about the incidence of that insect pest complex on maize cultivar Azam during the Kharif season 2020 at the Agricultural, Research Station, Baffa, Mansehra. The trial was laid out in the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), and then it was divided into three replications. The result obtained from the trial showed that a number of the pest species were recorded during the experimental period; however, the population was noticed at a low level. The obtained insect species were corn leaf aphid (6.90 ± 5.5) per square inch, corn leafhopper (1.32 ± 0.63), maize stem borer (0.63 ± 0.29), corn flea beetle (0.43 ± 0.28), Thrips (0.38 ± 0.22), Hairy caterpillar (0.21 ± 0.22), Grasshopper (0.17 ± 0.11) and shoot fly (0.11 ± 0.08) throughout the season


A cultura do milho é utilizada na alimentação humana, pecuária e avícola, bem como na panificação, flocos de milho, xarope de milho, amido de milho e óleos de milho. O estudo de campo consistiu em um ensaio experimental sobre a incidência desse complexo de insetos-praga na cultivar de milho Azam durante a temporada de Kharif 2020 na Estação de Pesquisa Agrícola, Baffa, Mansehra. O ensaio foi estabelecido no Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) e, em seguida, dividido em três repetições. O resultado obtido no ensaio mostrou que várias espécies de pragas foram registradas durante o período experimental; no entanto, foi observado um baixo nível da população. As espécies de insetos obtidas foram pulgão-da-folha-do-milho (6,90 ± 5,5) - por polegada quadrada -, cigarrinha-do-milho (1,32 ± 0,63), broca-do-caule-do-milho (0,63 ± 0,29), besouro-da-pulga-do-milho (0,43 ± 0,28), tripses (0,38 ± 0,22), lagarta-cabeluda (0,21 ± 0,22), gafanhoto (0,17 ± 0,11) e mosca (0,11 ± 0,08) ao longo da temporada


Assuntos
Animais , Controle de Pragas , Zea mays , Insetos , Paquistão , Agricultura
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e261752, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374658

RESUMO

Among edible mushrooms, Pleurotus eryngii is unique due to its flavor, admirable medicinal and nutritional profiling. Pakistan is an agricultural country diverse in various crops. However, the residues of the horticultural and agronomic crops are wasted without utilization in the food chain. Hence, a study was performed to assess the performance of relatively low-cost, easily available crops residues i.e. cotton, rice, wheat, mustard and water chestnut for yield and nutrition enhancement of Pleurotus eryngii strains P9 (China) and P10 (PSU-USA). The results revealed that morphological attributes i.e. mycelium run, fruit development, yield and biological efficiency were significantly higher by using cotton waste as compared to other substrates. Regarding biochemical attributes i.e. total soluble solids (12.67 °Brix), phenolics (259.6 mg/100g), moisture (92.3%) and ascorbic acid contents (2.9 mg/100ml) were also significantly higher by using cotton waste. Whereas, acidity (0.30%), reducing sugar (7.67%), non-reducing (4.33%) and total sugars contents (12%) were found highest by using mustard straw. Nutrient analysis of substrates showed that nutrient levels were increased after harvesting of crop as compared to before harvesting levels. Overall results revealed that cotton waste and mustard straw are promising substrates for Pleurotus eryngii better growth and have potential in yield and nutrition enhancement. Moreover, P10 strain performed better as compared to P9.


Entre os cogumelos comestíveis, Pleurotus eryngii é único por causa de seu sabor e seu admirável perfil medicinal e nutricional. O Paquistão é um país agrícola com diversas culturas. No entanto, os resíduos das culturas hortícolas e agronômicas são desperdiçados sem aproveitamento na cadeia alimentar. Assim, um estudo foi realizado para avaliar o desempenho de resíduos de culturas com custos relativamente baixos e facilmente disponíveis, ou seja, algodão, arroz, trigo, mostarda e castanha-de-água, para o aumento da produtividade e nutrição de cepas de P. eryngii P9 (China) e P10 (PSU-EUA). Os resultados revelaram que os atributos morfológicos, ou seja, função do micélio, desenvolvimento de frutos, rendimento e eficiência biológica, foram significativamente maiores usando resíduos de algodão em comparação com outros substratos. Em relação aos atributos bioquímicos, ou seja, sólidos solúveis totais (12,67 °Brix), fenólicos (259,6 mg / 100 g), umidade (92,3%) e teores de ácido ascórbico (2,9 mg / 100 ml), também foram significativamente maiores usando resíduos de algodão. Já os teores de acidez (0,30%), açúcares redutores (7,67%), não redutores (4,33%) e açúcares totais (12%) foram os mais elevados na palha de mostarda. A análise de nutrientes dos substratos mostrou que os níveis de nutrientes aumentaram após a colheita da cultura em comparação com os níveis antes da colheita. Os resultados gerais revelaram que os resíduos de algodão e a palha de mostarda são substratos promissores para o melhor crescimento de P. eryngii e têm potencial na melhoria da produtividade e nutrição. Além disso, a cepa P10 apresentou melhor desempenho em comparação com a P9.


