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1.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-10, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765500

RESUMO

Parasites of veterinary importance have been heavily focused on domesticated livestock that was introduced into the neo-tropics. The text used in the teaching parasitology to veterinary students in Trinidad has only investigated the parasites of domesticated species. In the reviewed veterinary parasitology text no mention was made on the parasites that affect wild neo-tropical animals. Information on wild neo-tropical animals had to be sourced from texts on the management of wild life animals in the Neotropics. The texts that were reviewed in this document spanned from the mid-1950s to 2020. The information presented in this review reveals the exhaustive work done on the parasites of domesticated species but also revealed little information on neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication. In conclusion, this review reveals the gap of information that is missing from parasitology texts used in the teaching of veterinary students. In the future these parasitology texts can be revised to include chapters on the parasites of neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication. At present students that graduate from the veterinary parasitology course has little information on the parasites of animals which are present in their 'backyards'.(AU)


Parasitas de importância veterinária têm se concentrado fortemente em animais domésticos que foram introduzidos na região neotrópica. O texto usado no ensino de parasitologia para estudantes de veterinária em Trinidad investigou apenas os parasitas de espécies domesticadas. No texto de parasitologia veterinária revisado, nenhuma menção foi feita sobre os parasitas que afetam os animais selvagens neotropicais. As informações sobre animais selvagens neotropicais tiveram que ser obtidas a partir de textos sobre o manejo de animais selvagens nos Neotrópicos. Os textos revisados neste documento vão de meados da década de 1950 até 2020. As informações apresentadas nesta revisão revelam o trabalho exaustivo realizado sobre os parasitas de espécies domesticadas, mas também revelaram poucas informações sobre animais neotropicais com potencial para domesticação. Em conclusão, esta revisão revela a lacuna de informação que existe nos textos de parasitologia utilizados no ensino de estudantes de veterinária. No futuro, esses textos de parasitologia podem ser revisados para incluir capítulos sobre os parasitas de animais neotropicais com potencial para domesticação. Atualmente, os alunos que se formam no curso de parasitologia veterinária têm poucas informações sobre os parasitas de animais que estão presentes em seus "quintais".(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Parasitologia/história , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(4): e010622, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287424

RESUMO

Trichinella spp. are zoonotic parasites that are widely distributed in warm-blooded carnivores and omnivores, including humans. Until the present moment, Brazil has been considered by World Animal Health Organization free from the domestic cycle of trichinellosis, whereas the parasite's sylvatic cycle has the status of infection in limited zones. However, neighboring countries such as Argentina have reports of parasite larvae in the wild fauna. The present study aimed to determine the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in road-killed wild animals in Paraná, Brazil. Biological samples from 71 wild animals-29 Didelphis albiventris, 11 Nasua nasua, ten Cerdocyon thous, seven Dasypus novemcinctus, six Leopardus guttulus, six Sphiggurus spinosus and two Puma concolor-collected from November 2016 to November 2021 were subjected to artificial digestion, following the methodology described in the REGULATION (EC) No. 2075/2005. No Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in the carcasses of the road-killed wild animals. However, considering the wide spectrum of possible reservoirs that could act as a link between the sylvatic and domestic cycles and considering the current Brazilian status of sylvatic trichinellosis in limited zones, frequent monitoring of wild fauna remains necessary.


Assuntos
Procyonidae , Puma , Trichinella , Triquinelose , Humanos , Animais , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/veterinária , Triquinelose/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Brasil , Larva , Puma/parasitologia
3.
Parasitol Res ; 121(11): 3063-3071, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066742

RESUMO

Global change in the Anthropocene has modified the environment of almost any species on earth, be it through climate change, habitat modifications, pollution, human intervention in the form of mass drug administration (MDA), or vaccination. This can have far-reaching consequences on all organisational levels of life, including eco-physiological stress at the cell and organism level, individual fitness and behaviour, population viability, species interactions and biodiversity. Host-parasite interactions often require highly adapted strategies by the parasite to survive and reproduce within the host environment and ensure efficient transmission among hosts. Yet, our understanding of the system-level outcomes of the intricate interplay of within host survival and among host parasite spread is in its infancy. We shed light on how global change affects host-parasite interactions at different organisational levels and address challenges and opportunities to work towards better-informed management of parasite control. We argue that global change affects host-parasite interactions in wildlife inhabiting natural environments rather differently than in humans and invasive species that benefit from anthropogenic environments as habitat and more deliberate rather than erratic exposure to therapeutic drugs and other control efforts.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Parasitos , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Humanos , Parasitos/fisiologia
4.
Acta Trop ; 236: 106677, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063905

