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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 491, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information learned over a longer period of time has been shown to result in better long-term knowledge retention than information learned over a shorter period of time. In order to address multiple curricular goals, the timing and spacing of anatomy content within the Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) program at our institution recently changed from a very spaced to a very compressed format. The purpose of the present study was to assess differences in anatomy knowledge retention that might have been impacted by this change. The research hypothesis was that students receiving spaced instruction would have significantly better anatomy knowledge retention than students receiving massed instruction. METHODS: Participants consisted of two cohorts of DPT students that both received 45 contact hours of anatomy lecture and 90 contact hours of anatomy lab. The LONG cohort experienced anatomy through a lecture and lab taught over a 30-week, 2 semester period as separate courses. In contrast, the SHORT cohort took their anatomy lecture and lab concurrently over one 10-week semester. A pre-test was administered on the first day of their anatomy lecture course, and a post-test was administered to each cohort 18 months after completion of their last anatomy exam. RESULTS: After controlling for age-related differences in the two groups, no significant differences in mean pre-test, post-test, or percentage improvement were found between cohorts (p = 0.516; 0.203; and 0.152, respectively). CONCLUSION: These findings refute the hypothesis and show that both spaced and massed instruction in these cohorts resulted in the same level of long-term anatomy knowledge retention.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Avaliação Educacional , Anatomia/educação , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudantes
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 489, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gross anatomy laboratory course at medical school is usually an important learning subject for medical students; however, seeing a cadaver often makes them feel uncomfortable. According to the broaden-and-build theory, positive emotions broaden our inventory of thoughts and actions, and build physical, mental, and social resources. Research on positive psychology found that through direct thanks and positive reframing, people who feel gratitude show fewer depressive symptoms. The present study tried to reduce students' negative emotions towards cadavers by sequential activities, such as family interviews and an initiation ceremony, which induced gratitude and other positive emotions. METHODS: The Emotional Reactions Towards Cadavers Scale (ERTCS) was used to evaluate medical students' emotional reactions after they see a cadaver. Third year medical students (n = 105) at Taipei Medical University in northern Taiwan completed ERTCS on three occasions within a single semester during academic year 2016. Repeated-measures ANOVA and hierarchical regression analyses were then conducted to identify any changes in the emotional reactions of these students. RESULTS: The ERTCS showed satisfactory internal consistency and a three-factor structure, i.e., negative emotions, high-level emotions, and excited emotions. High-level emotions were the highest, and negative emotions were the lowest among the three in our sample. Three-wave data showed that participants' high-level emotions increased, negative emotions decreased, and the former simultaneously predicted the latter after controlling for the influence of gender, religious beliefs, experience of the death of a family member or friend, and burnout level. CONCLUSIONS: While past research usually focused on coping strategies to reduce medical students' negative emotions, our study supported the broaden-and-build theory, which emphasizes positive emotions, and demonstrated that elevating medical students' gratitude to 'silent mentors' is an effective way. It is suggested that combining dissection courses with medical humanities can help students successfully handle negative emotions during a gross anatomy laboratory course.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Anatomia/educação , Cadáver , Emoções , Humanos , Laboratórios , Taiwan
3.
Anat Sci Educ ; 14(5): 528-535, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363339

RESUMO

The Covid-19 pandemic has challenged medical educators internationally to confront the challenges of adapting their present educational activities to a rapidly evolving digital world. In this article, the authors use anatomy education as proxy to reflect on and remap the past, present, and future of medical education in the face of these disruptions. Inspired by the historical Theatrum Anatomicum (Anatomy 1.0), the authors argue replacing current anatomy dissection laboratory (Anatomy 2.0) with a prototype anatomy studio (Anatomy 3.0). In this studio, anatomists are web-performers who not only collaborate with other foundational science educators to devise meaningful and interactive content but who also partner with actors, directors, web-designers, computer engineers, information technologists, and visual artists to master online interactions and processes in order to optimize students' engagement and learning. This anatomy studio also offers students opportunities to create their own online content and thus reposition themselves digitally, a step into developing a new competency of stage presence within medical education. So restructured, Anatomy 3.0 will prepare students with the skills to navigate an emergent era of tele and digital medicine as well as help to foreshadow forthcoming changes in medical education.