Assuntos
Resíduos , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura , Fertilizantes
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253469, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364522

RESUMO

Agriculture sector of Saudi Arabia is growing swiftly and tomato is an important crop cultivated mostly under green houses. Unfortunately, it is facing severe infestation due to divers mite species. Present study, relates to evaluation of toxicity of oxamyl against two phytophagous mites; Aculops lycopersici and Tetranychus urticae, isolated from tomato plants suffering from infestation. Simultaneous effect of oxamyl on two predatory mites; Neosiulus cucumeris and Euseius scutalis, was also evaluated. Three concentrations of oxamyl; half of the recommended dose (HRD), recommended dose (RD) and double recommended dose (DRD), were used against each mite specie to observe mortality within seven days as compared to the control. Significant mortality of 97.91% and 93.92% was observed in A. lycopersici and T. urticae, respectively at RD. In case of predatory mites; N. cucumeris and E. scutalis, mortality was 60.61% and 64.48%, respectively, under same conditions. Mortality of mites observed at HRD was insignificant and there was negligible increase in mortality at DRD. Oxamyl being less toxic to predatory mites and significantly mortal to phytophagous mites is recommended as a tool to as a tool to achieve biological control parallel to pesticidal effect.


O setor agrícola da Arábia Saudita está crescendo rapidamente e o tomate é uma cultura importante cultivada principalmente em estufas. Infelizmente, está enfrentando uma infestação severa devido a diversas espécies de ácaros. O presente estudo refere-se à avaliação da toxicidade do oxamil contra dois ácaros fitófagos; Aculops lycopersici e Tetranychus urticae, isolados de tomateiros infestados. Efeito simultâneo de oxamil em dois ácaros predadores; Neosiulus cucumeris e Euseius scutalis, também foi avaliado. Três concentrações de oxamil; metade da dose recomendada (HRD), dose recomendada (RD) e dose dupla recomendada (DRD), foram usados ​​contra cada espécie de ácaro para observar a mortalidade em sete dias em comparação com o controle. Mortalidade significativa de 97,91% e 93,92% foi observada em A. lycopersici e T. urticae, respectivamente no RD. No caso de ácaros predadores; N. cucumeris e E. scutalis, a mortalidade foi de 60,61% e 64,48%, respectivamente, nas mesmas condições. A mortalidade de ácaros observada no HRD foi insignificante e houve um aumento insignificante na mortalidade no DRD. Oxamil sendo menos tóxico para ácaros predadores e significativamente mortal para ácaros fitófagos é recomendado como ferramenta para alcançar o controle biológico paralelo ao efeito pesticida.


Assuntos
Animais , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Lycopersicon esculentum , Agricultura , Ácaros , Arábia Saudita
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253780, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360200

