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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150034, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500279

RESUMO

Land use change alters wildlife critical animal behaviours such as movement, becoming the main driver threatening wildlife ecological functions (WEF) and nature's contribution to people (NCP) provided by terrestrial species. Despite the negative impacts of current rates of terrestrial fragmentation on WEF, many ecological processes can be still occurring through aerial habitats. Here, we propose and discuss that the movement capabilities of aerial species, as well their functional redundancy with non-flying wildlife, are the mechanisms by which some ecological processes can be still occurring. We show examples of how the movements of aerial wildlife may be masking the loss of important functions and contributions by compensating for the lost ecosystem functions previously provided by terrestrial wildlife. We also highlight the implications of losing aerial wildlife in areas where that functional redundancy was already lost due to the impacts of land use change on terrestrial wildlife. We suggest to consider flying wildlife as a biological insurance against the loss of WEF and NCP due to terrestrial fragmentation and proposed some aeroconservation measures.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Esportes , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Movimento
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150419, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560450

RESUMO

Scavengers provide significant nature's contributions to people (NCP), including disease control through carcass removal, but their non-material NCP are rarely considered. For the first time, we assess the extent and value of the NCP provided by European avian scavengers through a scavenger-based tourism at Pyrenean supplementary feeding sites (SFS). Using a two-step cluster analysis, two different types of visitor were identified (specialist avian scavenger-watchers and generalist nature-lovers) at those SFS offering recreational experiences (n = 20, i.e. birdwatching, educational, or photographic activities). Most visitors (85%) perceived avian scavengers as beneficial NCP providers, associating this guild with non-material NCP (mostly supporting identities), followed by regulating and maintenance of options NCP (<1%). Our findings help to characterize the type of people who participate in scavenger related recreation and to identify and value their perceptions of avian scavengers. There has not been much previous research on positive human-wildlife interactions, even though ignoring people emotional bonds with nature can be perilous for biodiversity conservation.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Turismo , Animais , Biodiversidade , Aves , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Peixes , Humanos
3.
Food Microbiol ; 101: 103890, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579849

RESUMO

Seroprevalence data for Toxoplasma gondii and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in wild boar (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), mouflon (Ovis aries/musimon) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) hunted/culled in northern Italy were used to fit seroprevalence distributions describing the exposure and co-exposure of the species to the two pathogens. The higher proportion of T. gondii and HEV seropositive animals was observed in wild boars with point estimate seroprevalence of 49% (N = 331) and 15% (N = 326) respectively. Data allowed comparisons by area (pre-Alpine Vs Alpine environment) for roe deer, red deer and mouflons. Contrasts between the distributions describing the uncertainty in seroprevalence suggest roe deer, red deer and mouflons have higher probability of being seropositive to T. gondii in pre-Alps. When considering HEV, few seropositive animals were detected and contrasts were symmetrically centred to zero for roe deer and red deer; mouflons shown higher probability of being seropositive in Alpine environment. HEV seropositive animals also included chamois (P = 5.1%, N = 97) in the Alpine districts, confirming circulation of HEV in remote areas. Evidence of HEV and T. gondii co-exposure was limited except for wild boars where it was observed in 30 samples representing 60% of the overall HEV-positive samples. Seroprevalence data of single infection and co-infection are extremely useful to investigate circulation of zoonotic pathogens in wild animals and estimate the foodborne risk of human exposure, however, these type of data do not directly translate into the presence/absence of the pathogen in seropositive and seronegative animals. At benefit of future development of quantitative risk assessments aiming at estimating the risk of human infection/co-infection via consumption of game meat, we developed and made available an online application that allows estimating the probability of the pathogen(s) being present as a function of seroprevalence data.