Assuntos
Anatomia , COVID-19 , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Anatomia/educação , Currículo , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 461, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last few decades, the need to change the curriculum of basic medical science has been further emphasized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of teaching integrated course of physical examination and radiological anatomy in practical limb anatomy on medical students' learning outcomes. METHODS: This was an experimental study. Medical students (of the 4th semester of medical education) were divided into intervention and control groups. Related topics of physical examination and radiological anatomy were added to the practical limb anatomy courses of the intervention group. Practical knowledge of anatomy, clinical applications of anatomical knowledge, students 'satisfaction, and students' attitude toward the anatomy course were assessed at the end of the study. Knowledge retention was assessed three months after the semester. RESULTS: The intervention group scored significantly higher mean scores in practical knowledge of anatomy test, clinical applications of anatomical knowledge test and knowledge retention test (P-value < 0.05). In evaluating students' satisfaction with the course, the intervention group was satisfied with the course and teacher performance and had appropriate attitude (Mean˃4, Max score = 5) towards the application of anatomy in medicine. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that teaching practical anatomy with a clinical integrated approach can improve the practical knowledge of anatomy, knowledge retention, and clinical applications of anatomical knowledge. In addition, an integrated approach was associated with greater student satisfaction and it makes students have appropriate attitude towards the application of anatomy in medicine.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Anatomia/educação , Currículo , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Exame Físico , Ensino
8.
Anat Sci Educ ; 14(5): 536-551, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236764

RESUMO

In early 2020, the Covid-19 crisis forced medical institutions worldwide to convert quickly to online platforms for content delivery. Although many components of medical education were adaptable to that format, anatomical dissection laboratory lost substantial content in that conversion, including features of active student participation, three-dimensional spatial relationships of structures, and the perception of texture, variation, and scale. The present study aimed to develop and assess online anatomy laboratory sessions that sought to preserve benefits of the dissection experience for first-year medical students. The online teaching package was based on a novel form of active videography that emulates eye movement patterns that occur during processes of visual identification, scene analysis, and learning. Using this video-image library of dissected materials, content was presented through asynchronous narrated laboratory demonstrations and synchronous/active video conference sessions and included a novel, video-based assessment tool. Data were obtained using summative assessments and a final course evaluation. Test scores for the online practical examination were significantly improved over those for previous in-person dissection-based examinations, as evidenced by several measures of performance (Mean: 2015-2019: 82.5%; 2020: 94.9%; P = 0.003). Concurrently, didactic test scores were slightly, but not significantly, improved (Mean: 2015-2019: 88.0%; 2020: 89.9%). Student evaluations of online sessions and overall course were highly positive. Results indicated that this innovative online teaching package can provide an effective alternative when in-person dissection laboratory is unavailable. Although this approach consumed considerable faculty time for video editing, further development will include video conference breakout rooms to emulate dissection small-group teamwork.


Assuntos
Anatomia , COVID-19 , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Anatomia/educação , Cadáver , Computadores , Currículo , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Ensino
10.
Anat Sci Educ ; 14(5): 552-561, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268899

RESUMO

In response to the Covid-19 pandemic, medical educators have transformed pre-clerkship anatomy curricula into online formats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and student perceptions of an online near-peer anatomy curriculum. The classes of 2022 and 2023 completed identical foundational anatomy curricula in-person, whereas the class of 2024 completed an adapted curriculum for remote online learning. Quantitative and qualitative responses were used to compare attitudes between instructional methods. Assessment scores and evaluation survey responses were collected from the classes of 2022 (n = 185), 2023 (n = 184), and 2024 (n = 183). Mean assessment scores (±SD) for the classes of 2022, 2023, and 2024 were 93.64% (±5.86), 93.75% (±4.09), and 92.04% (±4.83), respectively. Post hoc group comparisons showed the class of 2024 scored significantly lower than the two previous classes [2022: (H(1) = 18.58, P < 0.001), 2023: (H(1) = 18.65, P < 0.001)]. Mean survey results concerning curriculum quality were 4.06/5.00 for the class of 2023 and 3.57/5.0 for the class of 2024 (t(365) = 2.67, P = 0.008). Considering a small effect size (η2 = 0.034), there was no meaningful difference in student assessment scores. A potential drawback of online near-peer anatomy teaching remains in student perceptions of course quality; qualitative feedback suggested technological limitations and perceptions of online course instructors were partly responsible for lower student satisfaction. Following the Covid-19 pandemic, medical educators should incorporate the lessons learned from this unique educational inflection point to improve curricula moving forward.