RESUMO

Sugarcane crops Saccharum spp. (Poales: Poaceae) produces different derivatives to the world: sugar, ethanol and bioenergy. Despite the application of pesticides, insect pests still cause economic losses, among these the pink sugarcane mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell, 1895) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) causing direct and indirect damage to the plant. This study assess the virulence of three entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) species and their symbiont bacteria against the pink sugarcane mealybug, under laboratory conditions. Fourteen treatments represented by control (distilled water), Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar, 1976 (HB EN01) (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae), Steinernema rarum (Doucet, 1986) (PAM25) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, 1955 (All) (Rhabditida: Steinermatidae) at concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 infective juveniles (IJs)/insect, and the standard chemical product, thiamethoxam, were assayed. In a second experiment, the bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens (Thomas and Poinar, 1979), Xenorhabdus szentirmaii Lengyel, 2005 and Xenorhabdus nematophila (Poinar and Thomas, 1965) (Enterobacterales: Morganellaceae) at 3.0 x 109 cells/ml were assessed for each treatment. Ten replications were stablished, each one counting ten females/mealybugs inside a 10 cm Petri dish, amounting 100 individuals/treatment. All treatments were kept under stable conditions (25±1 ºC, H 70±10%, in the dark). All nematodes species infected S. sacchari. Steinerma rarum (PAM25) provided the highest mortality against the pink sugarcane mealybug (79.25%), followed by H. bacteriophora (HB EN01) (58.25%) and S. carpocapsae (All) (42.50%) (P<0.001). The mortality rate caused by X. szentirmaii, P. luminescens and X. nematophila were 40, 45 and 20%, respectively. Steinerma rarum (PAM25) has conditions to be a potential agent to be incorporate into the integrated pest management in sugarcane.


A cultura da cana-de-açúcar Saccharum spp. (Poales: Poaceae) produz diferentes derivados para o mundo: açúcar, etanol e bioenergia. Apesar da aplicação de pesticidas, os insetos-praga ainda causam prejuízos econômicos, dentre eles a cochonilha rosada da cana-de-açúcar Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell, 1895) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) causando danos diretos e indiretos à planta. Este estudo avaliou a virulência de três espécies de nematoides entomopatogênicos (NEPs) e suas bactérias simbiontes contra a cochonilha rosada da cana-de-açúcar, em condições de laboratório. Quatorze tratamentos representados pelo controle (água destilada), Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar, 1976 (HB EN01) (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae), Steinernema rarum (Doucet, 1986) (PAM25) e Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, 1955 (All) (Rhabditida: Steinermatidae) nas concentrações de 25, 50, 75 e 100 juvenis infectantes (JIs)/inseto, e o produto químico padrão, tiametoxam, foram testados. Em um segundo experimento, a bactéria Photorhabdus luminescens (Thomas e Poinar, 1979), Xenorhabdus szentirmaii Lengyel, 2005 e Xenorhabdus nematophila (Poinar e Thomas, 1965) (Enterobacterales: Morganellaceae) em 3,0 x 109 células/ml foram avaliadas para cada tratamento. Dez repetições foram estabelecidas, cada uma contendo dez fêmeas/cochonilhas dentro de uma placa de Petri de 10 cm, totalizando 100 indivíduos/tratamento. Todos os tratamentos foram mantidos em condições estáveis (25±1 ºC, U 70±10%, no escuro). Todas as espécies de nematoides infectaram S. sacchari. Steinerma rarum (PAM25) proporcionou a maior mortalidade contra a cochonilha rosada da cana-de-açúcar (79,25%), seguida por H. bacteriophora (HB EN01) (58,25%) e S. carpocapsae (All) (42,50%) (P<0,001). As taxas de mortalidade causada por X. szentirmaii, P. luminescens e X. nematophila foram de 40, 45 e 20%, respectivamente. Steinerma rarum (PAM25) tem condições de ser um agente potencial a ser incorporado ao manejo integrado de pragas da cana-de-açúcar.


Assuntos
Animais , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Saccharum , Agricultura , Hemípteros , Nematoides
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249230, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345556