Assuntos
Cervos , Vírus da Hepatite E , Sus scrofa , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Coinfecção/veterinária , Cervos/parasitologia , Cervos/virologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Humanos , Itália , Carne/parasitologia , Carne/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Sus scrofa/virologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
4.
Prev Vet Med ; 197: 105512, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740023

RESUMO

Disease risk modeling is a key first step to understand the spatio-temporal dynamics of wildlife disease and to direct cost-effective surveillance and management. In Alberta, active surveillance for chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild cervids began in 1998 with the first case detected in free-ranging cervids in 2005. Following the detection, a herd reduction program was implemented during 2005-2008 and in 2006 the ongoing hunter-based CWD Surveillance Program became mandatory in high-risk Wildlife Management Units (WMU). We used data collected during the CWD surveillance program to 1) document growth in sex-specific CWD prevalence (proportion of deer in sample that is CWD-positive) in hunter-harvest deer in 6 WMUs consistently monitored from 2006 to 2018, 2) document landscape features associated with where CWD-positive compared to CWD-negative deer were removed during hunter harvest and herd reduction in an early (2005-2012) and in a late period (2013-2017), and 3) to map the spatial risk of harvesting a deer infected with CWD in the prairie parklands of Alberta. In the 6 continuously monitored WMUs, risk of a harvested deer being CWD positive increased from 2006 to 2018 with CWD prevalence remaining highest in male mule deer whereas overall growth rate in CWD prevalence was greater in female mule deer, but similar to male white-tailed deer. We found no evidence that the 3-year herd reduction program conducted immediately after CWD was first detected affected the rate at which CWD grew over the course of the invasion. Risk of deer being CWD-positive was the highest in animals taken near small stream drainages and on soils with low organic carbon content in the early period, whereas risk became highest in areas of agriculture especially when far from large river drainages where deer often concentrate in isolated woody patches. The change in the influence of proximity to known CWD-positive cases suggested the disease was initially patchy but became more spatially homogeneous over time. Our results indicate that a targeted-removal program will remove more CWD positive animals compared to hunter harvest. However, the discontinuation of targeted removals during our research program, restricted our ability to assess its long term impact on CWD prevalence.


Assuntos
Cervos , Doença de Emaciação Crônica , Alberta/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Doença de Emaciação Crônica/epidemiologia
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20191209, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730737

RESUMO

The roadside hawk (Rupornis magnirostris) is a free-living bird that commonly has wing injuries caused by man-made obstacles when flying. Studies that describe the topographic anatomy of the wings of this species are necessary to assist in the treatment of possible wing lesions. For this reason, the present work aimed to describe the origin and insertion of the nerves that constitute the brachial plexus in roadside hawks. Five roadside hawk carcasses donated to the Animal Anatomy Laboratory of the São Judas University Center, UNIMONTE campus, by CEPTAS (Center for Research and Screening of Wild Animals) were used for the study. The brachial plexus of the roadside hawk was formed by the union of the ventral branches of the spinal nerves located between C9-C10-T1-T2-T3. The ventral branches joined together and formed four short trunks which later united again by exchanging nerve fibers and constituting a big caliber branch. This is divided into two nerve cords (dorsal and ventral) which are destined to specific muscular groupings. The dorsal cord originates the axillary, anconeal and radial nerves, and is responsible for innervating the extensor muscles. The ventral cord originates the pectoral, bicipital, median-ulnar, median and ulnar nerves, and is responsible for innervating the flexor muscles.


Assuntos
Plexo Braquial , Falcões , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Nervo Radial
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 751103, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778185

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic, which has ravaged the world, has led to a rethinking of the relationship between humans and nature and the clichés of the economic-centered model. Thus, the ecological economy has been reviewed, especially from an ethical worldview. This paper uses statistical methods to retrieve and categorize 3,646 wildlife crime cases for analysis and quantitative research. It adopts legal and ethical perspectives to analyze the subject and the subjective, incidence, and sentencing factors of wildlife crimes and uses the ecological economic ethical model to measure wildlife crimes. We argue that the existing judicial system fails to answer the difficulties of the economic ethics of wildlife crimes. It is recommended that ecological and economic ethical awareness be internalized. We suggest calling for comprehensive legislation on wildlife crimes from the perspective of ecological economic ethics to effectively prevent and reduce wildlife crime and eventually promote public health.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , COVID-19 , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Crime , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770189