Assuntos
Anatomia , COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Anatomia/educação , Currículo , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Ensino
12.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(26): e188, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227264

RESUMO

The rapid increase of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic from mid-February 2020 has led the anatomy department of the Korea University College of Medicine to cease the dissection laboratory. However, the hands-on anatomy laboratory experience is paramount to maximizing learning outcomes. In this paper, we share the experiences and lessons learned through the face-to-face cadaveric dissection experience during this disruptive situation. To minimize infection risks, the following strategies were applied: first, students' on-campus attendance was reduced; second, body temperatures and symptoms were checked before entering the laboratory, and personal protective equipment was provided to all participants; and third, a negative pressure air circulation system was used in the dissection room. We suggest that conducting face-to-face cadaveric anatomy dissection is feasible when the daily count of newly infected cases stabilizes, and there is ample provision of safety measures to facilitate hands-on education.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Dissecação/métodos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Cadáver , Educação à Distância/métodos , Humanos , República da Coreia , SARS-CoV-2 , Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina
13.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(3): 486-500, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280044

RESUMO

This qualitative study investigated processes used by undergraduate students over a course sequence in anatomy and physiology (A&P). Longitudinal data for each participant include weekly written reflections and interviews at the beginning, middle, and end of the two-semester sequence. The themes that emerged describe three variations of approach to learning the course content. In some cases, the focus was on completing tasks and actions without connecting those to a specific outcome. In other cases, the focus was on outcomes without specific references to what steps might lead to that outcome. A third approach explicitly linked tasks and actions to one or more of nine different outcomes, including both personal and course expectations. Two other themes emerged as salient in combination with the three approaches: self-identified shortcomings with their study approaches and affective responses to the course and content. Affective responses included both positive affect such as enjoyment or excitement and negative affect such as frustration or dislike. Understanding the approaches that students take to learning, combined with their affect and shortcomings in those approaches, can inform instructor decisions about course activities and resources that support specific learning outcomes. It also provides a foundational knowledge base for the development of context-specific instruments for quantifying student learning processes in A&P.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes
14.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(3): 511-517, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280045

RESUMO

Anatomy and physiology courses are sometimes seen as difficult, which can lead to a lack of motivation in students to learn and engage in the course material. Students may also see the material as "dry," have issues forming personal connections, or struggle to connect the content to the real world. These issues may lead to students not performing well in the course or feeling that the health field is not ideal for them. Popular culture, especially mainstream superheroes, can serve as an option for mending these gaps by being a gateway to connecting to many students' lives. Superheroes can be integrated into the classroom through relevant, creative, and unique examples that include clinical correlates, modern scientific innovations, and some real-life "supers" living among us. Real anatomy and physiology can still be taught and explained through discussing these "incredible" examples and also present an opportunity for students to be creative in generating their own anatomical and physiological explanations for various superpowers. Superheroes also help open the classroom up to being a place of acceptance, primarily through their secret identities, which cover a broad range of idols that students can look up to, whether it is their career or based on a character's race or sexual orientation. Professors can become the superhero in their classroom and help students become more engaged and interested in the material.


Assuntos
Anatomistas , Anatomia , Fisiologia , Anatomia/educação , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Fisiologia/educação , Estudantes
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15292, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315955

RESUMO

The use of Augmented Reality (AR) in anatomical education has been promoted by numerous authors. Next to financial and ethical advantages, AR has been described to decrease cognitive load while increasing student motivation and engagement. Despite these advantages, the effects of AR on learning outcome varies in different studies and an overview and aggregated outcome on learning anatomy is lacking. Therefore, a meta-analysis on the effect of AR vs. traditional anatomical teaching methods on learning outcome was performed. Systematic database searches were conducted by two independent investigators using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. This yielded five papers for meta-analysis totaling 508 participants; 240 participants in the AR-groups and 268 participants in the control groups. (306 females/202 males). Meta-analysis showed no significant difference in anatomic test scores between the AR group and the control group (- 0.765 percentage-points (%-points); P = 0.732). Sub analysis on the use of AR vs. the use of traditional 2D teaching methods showed a significant disadvantage when using AR (- 5.685%-points; P = 0.024). Meta-regression analysis showed no significant co-relation between mean difference in test results and spatial abilities (as assessed by the mental rotations test scores). Student motivation and/or engagement could not be included since studies used different assessment tools. This meta-analysis showed that insufficient evidence is present to conclude AR significantly impacts learning outcome and that outcomes are significantly impacted by students' spatial abilities. However, only few papers were suitable for meta-analysis, indicating that there is a need for more well-designed, randomized-controlled trials on AR in anatomy education research.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , Realidade Aumentada , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino
17.
GMS J Med Educ ; 38(5): Doc87, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286067