RESUMO

Abstract The presence of weeds in areas of agricultural activities is a hinderance to the development of these activities. It is important to take advantage of the vast open spaces suitable for agriculture and provide food security for humans, and also it is an important indicator for determining the feasibility of growing crops, benefiting from yield and determining the percentage of loss, clearing fields through agricultural practices, that protect crops from weed attack and agricultural practice method must be followed that will reduce weed presence. This study was conducted during the years 2018 to 2020 to evaluate Portulacaceae of Flora in the Taif area in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia at different altitudes (Area 1 =1700 m, Area 2 =1500 m, Area 3 =1500 m, Area 4 =500 m ِ Area 5 = 2200 m, and Area 6 = 2200 m). The results show that there were 2,816 individuals of Portulaca oleracea weed, with the highest density found in A 1, followed by A 2, while in A 5 and A 6, no weeds were recorded. The highest density of weeds were in the Pomegranate fields, followed by Grape fields. The lowest density was found in A man field. The results of this study will help to take the necessary measures to combat weeds and its management in areas of agricultural activity, while more studies are needed to survey the ecology of weeds of Taif in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Resumo A presença de plantas daninhas em áreas de atividades agrícolas é um entrave ao desenvolvimento dessas atividades. É importante aproveitar os vastos espaços abertos adequados para a agricultura e dar segurança alimentar para o homem. Também é um indicador importante para determinar a viabilidade de cultivo de lavouras, beneficiando-se da produtividade e determinando o percentual de perda, desmatando campos agrícolas, práticas que protegem as lavouras do ataque de ervas daninhas, e métodos de práticas agrícolas devem ser seguidos para reduzir a presença de ervas daninhas. Este estudo foi realizado durante os anos de 2018 a 2020 para avaliar Portulacaceae de flora na área de Taif, no Reino da Arábia Saudita, em diferentes altitudes (Área 1 = 1.700 m, Área 2 = 1.500 m, Área 3 = 1.500 m, Área 4 = 500 m, Área 5 = 2.200 m, e Área 6 = 2.200 m). Os resultados mostram que houve 2.816 indivíduos de planta daninha Portulaca oleracea, com a maior densidade encontrada em A 1, seguida de A 2, enquanto em A 5 e A 6, nas plantas daninhas foram registrados. A maior densidade de ervas daninhas estava nos campos de romã, seguido pelos campos de uva. A densidade mais baixa foi encontrada no campo A man. Os resultados deste estudo ajudarão a tomar as medidas necessárias para combater as ervas daninhas e seu manejo em áreas de atividade agrícola, enquanto mais estudos são necessários para levantar a ecologia das ervas daninhas de Taif na Arábia Saudita.


Assuntos
Humanos , Portulacaceae , Arábia Saudita , Produtos Agrícolas , Agricultura , Plantas Daninhas
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e261997, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1384109

RESUMO

The study strives to analyze the potential variations of farmers' income under climate change by using Ricardian approach. The case study was Mazandaran province of Iran and three autumn crops, i.e. wheat, barley and canola were considered as the investigated crops. The Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG) model was selected to downscale the climate data. Three climate variables were downscaled for the years 2020-2080 under three climate scenarios: optimistic (RCP2.6), medium (RCP4.5), and pessimistic (RCP8.5). The Ricardian approach was also employed to predict the economics of climate change. Accordingly, the mean monthly temperature of the province is projected to have an upward trend under all climate scenarios, however, the rainfall pattern would be varied. The results of economic impacts of climate change also approved that the net income of investigated crops would be different trends under climate change scenarios. Accordingly, the variations of air temperature and rainfall would lead that the net income increases for wheat and barley, while it decreases for canola.


O estudo se esforça para analisar as variações potenciais da renda dos agricultores sob a mudança climática usando a abordagem Ricardiana. O estudo de caso foi a província de Mazandaran do Irã e três culturas de outono, ou seja, trigo, cevada e canola foram consideradas como as culturas investigadas. O modelo Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG) foi selecionado para reduzir a escala dos dados climáticos. Três variáveis ​​climáticas foram reduzidas para os anos 2020-2080 em três cenários climáticos: otimista (RCP2.6), médio (RCP4.5) e pessimista (RCP8.5). A abordagem ricardiana também foi empregada para prever a economia das mudanças climáticas. Assim, projeta-se que a temperatura média mensal da província tenha uma tendência ascendente em todos os cenários climáticos, no entanto, o padrão de chuvas seria variado. Os resultados dos impactos econômicos das mudanças climáticas também aprovaram que a renda líquida das lavouras investigadas seria de tendências diferentes em cenários de mudanças climáticas. Nesse sentido, as variações da temperatura do ar e da pluviosidade fariam com que a renda líquida aumentasse para o trigo e a cevada, enquanto diminuía para a canola.