RESUMO

Wildlife crime has huge consequences regarding global environmental changes to animals, plants and the entire ecosystem. Combatting wildlife crime effectively requires a deep understanding of human-wildlife interactions and an analysis of the influencing factors. Conservation and green criminology are important in reducing wildlife crime, protecting wildlife and the ecosystem and informing policy-makers about best practices and strategies. However, the past years have shown that wildlife crime is not easy to combat and it is argued in this article that there are underlying existential "givens" and culture-specific aspects that need to be investigated to understand why wildlife crime is still on the rise. This theoretical article explores (eco-)existential perspectives, Greening's four givens and selected African philosophical concepts, aiming to understand the complexities behind the prevalence of wildlife crime within global and African contexts.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Ecossistema , Animais , Crime , Existencialismo , Humanos
8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258523, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637471

RESUMO

Illegal wildlife trade is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Understanding its economic value is a first step to establishing the magnitude of the problem. We develop a dataset of illegal wildlife trade prices and combine it with seizure data to estimate the economic value of illegal wildlife trade entering the USA. Using 2013 as a reference year, the results reveal that the economic value of illegal wildlife trade entering the USA was, using a conservative scenario where potential outliers were excluded, US$3.2 billion/year (uncertainty range (UR) 5th and 95th percentile of US$0.6-8.2 billion/year) and, without excluding potential outliers, US$4.3 billion/year (UR of US$1.3-9.6 billion/year). Our results for the USA alone are of a comparable magnitude to the lower bound of commonly used global estimates of the economic value of IWT of uncertain origin, suggesting that the global economic value of IWT is currently underestimated and requires an urgent revision.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estados Unidos
9.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258500, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644359

RESUMO

Chlamydial infections, caused by a group of obligate, intracellular, gram-negative bacteria, have health implications for animals and humans. Due to their highly infectious nature and zoonotic potential, staff at wildlife rehabilitation centers should be educated on the clinical manifestations, prevalence, and risk factors associated with Chlamydia spp. infections in raptors. The objectives of this study were to document the prevalence of chlamydial DNA shedding and anti-chlamydial antibodies in raptors admitted to five wildlife rehabilitation centers in California over a one-year period. Chlamydial prevalence was estimated in raptors for each center and potential risk factors associated with infection were evaluated, including location, species, season, and age class. Plasma samples and conjunctiva/choana/cloaca swabs were collected for serology and qPCR from a subset of 263 birds of prey, representing 18 species. Serologic assays identified both anti-C. buteonis IgM and anti-chlamydial IgY antibodies. Chlamydial DNA and anti-chlamydial antibodies were detected in 4.18% (11/263) and 3.14% (6/191) of patients, respectively. Chamydial DNA was identified in raptors from the families Accipitridae and Strigidae while anti-C.buteonis IgM was identified in birds identified in Accipitridae, Falconidae, Strigidae, and Cathartidae. Two of the chlamydial DNA positive birds (one Swainson's hawk (Buteo swainsoni) and one red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)) were necropsied, and tissues were collected for culture. Sequencing of the cultured elementary bodies revealed a chlamydial DNA sequence with 99.97% average nucleotide identity to the recently described Chlamydia buteonis. Spatial clusters of seropositive raptors and raptors positive for chlamydial DNA were detected in northern California. Infections were most prevalent during the winter season. Furthermore, while the proportion of raptors testing positive for chlamydial DNA was similar across age classes, seroprevalence was highest in adults. This study questions the current knowledge on C. buteonis host range and highlights the importance of further studies to evaluate the diversity and epidemiology of Chlamydia spp. infecting raptor populations.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Aves Predatórias/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças das Aves/imunologia , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , California/epidemiologia , Chlamydia/classificação , Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydia/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Cloaca/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Filogenia , Prevalência , Centros de Reabilitação , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257920, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618810