RESUMO

At the start of the COVID-pandemic in March 2020, the Institutes of Veterinary Anatomy of the five German educational institutions were confronted with the challenge of digitalising all lectures for the second and fourth semesters of veterinary students. After an online kick-off event and a preliminary status quo meeting, available digital teaching material was exchanged for students to stream from learning platforms. Lectures were either synchronized or made available as audio recordings and connotated slides on the learning platforms. Fortunately, digital microscopic slides had already been in use, which made it easy for students to access them. Dissection exercises mostly consisted of self-study, using instructive videos and interactive exercises. In the second half of the semester, four of the educational institutions were able to offer a restricted number of in-person gross anatomy classes under reinforced conditions. Success monitoring took place online through different formats, and partially on a voluntary basis, via the learning platforms. Although the past two semesters had to almost exclusively take place online due to the unprecedented circumstances, and joint efforts of the five veterinary institutions, there is a general consensus that the practical education in anatomy, histology and embryology is essential to veterinary students. In fact, it is the only way they can obtain the necessary skills to successfully complete the rest of their degree.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Educação em Veterinária/métodos , Pandemias , Faculdades de Medicina Veterinária , Ensino , Recursos Audiovisuais , Tecnologia Digital , Dissecação , Alemanha , Humanos , Internet , Microscopia , Distanciamento Físico , Competência Profissional , Estudantes , Universidades , Medicina Veterinária
19.
Clin Anat ; 34(6): 961-965, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080729

RESUMO

The inclusion of human body dissection in anatomical science curricula has been described as a critical educational experience for the mastery of anatomical structures and concepts. To ensure that body donors are ethically acquired and suitable for anatomy education, Anatomical Donation Programs (ADPs) are tasked with the responsibility of acquiring body donors for basic and clinical science curricula. Considering the personal and institutional impact of SARS-CoV-2, a national survey was conducted to examine the current effect of the pandemic on ADP protocols, body donation, and the sustainability of ADPs in the United States (U.S.). Eighty-nine U.S. ADPs were identified and contacted for optional participation in a survey to assess the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on their programs. Survey data were collected and managed using REDCap electronic data capture tools. Thirty-six ADPs (40.5% response rate) from the nine U.S. Divisions are represented in the survey results. Data were collected on ADP descriptions and demographics, SARS-CoV-2 impact on ADPs and protocols, and body donation and ADP sustainability. Almost all ADPs reported that the pandemic has affected their ADP operations in some way; however, the sustainability for the majority of ADPs appears likely and donor availability remains stable due to a proportional decrease in body donations and body donor requests. As the long-term impact on ADPs has yet to be determined, the authors plan to reevaluate the lasting impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on body donation, ADP sustainability, and anatomical science education throughout the year 2021.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cadáver , Educação Médica , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/organização & administração , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Currículo , Humanos , Estados Unidos
20.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(3): 481-485, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142877

RESUMO

The College of Science and Health Professions offers a university preprofessional program. Like most medical schools in Saudi Arabia, the teaching delivery strategy in the university preprofessional program is on campus and face-to-face. During the month of March 2020, teaching activities of the spring semester were proceeding as normal; however, the sudden emergence of COVID-19 disturbed routine activities and compelled authorities to switch all teaching activities from face-to-face to online. Training sessions and workshops for all stakeholders on online delivery methods were arranged. Blackboard and other online facilities were utilized. All teaching materials, including newly made video clips for anatomy and physiology practicals, were uploaded on Blackboard and discussed online with students. Students' anxiety related to the exam was reassured by giving them the option of open book quizzes during summative continuous assessment. All scheduled teaching sessions, lectures, and practicals were conducted proficiently. Revision sessions and assessment quizzes were conducted with students' satisfaction. At the end of the semester, a final exam was conducted online as an open book exam. Students with technical issues while attempting the exam were given an opportunity to make up for it. After a successful final exam, the cumulative block grades showed students secured higher grades in the open book exam. Following that, the King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences has managed to conduct on-campus close book exams that abide by self-distancing and standard operating procedure policies.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , COVID-19 , Educação à Distância/organização & administração , Fisiologia/educação , Universidades , Humanos , Arábia Saudita , Faculdades de Medicina , Ensino
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