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a neglected parasitic disease caused by digenean trematodes from the genus Schistosoma that affects millions of people worldwide. Despite efforts to control its transmission, this disease remains active within several endemic regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas. In addition to the deficits in sanitation and educational structure, another major obstacle hindering the eradication of schistosomiasis is the ability of Schistosoma spp. to naturally infect multiple vertebrate hosts, particularly wild rodents. Due to climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances, contact between humans and wild animals has increased, and this has contributed to more frequent interactions between Schistosoma species that typically infect different hosts. This new transmission dynamic involving Schistosoma spp., humans, wild rodents, and livestock could potentially increase the frequency of Schistosoma hybridization and the establishment of new genotypes and strains. Although it is not currently possible to precisely measure how this biological phenomenon affects the epidemiology and morbidity of schistosomiasis, we speculate that these Schistosoma variants may negatively impact control strategies, treatment regimens, and disease burden in humans. In the present study, we discuss the natural infections of wild rodents with Schistosoma spp., the role of these animals as Schistosoma spp. reservoirs, and how they may select hybrids and strains of Schistosoma mansoni. We also discuss measures required to shed light on the actual role of the wild rodents Nectomys squamipes and Holochilus sciureus in the transmission and morbidity of schistosomiasis in Brazil.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose mansoni , Esquistossomose , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Humanos , Roedores , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose mansoni/veterinária
5.
Parasitology ; 149(13): 1702-1708, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052566

RESUMO

Helminths are common parasites of wild ungulates that can have substantial costs for growth, mortality and reproduction. Whilst these costs are relatively well documented for mature animals, knowledge of helminths' impacts on juveniles is more limited. Identifying these effects is important because young individuals are often heavily infected, and juvenile mortality is a key process regulating wild populations. Here, we investigated associations between helminth infection and overwinter survival in juvenile wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) on the Isle of Rum, Scotland. We collected fecal samples non-invasively from known individuals and used them to count propagules of 3 helminth taxa (strongyle nematodes, Fasciola hepatica and Elaphostrongylus cervi). Using generalized linear models, we investigated associations between parasite counts and overwinter survival for calves and yearlings. Strongyles were associated with reduced survival in both age classes, and F. hepatica was associated with reduced survival in yearlings, whilst E. cervi infection showed no association with survival in either age class. This study provides observational evidence for fitness costs of helminth infection in juveniles of a wild mammal, and suggests that these parasites could play a role in regulating population dynamics.


Assuntos
Cervos , Helmintos , Metastrongyloidea , Parasitos , Animais , Cervos/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Probabilidade
6.
Parasitology ; 149(12): 1565-1574, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924728

RESUMO

The concept of One Health emphasizes the interdependence of human, animal and environmental health and is of growing significance, in part owing to the problems related to emerging infectious diseases of wildlife origin. Wild mammalian predators are a potential risk factor for transmission of zoonotic pathogens to domesticated animals and humans. This is especially relevant in rural areas, where transmission of zoonotic pathogens can occur particularly efficiently when free-ranging dogs are present. The main aim of this study was to determine helminth infections among wild mammalian predators and evaluate the overlap between helminth faunas of wild mammals and dogs. Scat samples of predators were collected in coastal areas of Western Estonia and genetic methodology applied for the correct identification of predator species from their scat. Parasitic helminths of mammalian predators in the scat samples were analysed and compared with dog data from a previous study. High helminth prevalence (~90%) was found in dominant predator species in the area, namely the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackal (Canis aureus). Moreover, the helminth fauna of both wild species, including potentially zoonotic helminths, overlapped largely with that of rural dogs in the same area. The results, together with the ones from earlier parasitological studies among humans in Estonia, emphasize the potential risk of pathogen transmission from wild mammalian predators to dogs and from dogs to humans, making parasitic diseases of wildlife a One Health concern.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Saúde Única , Cães , Animais , Humanos , Helmintos/genética , Raposas/parasitologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Prevalência , Fezes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(35): e2122851119, 2022 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994656