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB), a contagious disease mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and Mycobacterium caprae (M. caprae), poses a major global threat to the health of humans and many species of animals. Developing an ante-mortem detection technique for different species would be of significance in improving the surveillance employing a One Health strategy. To achieve this goal, a universal indirect ELISA was established for serologically detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection for multiple live hosts by using a fusion protein of MPB70, MPB83, ESAT6, and CFP10 common in M. tb, M. bovis, and M. caprae as the coating antigen (MMEC) and HRP-labeled fusion protein A and G as a secondary antibody. After testing the known positive and negative sera, the receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to decide the cut-off values. Then, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of MMEC/AG-iELISA were determined as 100.00% (95% CI: 96.90%, 100.00%) and 100.00% (95% CI: 98.44%, 100.00%) for M. bovis infection of cattle, 100.00% (95% CI: 95.00%, 100.00%) and 100.0% (95% CI: 96.80%, 100.00%) for M. bovis infection of sheep, 90.74% (95% CI: 80.09%, 95.98%) and 98.63% (95% CI: 95.14%, 99.76%) for M. bovis infection of cervids, 100.00% (95% CI: 15.81%, 100.00%) and 98.81% (95% CI: 93.54%, 99.97%) for M. bovis infection of monkeys, 100.00% (95% CI: 86.82%, 100.00%) and 94.85% (95% CI: 91.22%, 97.03%) for M. tb infection of humans. Furthermore, this MMEC/AG-iELISA likely detects M. caprae infection in roe deer. Thus this method has a promising application in serological TB surveillance for multiple animal species thereby providing evidence for taking further action in TB control.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Testes Sorológicos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/química , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Bovinos , Cervos/microbiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium bovis/patogenicidade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Ovinos/microbiologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia
11.
Chin J Traumatol ; 24(6): 383-388, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654596

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The human-wildlife conflicts (HWCs) causing nuisances and injuries are becoming a growing public health concern over recent years worldwide. We aimed to study the demographic profile, mode of injury, pattern of injury, and outcome of wild animal attack victims presented to the emergency department. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the emergency department of a tertiary-care hospital in Eastern India. Data were retrieved from the medical records from May 2017 to May 2021. Patients of all ages and genders attacked by wild animals and secondary injuries were included in this study. Patients with incomplete data, injuries due to the attack of stray and domestic animals and trauma due to other causes were excluded. Demographic profile, mode of injury, the pattern of injury, injury severity score (ISS), radiological pattern, and outcome were recorded. Statistical analysis with R (version 3.6.1.) was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 411 wild animal attack victims were studied, of which 374 (90.9%) were snakebite injuries and 37 (9.1%) were wild mammalian (WM) attack injuries. The mean age of WM attack victims was 46 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 4:1. Elephant attack injury (40.5%) was the most common WM attack injury reported. Most WM attacks (43.2%) occurred between 4:00 a.m. to 8:00 a.m. The median ISS was 18.5 (13-28), where 54.2% of patients had polytrauma (ISS>15). Elephant attack was associated with a higher ISS, but the difference was not significant compared to other animal types (p = 0.2). Blunt trauma was common pattern of injury in the elephant attack injury cases. Lacerations and soft tissue injuries were common patterns in other animal attacks. Among snakebites, neurotoxic was the most common type (55.4%), and lower extremity was the most common site involved. CONCLUSION: The young male population is the major victim of HWCs; and elephant is the most common animal involved. There is a need to design scientifically sound preventive strategies for HWCs and to strengthen the preparedness in health establishments to manage victims effectively.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257720, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705839