Assuntos
Estações do Ano , Hordeum , Triticum , Mudança Climática , Brassica napus , Agricultura/economia , Renda
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(2): 908-916, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relieving serious non-point source pollution of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) is an urgent task in China. It is necessary to explore the changing characteristics of chemical fertilization intensity (FI) and efficiency to provide references. A new method of 'relative productivity proportion weight', which was simpler than data envelope analysis, was proposed to construct models of fertilizer allocation efficiency (FAE) and chemical fertilizer integrated efficiency (FIE) by considering NPK multi-inputs and the grain output scale, respectively. RESULTS: During 1980-2014, the FIs of NPK chemical fertilizers in China showed a significant growing trend. After reaching the highest value of 339 kg ha-1 in 2014, FIs were reduced to 303 kg ha-1 in 2019, higher than the 225 kg ha-1 maximum safe usage internationally recognized. Meanwhile, the pattern of change of FAE was one of 'decreasing to increasing', with values of 1 in 1980, 0.66 in 2003, and 0.80 in 2019. FIE basically showed an increasing trend, which could be divided into three stages: the first stage of low efficiency during 1980-2009, the second stage of medium efficiency after 2010, and the third stage of high efficiency after 2018. CONCLUSION: From 1980 until 2019, a reduction of FAE from 1 to 0.80 with an average of 0.75 was observed in China. FIE was found between 0.65 and 0.85 and had the potential of upgrading by 15-35%. Therefore, China needs to improve the fertilizer use efficiency in order to strive for negative growth of chemical fertilizer intensity and ecological agriculture construction. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Solo , Fertilizantes/análise , Fósforo/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Agricultura/métodos , Grão Comestível/química , Fertilização , China
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(2): 968-975, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36260409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice-duck coculture is an ecological agricultural mode; however, the nutritional and environmental benefits of transforming from conventional rice monoculture to rice-duck coculture are unknown. Based on survey data and the life-cycle assessment approach, this study conducted a carbon footprint evaluation of conventional rice monoculture (CR), organic rice monoculture (OR), and organic rice-duck coculture (ORD) using different functional units. RESULTS: The carbon footprint per hectare of ORD (7842 ± 284 kg CO2 eq ha-1 ) was slightly lower than that of CR (7905 ± 412 kg CO2 eq ha-1 ), while higher than that of OR (7786 ± 235 kg CO2 eq ha-1 ). Although the rice yield of ORD was slightly lower than that of CR, its nutrient density unit (NDU) did not decrease significantly due to the additional duck yield. Thus, the carbon footprint per NDU of ORD was significantly lower than that of OR by 24.3% (P < 0.05) and was 5.8% higher than that of CR, but this was not statistically significant. Due to the higher economic profits of ORD, its unit of carbon footprint per economic profit was significantly reduced (by 47.1-75.7%) compared with the other two farming modes, while the net ecosystem economic budget was significantly increased by 98.5-341.9% (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Transforming from a rice monoculture to a coculture system will contribute to a win-win situation for human health and environmental sustainability. This study highlighted the abundant nutritional output function of the rice-duck coculture and analyzed the urgency and necessity of transitioning from traditional agriculture to ecological agriculture from the production and consumption perspectives. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Patos , Oryza , Animais , Humanos , Ecossistema , Dióxido de Carbono , Técnicas de Cocultura , Pegada de Carbono , Agricultura , China
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 2): 159779, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309274

RESUMO

Landscape sensitivity is a concept referring to the likelihood that changes in land use may affect in an irreversible way physical and chemical soil properties of the concerned landscape. The objective of this study is to quantitatively assess the sensitivity of the southern Alpine soil landscape regarding land use change-induced perturbations. Alpine soil landscapes can be considered as particularly sensitive to land use changes because their effects tend to be enhanced by frequent extreme climatic and topographic conditions as well as intense geomorphologic activity. In detail, the following soil key properties for soil vulnerability were analysed: (i) soil texture, (ii) bulk density, (iii) soil organic carbon (SOC), (iv) saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), (v) aggregate stability and (vi) soil water repellency (SWR). The study area is characterized by a steep, east-west oriented valley, strongly anthropized in the last centuries followed by a progressive abandonment. This area is particularly suitable due to constant lithological conditions, extreme topographic and climatic conditions as well as historic land use changes. The analysis of land use change effects on soil properties were performed through a linear mixed model approach due to the nested structure of the data. Our results show a generally high stability of the assessed soils in terms of aggregate stability and noteworthy thick soils. The former is remarkable, since aggregate stability, which is commonly used for detecting land use-induced changes in soil erosion susceptibility, was always comparably high irrespective of land use. The stability of the soils is mainly related to a high amount of soil organic matter favouring the formation of stable soil aggregates, decreasing soil erodibility and hence, reducing soil loss by erosion. However, the most sensitive soil property to land use change was SWR that is partly influenced by the amount of soil organic carbon and probably by the quality and composition of SOM.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Solo/química , Carbono/análise , Agricultura , Suíça
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 2): 159774, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334659