RESUMO

Disease transmission prediction across wildlife is crucial for risk assessment of emerging infectious diseases. Susceptibility of host species to pathogens is influenced by the geographic, environmental, and phylogenetic context of the specific system under study. We used machine learning to analyze how such variables influence pathogen incidence for multihost pathogen assemblages, including one of direct transmission (coronaviruses and bats) and two vector-borne systems (West Nile Virus [WNV] and birds, and malaria and birds). Here we show that this methodology is able to provide reliable global spatial susceptibility predictions for the studied host-pathogen systems, even when using a small amount of incidence information (i.e., [Formula: see text] of information in a database). We found that avian malaria was mostly affected by environmental factors and by an interaction between phylogeny and geography, and WNV susceptibility was mostly influenced by phylogeny and by the interaction between geographic and environmental distances, whereas coronavirus susceptibility was mostly affected by geography. This approach will help to direct surveillance and field efforts providing cost-effective decisions on where to invest limited resources.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Quirópteros/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Bases de Dados Factuais , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Geografia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Incidência , Aprendizado de Máquina , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/transmissão , Malária/veterinária , Filogenia , Medição de Risco , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/transmissão , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental
8.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(3): e005022, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857968

RESUMO

We present the first report of parasitism by Sarcoptes scabiei (Linnaeus, 1758), in a sechuran fox "Lycalopex sechurae". Sarcoptes scabiei is a mite that produces sarcoptic mange, which can lead to the death of the animal host and can cause epidemic episodes in wildlife communities. The sechuran fox was collected by the environmental police from a citizen who reported the animal. It was sent to a veterinarian specializing in wildlife, "Clinica Mansion Mascota", in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Immediate physical examination showed crusts on its skin, and samples of skin and blood were collected and analyzed. The skin samples were analyzed using a microscope at 40x magnification in the clinic. In addition, skin and blood samples were sent to a private laboratory for further analyses. Both analyses were positive for S. scabiei infection. It is the second report of S. scabiei in a new wildlife species in the Guayas province of Ecuador within less than a year. These events cause concern due the possibility of biological community transmission. Since domestic and feral animals are considered habitual spreaders of this disease, management through ethical procedures such as adoption, medical treatment and neutering campaigns, and awareness-raising projects with empathetic approach are recommended.


Assuntos
Carnívoros , Sarcoptidae , Escabiose , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Sarcoptes scabiei , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Escabiose/veterinária
9.
Adv Parasitol ; 117: 1-46, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35878948

RESUMO

African protected areas strive to conserve the continent's great biodiversity with a targeted focus on the flagship 'Big Five' megafauna. Though often not considered, this biodiversity protection also extends to the lesser-known microbes and parasites that are maintained in these diverse ecosystems, often in a silent and endemically stable state. Climate and anthropogenic change, and associated diversity loss, however, are altering these dynamics leading to shifts in ecological interactions and pathogen spill over into new niches and hosts. As many African protected areas are bordered by game and livestock farms, as well as villages, they provide an ideal study system to assess infection dynamics at the human-livestock-wildlife interface. Here we review five zoonotic, multi-host diseases (bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, Rift Valley fever, schistosomiasis and cryptosporidiosis)-the 'Microscopic Five'-and discuss the biotic and abiotic drivers of parasite transmission using the iconic Kruger National Park, South Africa, as a case study. We identify knowledge gaps regarding the impact of the 'Microscopic Five' on wildlife within parks and highlight the need for more empirical data, particularly for neglected (schistosomiasis) and newly emerging (cryptosporidiosis) diseases, as well as zoonotic disease risk from the rising bush meat trade and game farm industry. As protected areas strive to become further embedded in the socio-economic systems that surround them, providing benefits to local communities, One Health approaches can help maintain the ecological integrity of ecosystems, while protecting local communities and economies from the negative impacts of disease.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Criptosporidiose , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , África do Sul , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 224, 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35733222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies can transmit various Trypanosoma spp. that cause trypanosomiasis in humans, wild animals, and domestic animals. Amplicon deep sequencing of the 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene can be used to detect mammalian tsetse hosts, and the 18S rRNA gene can be used to detect all associated eukaryotic pathogens, including Trypanosoma spp. METHODS: Tsetse flies were collected from the Serengeti National Park (n = 48), Maswa Game Reserve (n = 42), and Tarangire National Park (n = 49) in Tanzania in 2012-13. Amplicon deep sequencing targeting mammal-specific 12S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes was performed to screen the blood-feeding sources of tsetse flies and eukaryotic parasites in tsetse flies, respectively. RESULTS: 12S rRNA gene deep sequencing revealed that various mammals were blood-feeding sources of the tsetse flies, including humans, common warthogs, African buffalos, mice, giraffes, African elephants, waterbucks, and lions. Genes of humans were less frequently detected in Serengeti (P = 0.0024), whereas African buffaloes were detected more frequently as a blood-feeding source (P = 0.0010). 18S rRNA gene deep sequencing showed that six tsetse samples harbored the Trypanosoma gene, which was identified as Trypanosoma godfreyi and Trypanosoma simiae in subsequent ITS1 gene sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: Through amplicon deep sequencing targeting the 12S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes, various mammalian animals were identified as blood-meal sources, and two Trypanosoma species were detected in tsetse flies collected from the Maswa Game Reserve, Serengeti National Park, and Tarangire National Park in Tanzania. This study illustrates the patterns of parasitism of tsetse fly, wild animals targeted by the fly, and Trypanosoma spp. carried by the fly in Tanzania. It may provide essential data for formulating better strategies to control African trypanosomes.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Trypanosoma , Tripanossomíase Africana , Moscas Tsé-Tsé , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Mamíferos/genética , Metagenômica , Camundongos , Parasitos/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Suínos , Tanzânia , Trypanosoma/genética , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/parasitologia
11.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 6(6): 794-801, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501480