RESUMO

Conservation concerns are increasing for numerous freshwater turtle species, including Pseudemys gorzugi, which has led to a call for more research. However, traditional sampling methodologies are often time consuming, labor intensive, and invasive, restricting the amount of data that can be collected. Biases of traditional sampling methods can further impair the quality of the data collected, and these shortfalls may discourage their use. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, drones) for conducting wildlife surveys has recently demonstrated the potential to bridge gaps in data collection by offering a less labor intensive, minimally invasive, and more efficient process. Photographs and video can be obtained by camera attachments during a drone flight and analyzed to determine population counts, abundance, and other types of data. In this study we developed a detailed protocol to survey for large, freshwater turtle species in an arid, riverine landscape. This protocol was implemented with a DJI Matrice 600 Pro drone and a SONY ILCE α6000 digital camera to determine P. gorzugi and sympatric turtle species occurrence across 42 sites in southwestern Texas, USA. The use of a large drone and high-resolution camera resulted in high identification percentages, demonstrating the potential of drones to survey for large, freshwater turtle species. Numerous advantages to drone-based surveys were identified as well as some challenges, which were addressed with additional refinement of the protocol. Our data highlight the utility of drones for conducting freshwater turtle surveys and provide a guideline to those considering implementing drone-mounted high-resolution cameras as a survey tool.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Aeronaves , Animais , Água Doce , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas
14.
Parasitol Res ; 120(11): 3827-3835, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604932

RESUMO

Parasites are natural components of ecosystems and play a significant role in the dynamics of wild animal populations. Although the environment of parasites is primarily defined by the host, most life cycles involve stages that must endure external conditions. Rainfall and flooding events are important factors that might influence the transport of parasitic stages, altering soil moisture levels, and resulting in a favorable environment for parasite survival and development. We assessed whether an extraordinary flood event modified the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites (nematodes and protozoa) in wild canids in two protected areas in northern Argentina. From 2016 to 2018, we collected fecal samples of two fox species, Lycalopex gymnocercus and Cerdocyon thous, and examined the presence of nematodes and protozoa. We assessed changes in the occurrence of these parasites after a flood event, while adjusting for potential confounders (i.e., monthly average temperature, season, host species, site). In a second stage of the analysis, we evaluated whether part of the effect was caused by changes in soil moisture, by adding normalized difference water index as an independent variable. We found that the presence of nematodes in foxes was higher after flooding than before flooding, and this association was not explained by changes in the soil moisture. On the other hand, the flood event was not relevant for protozoa. Stronger and long-lasting flood events are expected due to the effect of global warming on El Niño events, and this may increase and intensify the spread of some parasites affecting wildlife, which could also be of public health concern.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Parasitos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Argentina/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Inundações , Raposas
15.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258083, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613989

RESUMO

Wildlife-vehicle collisions are one of the main causes of mortality for wild mammals and birds in the UK. Here, using a dataset of 54,000+ records collated by a citizen science roadkill recording scheme between 2014-2019, we analyse and present temporal patterns of wildlife roadkill of the 19 most commonly reported taxa in the UK (84% of all reported roadkill). Most taxa (13 out of 19) showed significant and consistent seasonal variations in road mortality and fitted one of two seasonal patterns; bimodal or unimodal: only three species (red fox Vulpes vulpes, European polecat Mustela putorius and Reeves' muntjac deer Muntiacus reevesi) showed no significant seasonality. Species that increase movement in spring and autumn potentially have bimodal patterns in roadkill due to the increase in mate-searching and juvenile dispersal during these respective time periods (e.g. European badger Meles meles). Unimodal patterns likely represent increased mortality due to a single short pulse in activity associated with breeding (e.g. birds) or foraging (e.g. grey squirrels Sciurus carolinensis in autumn). Importantly, these patterns also indicate periods of increased risk for drivers, potentially posing a greater threat to human welfare. In addition to behaviour-driven annual patterns, abiotic factors (temperature and rainfall) explained some variance in roadkill. Notably, high rainfall was associated with decreased observations of two bird taxa (gulls and Eurasian magpies Pica pica) and European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus. By quantifying seasonal patterns in roadkill, we highlight a significant anthropogenic impact on wild species, which is important in relation to conservation, animal welfare, and human safety.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Cervos , Feminino , Raposas/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Coelhos , Estações do Ano , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0253635, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610035