RESUMO

Agricultural plastic-film residues have been considered as one of the important sources of microplastics in the agroecosystem. However, limited researches were conducted on the accumulation of microplastics in long-term film-mulched paddy soil. This study aims to investigate the distribution and the weathering characteristics of filmy microplastics in a mulched paddy field (non-mulch, four years of mulched, and ten years of continuous mulched soil were investigated) in Southwest China. More than 50 % of the microplastics in the mulched soil were 1-3 mm, whereas the largest percentage of the microplastics in the non-mulched soil was <1 mm (55.3 %). Microplastic compositions in this field mainly consist of polyester (PES) and polyethylene (PE) (82.1 %). The abundance of microplastics increases with the film mulching time, which were 76.2 ± 18.4, 118.6 ± 44.8, and 159.6 ± 23.5 items kg-1 in soil with non-mulching, four years of mulching, and ten years of continuous mulching, respectively. The filmy microplastics accumulated annually in the plough layer is estimated at 18.1 million items ha-1. Weathering characteristics of filmy microplastics extracted from paddy soil were characterized using FTIR, SEM-EDS, AFM, and contact angle meter. The vinyl, carbonyl, and hydroxyl indices calculated from FTIR results showed that the degradation degree of microplastics incereased as mulching time rose; compared with commercial PE films, the oxygen-containing functional groups of soil-extracted PE films were increased. This study revealed the status of microplastic pollution in paddy soil with long-term mulching. It provided primary data and a scientific basis for further study on environmental behavior and ecological impacts of microplastics in agricultural soils.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Solo , Solo/química , Plásticos , Agricultura , China
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 2): 159738, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334657

RESUMO

Nitrous oxide (N2O), as a potent greenhouse gas, must be limited to prevent the global temperature increasing by >2 °C. Cropland is the largest source of anthropogenic N2O emissions; however, earlier estimates for emissions and their exceedances still remain uncertainties. Here, we used a spatially explicit model to estimate cropland N2O emission in 2014 by refined grid-level crop-specific EFs and considered the background emission. We also sought to determine where N2O emissions exceed the "boundary" through analysis of spatial data from representative concentration pathway (RCP) 2.6. The global cropland N2O emission was 2.92 ± 0.59 Tg N yr-1, which far exceeds the 0.82 Tg N yr-1 boundary, over 90 % of cropland areas exceeded the boundary. Western Europe, Southeastern China, Pakistan, and the Ganges Plain exceeded the boundary by >2 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The boundary exceedances showed a positive linear response with respect to total cropland emission and a quadratic response to GDP per capita at the country level. Our study highlights the necessity of accurate estimations of spatial variations in cropland N2O emissions and evaluation of exceedances, to facilitate the development of more effective mitigation measures in different regions.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Óxido Nitroso , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Temperatura , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Análise Espacial , China , Agricultura , Solo , Fertilizantes/análise
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 2): 159897, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336061

RESUMO

The distribution, speciation, and bioavailability of selenium (Se) - an essential micronutrient for human beings - in agricultural soils influence the resource recovery of agricultural benefits and the sustainable use of Se in agroecosystems. Quantitative understanding in this regard however remains limited in the world's mollisol agroecosystems, despite their critical importance in securing global food supply. Herein, a systematic investigation of Se in the river sediment-irrigation water-mollisols-rhizosphere-rice seeds continuum, at the core zone of the northern mollisol regions, was conducted to elucidate the hydrological-hydrogeochemical processes and mechanisms responsible for the distribution and bioavailability of Se. The content of total Se in the mollisols ranged between 0.12 and 0.54 mg/kg with an average of 0.31 mg/kg. At the riverside flood plains, humic-acid bound Se accounted on average for 39 % of total Se. This pool of Se can be transformed to water-soluble and ion-exchangeable Se(VI), supporting a higher potential of Se bioavailability at riparian agricultural mollisols. For mollisol lands far from the river channels, the topography affects the speciation and partitioning of Se presumably through regulating water retention and organic matter transport. Moreover, altering pH and redox conditions in response to irrigation with the river water may boost Se bioavailability in weakly acidic and high Eh mollisols. It can be in part ascribed to the transformation of organic-bound Se along with infiltrated oxygenated water that leads to the increase of water-soluble and ion-exchangeable Se. These findings reinforce that hydrological-hydrogeochemical perturbations due to irrigation with surface water need to be assessed carefully in the management of Se resources in the mollisol agroecosystems.