RESUMO

The world is rapidly urbanizing, inviting mounting concern that urban environments will experience increased zoonotic disease risk. Urban animals could have more frequent contact with humans, therefore transmitting more zoonotic parasites; however, this relationship is complicated by sampling bias and phenotypic confounders. Here we test whether urban mammal species host more zoonotic parasites, investigating the underlying drivers alongside a suite of phenotypic, taxonomic and geographic predictors. We found that urban-adapted mammals have more documented parasites and more zoonotic parasites: despite comprising only 6% of investigated species, urban mammals provided 39% of known host-parasite combinations. However, contrary to predictions, much of the observed effect was attributable to parasite discovery and research effort rather than to urban adaptation status, and urban-adapted species in fact hosted fewer zoonotic parasites than expected on the basis of their total parasite richness. We conclude that extended historical contact with humans has had a limited impact on zoonotic parasite richness in urban-adapted mammals; instead, their greater observed zoonotic richness probably reflects sampling bias arising from proximity to humans, supporting a near-universal conflation between zoonotic risk, research effort and synanthropy. These findings underscore the need to resolve the mechanisms linking anthropogenic change, sampling bias and observed wildlife disease dynamics.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Parasitos , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Mamíferos
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1974): 20212702, 2022 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538775

RESUMO

Amidst global shifts in the distribution and abundance of wildlife and livestock, we have only a rudimentary understanding of ungulate parasite communities and parasite-sharing patterns. We used qPCR and DNA metabarcoding of fecal samples to characterize gastrointestinal nematode (Strongylida) community composition and sharing among 17 sympatric species of wild and domestic large mammalian herbivore in central Kenya. We tested a suite of hypothesis-driven predictions about the role of host traits and phylogenetic relatedness in describing parasite infections. Host species identity explained 27-53% of individual variation in parasite prevalence, richness, community composition and phylogenetic diversity. Host and parasite phylogenies were congruent, host gut morphology predicted parasite community composition and prevalence, and hosts with low evolutionary distinctiveness were centrally positioned in the parasite-sharing network. We found no evidence that host body size, social-group size or feeding height were correlated with parasite composition. Our results highlight the interwoven evolutionary and ecological histories of large herbivores and their gastrointestinal nematodes and suggest that host identity, phylogeny and gut architecture-a phylogenetically conserved trait related to parasite habitat-are the overriding influences on parasite communities. These findings have implications for wildlife management and conservation as wild herbivores are increasingly replaced by livestock.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Parasitos , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Herbivoria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Gado , Mamíferos , Filogenia
13.
Parasitology ; 149(9): 1179-1185, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570677