RESUMO

Hunter harvest is a potential factor contributing to population declines of sage-grouse (Centrocercus spp.). As a result, wildlife agencies throughout western North America have set increasingly more conservative harvest regulations over the past 25 years to reduce or eliminate hunter success and concomitant numbers of harvested greater (C. urophasianus) and Gunnison (C. minimus) sage-grouse. Sage-grouse hunting has varied widely over time and space, which has made a comprehensive summary of hunting management challenging. We compiled data on harvest regulations among 11 western U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces from 1870-2019 to create a timeline representative of hunting regulations. We compared annual harvest boundaries and area-weighted average hunting regulations, 1995-2018, relative to administrative boundaries and areas of high probability of sage-grouse occupation. We also summarized estimated numbers of birds harvested and hunters afield, 1995-2018, across both species' ranges. From 1995-2018, there was a 30% reduction in administrative harvest boundaries across the greater sage-grouse range compared to a 16.6% reduction in area open to harvest within 8 km from active leks. Temporary closures occurred in response to wildfires, disease outbreaks, low population numbers, and two research projects; whereas, permanent closures primarily occurred in small populations and areas on the periphery of the species distribution. Similarly, area-weighted possession limits and season length for greater sage-grouse decreased 52.6% and 61.0%, respectively, while season start date stayed relatively stable (mean start date ~259 [mid-September]). In contrast, hunting of the now federally-threatened Gunnison sage-grouse ended after 1999. While restrictions in harvest regulations were large in area, closures near areas of high greater sage-grouse occupancy were relatively smaller with the same trend for Gunnison sage-grouse until hunting ceased. For greater sage-grouse, most states reduced bag and possession limits and appeared to adhere to recommendations for later and shorter hunting seasons, reducing potential for additive mortality.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Galliformes/fisiologia , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , América do Norte , Dinâmica Populacional , Codorniz/fisiologia , Estações do Ano
17.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258136, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624030

RESUMO

As global climate change progresses, wildlife management will benefit from knowledge of demographic responses to climatic variation, particularly for species already endangered by other stressors. In Canada, climate change is expected to increasingly impact populations of threatened woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) and much focus has been placed on how a warming climate has potentially facilitated the northward expansion of apparent competitors and novel predators. Climate change, however, may also exert more direct effects on caribou populations that are not mediated by predation. These effects include meteorological changes that influence resource availability and energy expenditure. Research on other ungulates suggests that climatic variation may have minimal impact on low-density populations such as woodland caribou because per-capita resources may remain sufficient even in "bad" years. We evaluated this prediction using demographic data from 21 populations in western Canada that were monitored for various intervals between 1994 and 2015. We specifically assessed whether juvenile recruitment and adult female survival were correlated with annual variation in meteorological metrics and plant phenology. Against expectations, we found that both vital rates appeared to be influenced by annual climatic variation. Juvenile recruitment was primarily correlated with variation in phenological conditions in the year prior to birth. Adult female survival was more strongly correlated with meteorological conditions and declined during colder, more variable winters. These responses may be influenced by the life history of woodland caribou, which reside in low-productivity refugia where small climatic changes may result in changes to resources that are sufficient to elicit strong demographic effects. Across all models, explained variation in vital rates was low, suggesting that other factors had greater influence on caribou demography. Nonetheless, given the declining trajectories of many woodland caribou populations, our results highlight the increased relevance of recovery actions when adverse climatic conditions are likely to negatively affect caribou demography.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Rena/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Canadá , Mudança Climática , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Meteorologia , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Comportamento Predatório , Estações do Ano
18.
Malar J ; 20(1): 417, 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haemosporidioses are common in birds and their manifestations range from subclinical infections to severe disease, depending on the involved parasite and bird species. Clinical haemosporidioses are often observed in non-adapted zoo or aviary birds, whereas in wild birds, particularly passerines, haemosporidian infections frequently seem to be asymptomatic. However, a recent study from Austria showed pathogenic haemosporidian infections in common blackbirds due to high parasite burdens of Plasmodium matutinum LINN1, a common parasite in this bird species, suggesting that virulent infections also occur in natural hosts. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to explore whether and to what extent other native bird species are possibly affected by pathogenic haemosporidian lineages, contributing to avian morbidity. METHODS: Carcasses of passerine birds and woodpeckers were collected during a citizen science-based survey for avian mortality in Austria, from June to October 2020. Tissue samples were taken and examined for haemosporidian parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon by nested PCR and sequencing the mitochondrial cytb barcode region, histology, and chromogenic in situ hybridization applying genus-specific probes. RESULTS: From over 160 dead bird reportings, 83 carcasses of 25 avian species were submitted for investigation. Overall haemosporidian infection rate was 31%, with finches and tits prevailing species counts and infections. Sequence analyses revealed 17 different haplotypes (4 Plasmodium, 4 Haemoproteus, 9 Leucocytozoon), including 4 novel Leucocytozoon lineages. Most infected birds presented low parasite burdens in the peripheral blood and tissues, ruling out a significant contribution of haemosporidian infections to morbidity or death of the examined birds. However, two great tits showed signs of avian malaria, suggesting pathogenic effects of the detected species Plasmodium relictum SGS1 and Plasmodium elongatum GRW06. Further, exo-erythrocytic tissue stages of several haemosporidian lineages are reported. CONCLUSIONS: While suggesting generally little contribution of haemosporidian infections to mortality of the investigated bird species, the findings indicate a possible role of certain haemosporidian lineages in overall clinical manifestation, either as main causes or as concurrent disease agents. Further, the study presents new data on exo-erythrocytic stages of previously reported lineages and shows how citizen science can be used in the field of haemosporidian research.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/mortalidade , Ciência do Cidadão , Haemosporida/fisiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Aves Canoras , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Áustria/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
19.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696405