Assuntos
Selênio , Humanos , Selênio/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Agricultura , Solo/química , Água
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 1): 159301, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216070

RESUMO

Trade-offs in ecosystem services (ES) is increasingly becoming a pressing issue in sustainability science, to deal with supply constraints of landscape and divergence in demand from local and global stakeholders. Agroforestry is a well acknowledged and established management practice to minimize the trade-offs, and to sustainably manage the contested landscapes while satisfying the growing demands of both local and global ecosystem beneficiaries. However, various facets of agroforestry, its management modality, institutional arrangements, and implementation outcomes are inadequately understood. This paper aims to scrutinize major agroforestry practices through the methods of systematic review of literature, government policies, and project reports. Taking a case of Nepal, this paper presents agroforestry transition from forest-based agroforestry (i.e., shifting cultivation) to farm-based integrated approach to agroforestry in Nepal. This paper reveals that integrated agro-forestry approach is crucial in creating win-win scenarios among various stakeholders by minimizing trade-offs and maximizing synergies among ES, especially food, fibre, and other ES (i.e., biodiversity, soil functioning, water, and climate regulation). Analysing socio-economic, ecological, and institutional factors that are affecting agroforestry for the last fifty years, we further suggest an integrated model of agroforestry which is replicable in other countries with similar socio-economic status, practicing subsistence farming system. The findings of the paper are crucial in awakening scholars, policy makers and landscape managers for up-scaling and out-scaling of integrated approach to agroforestry for ecosystem management and attainment of various sustainable development goals such as, no poverty (#1), zero hunger (#2), climate action (#13), and life on land (#15).


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Agricultura , Agricultura Florestal , Nepal
17.
Environ Pollut ; 316(Pt 2): 120553, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347410

RESUMO

This study comprises a critical review of modeling of pesticides in surface waters. The aim was to update the status of the use of models to simulate the fate of pesticides from diffuse sources. ISI papers were selected on Scopus and the information concerning the study areas, type of pesticides (herbicides, fungicides and insecticides), the model, and the methodology adopted (i.e., calibration and/or validation, spatial and temporal scales) were analyzed. The studies were carried out in Europe (55.5%), North America (22.3%), Asia (13.9%) and South America (8.3%). The Soil and Water Assessment Tool proved to be the most used model (45.95%). Herbicides were the most modeled pesticides (71.4%), followed by insecticides (18.2%) and fungicides (10.4%). The main herbicides modeled were atrazine, metolachlor, isoproturon, glyphosate, and acetochlor. Insecticides such as chlorpyrifos and metaldehyde. Chlorothalonil, and fungicides (i.e., tebuconazole) were the most widely investigated. Based on published studies, it was found that modeling approaches for assessing the fate of pesticides are constantly evolving and the model algorithms work well with diverse watershed conditions, management strategies, and pesticide properties. Several papers reported concentrations of pesticides exceeding ecotoxicological thresholds revealing that water contamination with pesticides used in agriculture and urban areas is a priority issue of current global concern.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Herbicidas , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Praguicidas/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Inseticidas/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Doce , Herbicidas/análise , Agricultura , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Environ Pollut ; 316(Pt 2): 120610, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356887