RESUMO

Parasites can significantly influence the ecology, behaviour and physiology of their hosts sometimes with remarkable effects on their survivorship. However, endemic parasites or those not associated with obvious clinical disease have been partly neglected in the past decades comparatively to the most pathogenic ones. Apicomplexa are an important example of blood parasites that have been broadly investigated, although it can be difficult to determine the effects of infections at the population level, especially in widespread species. Such is the case of the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis). We investigated 61 populations across Italy between 2008 and 2017 and recorded snout­vent length, latitude, date of collection and took blood samples for parasite count. We modelled parasite prevalence and load in a Bayesian framework. Parasites were present in all populations but 1 and in 13 of them all individuals were parasitized. We recorded almost identical responses for probability of infection and parasite load in both sexes, directly proportional to body size and inversely proportional to latitude, with a peak in cooler months. Therefore, haemosporidians can be very common in P. muralis, although their presence can vary significantly. Moreover, such a high prevalence makes it necessary to investigate to what extent haemosporidians affect hosts' survivorship, taking into consideration abiotic and biotic factors such as temperature, hormone levels and immune response.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Lagartos , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Itália/epidemiologia , Lagartos/parasitologia , Masculino , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia
14.
Vet Parasitol ; 304: 109701, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395619

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis caused by the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite is known to infect almost all warm blooded animals, and meat containing tissue cysts is one of the main sources of infection for omnivorous an carnivorous animals. Over recent years, increasing numbers of omnivorous and carnivorous animals have been drawn to urban or suburban areas by easy access to food or safe shelter, and the presence of wild animals has became more natural to urban residents. However, infected animals can act as intermediate hosts to T. gondii and contribute to the transmission of disease to humans and domestic animals, as well as other wild animal species. This extensive spread of the parasite in the natural environment can be attributed to geographic location, landform or local climate. The present paper summarizes the data available on the prevalence of T. gondii infection among wildlife from Poland, Germany, Slovakia, Czechia, Austria and Hungary. The findings highlight the importance of conducting studies on the presence of the parasite in wildlife, where the data is limited or outdated.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Carnívoros/parasitologia , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/transmissão , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
15.
Acta Trop ; 231: 106436, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364047

RESUMO

The zoonotic parasitic nematode Thelazia callipaeda, also known as the oriental eye worm, is endemic in several European countries, including Portugal. Infections may result in ocular disease in domestic and wild animals as well as humans, with more or less severe manifestations. We report the first human case of ocular thelaziosis by T. callipaeda in Portugal, a country where the parasite had already been found to infect dogs, cats, red foxes, wild rabbits and a beech marten. An 80-year-old patient from east-central Portugal, who had been suffering from tearing for a few years, had whitish filiform fragments removed from the left eye. Polymerase chain reaction of partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 18S small subunit rRNA genes followed by bidirectional sequencing and BLAST analysis confirmed T. callipaeda haplotype 1, the only haplotype previously reported in Europe. The endemicity of T. callipaeda in domestic and wild animals in east-central Portugal makes it very likely that infection of the human patient had occurred locally. In east-central and other geographical areas of Portugal, veterinarians and physicians, especially ophthalmologists, should regard T. callipaeda as a cause of ocular pathology in animals and humans.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias , Infecções por Spirurida , Thelazioidea , Zoonoses , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Oftalmopatias/parasitologia , Raposas/parasitologia , Humanos , Portugal/epidemiologia , Coelhos , Infecções por Spirurida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Spirurida/epidemiologia , Thelazioidea/genética , Thelazioidea/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/parasitologia
16.
J Wildl Dis ; 58(2): 373-379, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290458

RESUMO

Parasites have developed many strategies to ensure their development, multiplication, and dissemination, including the use of reservoir hosts that are often nondomesticated species. Despite drastic reductions in their populations, wild birds remain widespread worldwide and could constitute some of these reservoirs. We focused on the identification of wild bird species harboring parasite stages in their muscles. Breast muscles of 327 birds of 27 different species were collected at three different sites in France. After artificial digestion, isolated nematode larvae were identified by PCR sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Toxocara cati was identified mainly in birds of prey. The presence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies was investigated by modified agglutination test on muscle fluids. Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were detected in 65 out of 166 samples from various bird species. Avifauna, particularly birds of prey, could help on the surveillance of parasite circulation and play a role as sentinel species.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Aves Predatórias , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Toxocara , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e3225-e3230, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196418

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ubiquitous coccidia Toxoplasma gondii. Rodents play an important role in maintaining its life cycle, as they are one of the main diet sources for felids (wild and domestic), the unique definitive hosts. However, reports of toxoplasmosis in porcupines (Order Rodentia) are uncommon, with gaps concerning its pathophysiology. South America is the continent with the greatest genetic diversity of rodents and T. gondii. A free-ranging hairy dwarf porcupine was admitted to a wildlife rescue centre with a history of trauma. During rehabilitation, the animal presented neurological symptoms (sporadic episodes of hind limbs paresis) and died 5 months later. The main findings during necropsy were brain congestion and severe incisor overgrowth associated with maxillary perforation. The histopathological exam showed moderate encephalitis, with variable-sized round cysts, positive for PAS stain and immunohistochemistry for T. gondii. Additionally, two cysts were observed in the medulla of the adrenal gland. Molecular techniques were performed to characterize the parasite load by qPCR (Cq = 30) and the genotype by PCR-RFLP with 11 markers, which revealed a potential new genotype. This case adds to the body of knowledge in comparative pathology of Neotropical Rodentia and reports a new potential genotype circulating in South America.