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are widespread and highly diversified in wildlife and domestic mammals and can emerge as zoonotic or epizootic pathogens and consequently host shift from these reservoirs, highlighting the importance of veterinary surveillance. All genera can be found in mammals, with α and ß showing the highest frequency and diversification. The aims of this study were to review the literature for features of CoV surveillance in animals, to test widely used molecular protocols, and to identify the most effective one in terms of spectrum and sensitivity. We combined a literature review with analyses in silico and in vitro using viral strains and archive field samples. We found that most protocols defined as pan-coronavirus are strongly biased towards α- and ß-CoVs and show medium-low sensitivity. The best results were observed using our new protocol, showing LoD 100 PFU/mL for SARS-CoV-2, 50 TCID50/mL for CaCoV, 0.39 TCID50/mL for BoCoV, and 9 ± 1 log2 ×10-5 HA for IBV. The protocol successfully confirmed the positivity for a broad range of CoVs in 30/30 field samples. Our study points out that pan-CoV surveillance in mammals could be strongly improved in sensitivity and spectrum and propose the application of a new RT-PCR assay, which is able to detect CoVs from all four genera, with an optimal sensitivity for α-, ß-, and γ-.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Deltacoronavirus/genética , Gammacoronavirus/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , COVID-19/veterinária , Quirópteros/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Gado/virologia , Roedores/virologia
20.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696423

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent responsible for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which continues to spread with devastating effects on global health and socioeconomics. The susceptibility of domestic and wild animal species to infection is a critical facet of SARS-CoV-2 ecology, since reverse zoonotic spillover events resulting in SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in animal populations could result in the establishment of new virus reservoirs. Adaptive mutations in the virus to new animal species could also complicate ongoing mitigation strategies to combat SARS-CoV-2. In addition, animal species susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection are essential as standardized preclinical models for the development and efficacy testing of vaccines and therapeutics. In this review, we summarize the current findings regarding the susceptibility of different domestic and wild animal species to experimental SARS-CoV-2 infection and provide detailed descriptions of the clinical disease and transmissibility in these animals. In addition, we outline the documented natural infections in animals that have occurred at the human-animal interface. A comprehensive understanding of animal susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 is crucial to inform public health, veterinary, and agricultural systems, and to guide environmental policies.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , COVID-19/veterinária , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Animais , COVID-19/patologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/fisiologia , Zoonoses
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