RESUMO

Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE, defined as the fraction of N input harvested as product) is an important indicator to understand nitrogen use and losses in croplands as an element of determining sustainable food production. China, as the country with the largest amount of nitrogen fertilizer use globally, research into NUE consistently finds it to be much lower than that in developed countries. Understanding the driving forces of the underlying causes of this low NUE is thus crucial to improve nitrogen use and reduce losses in China. Here we applied the CHANS model to estimate cropland NUE for over 2800 counties in China for the year 2017. Results showed that in most counties NUE ranged between 20% and 40%, while an NUE >50% was mainly found in Northeastern China, likely as a result of large-scale, modern agriculture operations. The source of N input and crop types significantly affected NUE in our assessment. Nitrogen deposition, straw recycling, and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) could improve NUE, while chemical nitrogen fertilizer and manure inputs reduce NUE. Grain crops have a much higher NUE compared to vegetables, which are often over-fertilized. Moreover, NUE in Southern China is strongly influenced by natural factors such as temperature and precipitation. Specifically, NUE in the Yangtze River Delta (eastern coastal region of China) is associated with socio-economic factors including GDP and the degree of urbanization, while in North-central China, NUE is mainly determined by nitrogen input sources. These examples illustrate that approaches aiming at improving NUE need to be location-specific with consideration of multiple natural and socioeconomic factors.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio , Nitrogênio/análise , Agricultura/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Esterco , China
19.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 378(1868): 20210431, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36440571

RESUMO

Cooperation in food acquisition is a hallmark of the human species. Given that costs and benefits of cooperation vary among production regimes and work activities, the transition from hunting-and-gathering to agriculture is likely to have reshaped the structure of cooperative subsistence networks. Hunter-gatherers often forage in groups and are generally more interdependent and experience higher short-term food acquisition risk than horticulturalists, suggesting that cooperative labour should be more widespread and frequent for hunter-gatherers. Here we compare female cooperative labour networks of Batek hunter-gatherers of Peninsular Malaysia and Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia. We find that Batek foraging results in high daily variation in labour partnerships, facilitating frequent cooperation in diffuse networks comprised of kin and non-kin. By contrast, Tsimane horticulture involves more restricted giving and receiving of labour, confined mostly to spouses and primary or distant kin. Tsimane women also interact with few individuals in the context of hunting/fishing activities and forage mainly with spouses and primary kin. These differences give rise to camp- or village-level networks that are more modular (have more substructure when partitioned) among Tsimane horticulturalists. Our findings suggest that subsistence activities shape the formation and extent of female social networks, particularly with respect to connections with other women and non-kin. We discuss the implications of restricted female labour networks in the context of gender relations, power dynamics and the adoption of farming in humans. This article is part of the theme issue 'Cooperation among women: evolutionary and cross-cultural perspectives'.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Relações Interpessoais , Evolução Biológica , Agricultura , Cônjuges
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 1): 159519, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461572

RESUMO

Peri urban agriculture (peri-UA) can supply food locally and potentially more sustainably than far-away conventional agricultural systems. It can also introduce significant environmental impacts depending on the local biophysical conditions and resources required to implement it and, on the crops managing practices, which could vary widely among growers. Sophisticated methods to account for such variability while assessing direct (on-site) and indirect (up/down stream) environmental impacts of peri-UA implementation are thus needed. We implemented an attributional, regionalized, cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) for which we derive spatially explicit inventories and calculate 14 impacts due to peri-UA using the ReCiPe method. Further, to show the importance of impact assessment regionalization for the environmental assessment of peri-UA, we regionalize eutrophication impacts characterization. We use the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona (AMB) to illustrate these methodological developments. Vegetables and greenhouses, the prevalent peri-UA land uses, had the largest impacts assessed, of all peri-UA land uses. European NPK mineral fertilizer production to cover N demand of these crops drives all impacts. For fruit crops, on-site N emissions drive marine eutrophication impacts and for irrigated herbaceous crops, phosphate runoff drives freshwater eutrophication impacts. Geographic variability of peri-UA metabolic flows and impacts was displayed. Management practices at the plots, which are linked the land use, are responsible for impacts variability. Regionalization of eutrophication impacts highlights the importance of accounting for the biophysical aspects at the geographic scale at which peri-UA takes place, which is a much finer scale than those implemented in current regionalization of impact assessment methods in LCA. This study provides a fundamental baseline needed to assess transition scenarios of peri-UA at an appropriate geographic level of analysis and gives essential knowledge to guide appropriate circular and sustainability strategies for the sector.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , Animais , Fertilizantes , Água Doce , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
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