Assuntos
Felidae , Porcos-Espinhos , Doenças dos Roedores , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Genótipo , Roedores , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
18.
Parasitol Int ; 88: 102552, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35108616

RESUMO

Some avian Harpirhynchidae mites live under the skin and develop cutaneous cysts. Despite the obvious lesions that these parasites can produce, little is currently known about the behavioural disturbances that cyst-forming mites may cause in infected wild birds. We report an infection by Harpirhynchidae mites in a hawfinch (Coccothraustes coccothraustes) in southeast Spain. The bird was easily captured due to its inability to fly. During clinical examination it was found to have multiple severe traumatic injuries, possibly due to a blow or a fall, as result of which the bird was euthanized. At necropsy, the hawfinch was found to be in good body condition. Two yellowish and friable mite-filled cysts were detected in the subalar region of both wings. Mites were morphologically identified as Harpirhynchus nidulans, and histological analysis of the cystic lesions was also performed. This is the first time that the occurrence of a hawfinch infected by H. nidulans in the Iberian Peninsula has been reported.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Infestações por Ácaros , Ácaros , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Ácaros/anatomia & histologia , Pele/patologia
19.
Parasitol Res ; 121(3): 1065-1071, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35147771

RESUMO

A recent publication in Parasitology Research by (Old et al. Parasitol Res 120:1077-1090, 2021) raises the topical and often controversial issue of the treatment of wildlife by personnel with little or no formal scientific training (e.g. wildlife carers). In a valuable contribution to the subject, Old and colleagues document a wide range of topical (pour-on) application doses and frequencies of moxidectin (Cydectin®) administered in situ to bare-nosed wombats (Vombatus ursinus) by members of the wildlife carer/treater community in southeast Australia to treat sarcoptic mange disease. This treatment occurred under minor use permits issued by the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Management Authority (APVMA). These permits do not require veterinary supervision, although carers are registered and are expected to comply with the guidelines of this permit.The prevalence and severity of sarcoptic mange in wildlife is influenced by a variety of factors including mite biology, environmental conditions, population density, animal behaviour and immune susceptibility (Browne et al. Bioscience, 2021). In bare-nosed wombats, combinations of these elements play a substantial role in making the treatment of an already difficult disease more complex. (Moroni et al. Parasit Vectors 13:471, 2020) comment that any pharmacological treatment of free-ranging wildlife must consider these factors when assessing their feasibility and implications, especially in the context of emerging drug resistance and potential long-term ecological impacts. As individuals with significant interest in sarcoptic mange and representing a range of professional research and veterinary expertise, we see value in providing expert commentary on this issue.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Escabiose , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Sarcoptes scabiei , Escabiose/veterinária
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 33, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, more than 300 genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) have been described throughout the world, demonstrating its wide genetic diversity. The SAG3 locus is one of the genes included in the genotyping panel of this parasite. It is associated with its virulence since it participates during the invasion process of the host cells. Therefore, cloning, sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis were used to deepen the understanding of the SAG3 locus genetic diversity of T. gondii in blood samples from feral cats. RESULTS: Six different SAG3 sequences were detected, five of which were detected in one feline. Three sequences were first reported here; one of them was an intragenic recombinant. In the cladogram, four out of ten SAG3 sequences did not share nodes with others reported worldwide. CONCLUSIONS: Cloning and sequencing of samples with more than one restriction pattern by PCR-RFLP were very helpful tools to demonstrate the presence of more than three genotypes of T. gondii in the blood of feral cats from southeastern Mexico. This suggests a potential mixed infection of multiple T. gondii strains and high genetic diversity of the parasites in felines in this tropical region of Mexico.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Região do Caribe , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos/parasitologia , Clonagem Molecular , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Genótipo , México/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Índias Ocidentais
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